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1. 2 concept «metaphorical model» in modern linguistic researches

The concept "model" which has appeared in the end of XIX century, in sphere of the humanities has been borrowed from mathematics. According to N.A.Mishankinoj, "category" the model »is non-uniform owing to the wide circulation and unites various semantic knots: an ideal, the sample (dress model, the model), type, mark (car model), object of a reality, the employee for creation of a work of art (model for a picture), the scheme reflecting one aspect of something (the mathematical

Model of physical processes), object-imitation (glider model), etc. »[Mishankina, 2007:10].

In the early nineties into scientific use has entered and it began to be used actively scientific (J.N.Karaulov, A.N.Baranov, V.N.Telija, etc.) the term «metaphorical model» in value the certain scheme on which process metaforizatsii is carried out. For a designation of the given concept other terms earlier were used: «semantic model», «model of a regular polysemy» (J.D.Apresjan, D.N.Shmelev), «kognitivnaja model», «a conceptual metaphor» (J. Lakoff, M.Johnson), «model of a lexico-semantic derivation (metaforizatsija)» (L.A.Kudryavtsev), each of definitions in own way reflected traditions of various linguistic scientific schools and research directions.

In understanding of a metaphor as models of scientists were resulted by its active research in kognitivnom and semantic aspects, to studying of a metaphor we find such approach in works in J. Lakoffa, M.Johnson, V.N.Telija, D.N.Shmelev, J.D.Apresjana, etc.

Analyzing processes of language modelling, linguists (N.D.Arutyunov, Z.I.Rezanova, J. Lakoff, M.Johnson, etc.) have drawn a conclusion that the metaphor understood by them rasshirenno in relation to traditional linguistic interpretation, acts as one of base kognitivnyh models which participate in creation of a new way of representation of object. Occurrence of metaphorical expressions in language is a consequence of existence of metaphorical models in mental sphere of the person. Base mental model is the conceptual metaphor, on its basis in language the complete system of metaphorical expressions is formed. At the heart of a conceptual metaphor the analogy lays, allowing to comprehend certain objects of the validity on the basis of knowledge of other objects.

In modern linguistic researches the term "the metaphorical model" is understood differently in this connection we observe divergences in allocation of parametres of modelling, principles of the description and classification of metaphorical models and in allocation of the components making them.

A number of scientists (G.I.Kustova, V.N.Telija, N. P.Tropina), understanding as metaphorical models "samples", «word-formation schemes», consider, that «in essence the metaphor is the model which is carrying out in language the same function, as word-formation model, but only more difficult and besides operating« is hidden "and" it is non-standard »[Telija, 1988:180].

At the heart of the given approach to metaphor studying as modelled object the theory of a regular polysemy developed by J.D.Apresjanom, D.N.Shmelev, A.A.Taranenko and other scientists lays. In their opinion, close words often have the same secondary values, therefore a typical parity of primary (direct) and secondary (portable) values of considered words can serve as model for updating of values of other words belonging to certain semantic grouping.

And. P.Chudinov «metaphorical model» understands as the term «existing in consciousness of native speakers typical parities, semanticheski the motivations of primary and secondary values which are the sample for occurrence of new secondary values being in relations» [CHudinov, 2001: 56].

J. Lakoff and M.Johnson consider, that «the metaphorical model is existing and developing in consciousness of the native speaker the communication scheme between conceptual spheres which it is possible to present the certain formula: X is Y». For example, "ideas" is "food", "love" is "travel". At the heart of the similar formula full coincidence, and similarity of the separate qualities inherent X and Y »[Lakoff J lays not., Johnson of M, 2008: 47]. Understanding a metaphor as kognitivnuju model, these scientists notice, that in its basis representation about it as about the language phenomenon reflecting process of knowledge of the world lays. Metaphorical models according to the given theory are put in pawn in the most conceptual system of human reason in the form of certain schemes thanks to which cogitative activity of the person is carried out. Uniting two conceptual spheres and creating possibility for use of potentialities of structurization of sphere-source at kontseptualizatsii new sphere, the metaphor is a certain stereotypic image with which help experience will be organised, knowledge of the world.

The semantic description of a metaphor as models differs from it kognitivnogo descriptions, but it is important to note their close connection at correlation level denotativnyh (conceptual) spheres in spite of the fact that unities concerning quantity of obligatory components it is not observed.

Within the limits of the semantic approach each metaphorical model predetermines possibility of transformation of the word meanings close in the semantic relation. At metaphor research as semantic model in modern metaforologii lexical sets (or other semantic groupings of words) are allocated and analyzed leksikosemanticheskie.

At the analysis from the point of view kognitivnogo the approach on the foreground there is the conceptual rapprochement perceived as the factor more important, than structural or urovnevye distinctions therefore at the characteristic of metaphorical models all restrictions defining features of the semantic approach, for example, leksikosemanticheskaja (thematic) otnesyonnost of making and derivative values are excluded.

In the given work to research of metaphorical models it is undertaken semantiko-kognitivnyj the approach. For the analysis of processes metaforizatsii and revealings of certain metaphorical models the semantic sphere "music" which consists of the lexemes having direct and a figurative sense is chosen. As metaphorical model it is understood «kognitivnyj the process, which result eksplitsiruetsja in communications and it is established through smyslovosprijatie this mental process which consists in interpretation before the known semantic maintenance» [Pikalova, 2013:19].

As a result of the analysis the typical component of semantics forming a basis for secondary values and these of primary value, staticized in secondary values is allocated.

The essential moment in studying of metaphorical models is their ordering and typology. Depending on a material of research and the bases taken as a principle of the analysis, in modern metaforologii the significant amount tipology metaphorical models (N.I.Bahmutova, A.I.Efimov, N.A.Basilaja, N.A.Kuzmin, E.A.Nekrasov, etc.), in a general view of sources representing the description metaforizatsii is developed.

Considering metaphorical model as conceptual area, sootnosimuju in kognitivnoj theories with area of a source of a metaphor, scientific (etc.) in the works, as a rule, carry out A.N.Baranov, I.I.Dubrovina, J.N.Karaulov classification on a basis «source areas metaforizatsii», and «the metaphorical model» usually receives the name from a word which is patrimonial in relation to the words representing elements of its conceptual system.

In spite of the fact that the fact of ordering of regular metaphorical carryings over is indicative enough, behind research frameworks there is a mechanism metaforizatsii, a principle of formation of regular associations and the semantic basis of such carrying over.

J.D.Apresjana's remark that «the lack of many similar researches consists that the metaphor is accepted to an end-product of the linguistic analysis is curious, actually semantic motivation of why this or that metaphor associates with that or other basic subject, is absent» [Apresjan, 1993: 29].

Many researchers (O.N.Alyoshin, L.A.Kudryavtsev, G.N.Skljarevskaja, N.P.Tropina) consider, that as a result of work in the given direction there is possible an allocation of regular and productive models, and also revealing of the general laws of metaphorical modelling of the validity.

Owing to different approaches to studying of metaphorical model, its understanding is represented ambiguous, but, despite all essential distinctions, it is possible to note and the similar moments, in which number unity of the basic concepts of metaphorical modelling and a generality of studied spheres: sources and directions metaforizatsii.

Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the all-round analysis of a metaphor as universal nontechnical model becomes possible at formation of uniform understanding to "metaphorical model», i.e. as a result of association semantic and kognitivnogo approaches.

Only an establishment of regular and productive models metaforizatsii, development of identical parametres of modelling, working out of principles of classification of models, and also revealing of certain spheres of the dialogue which more often is exposed to processes metaforoobrazovanija, will allow to create correct representation about laws of metaphorical modelling of the world and laws of figurative thinking.

Studying efficiency of certain classes of the words considered as sources metaforoobrazovanija, and analyzing a regularity of replenishment of certain semantic spheres for the account of metaphorical names, it is possible to establish the basic types of metaphorical carryings over. According to a number of researchers (G.N.Skljarevskaja, And. P.Chudinov, L. V.Balashova, N. V.Pavlovich, E. O.Petrov, etc.), in their modern Russian is from 20 to 100.

According to G.N.Skljarevskoj, the most widespread models of metaphorical carryings over in modern Russian are: the person => the person (distrofik); an animal => the person (bear); a subject => the person (a vegetable); a subject => a subject (road porridge); a subject => abstraction (a chain of events) a subject => the physical world (the cascade of sounds); a subject => the mental world (a good luck star); the physical world => the mental world (wreck of hopes) [Skljarevsky, 1993:82].

Research of the metaphorical models arising at metaforizatsii of lexicon of semantic sphere "music" is represented, that, will allow to reveal new metaphorical models.

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A source: HOHONIN DMITRY EVGENEVICH. LEXICON of SEMANTIC sphere "music" in METAPHORICAL USE. 2014

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