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1.1. metaforologija as special oblastlingvisticheskih researches

Research of essence of a metaphor and processes metaforizatsii, till now not lost the urgency, is one of significant in modern linguistics.

In stylistics and leksikologii a metaphor consider as the basic means of a secondary nomination, the metaphor is understood as the main means for figurativeness creation.

In a lexicography the metaphor is studied as one of ways of development in words of new values thanks to which replenishment of dictionary structure of language is carried out.

In modern linguistics there is a set of definitions of the term "metaphor".

«The metaphor is tracks or the mechanism of speech consisting in the use of a word, designating some class of subjects, the phenomena, etc., for harakterizatsii or names of the object entering into other class, or names of other class of the objects, similarly given, in any relation» [Arutyunov, 1990: 11].

I.B.Golub understands as "metaphor" «carrying over of the name from one subject (the phenomenon, action, a sign) on another on the basis of their internal or external similarity [Is blue, 2001: 134].

"Metaphor" - «this new use of word already existing earlier in language or word-combinations for a designation of any concept for the purpose of investment with its part of the previous sense» [Meshcherjakova, 27.03.2008].

In work «Medical lexicon in metaphorical use» E.Pikalova considers a metaphor as the universal language phenomenon and says that «the metaphor acts as that kognitivnym the mechanism which allows to find out similarity between various subjects and the phenomena» [Pikalova, 2013:21].

Process metaforizatsii in modern linguistics is understood «as expansion of semantic volume of a word for the account of occurrence at it figurative senses and strengthening of its expressional properties» [Ahmanova, 1966: 232].

From the point of view of linguistics process metaforizatsii is considered as process of semantic transformation of a word context presence is the basic condition of occurrence of a metaphor.

«Semantics of a metaphor depends on a context and communications situation: only as a part of a context the metaphor loses uncertainty and gives in unequivocal semantizatsii, the context is the minimum of the text necessary for understanding of sense of a metaphor, its this is minimum sufficient environment» [Turanina, 2001: 21].

As a result metaforizatsii we observe infringement of standard lexical communications given (metaforizujushchegosja) words with others. In a context the new metaphorical word meaning is specified, that further and promotes such word usage.

In linguistics history there are many approaches to metaphor typology. J were engaged in the given problem of V.G.Gak, V.N.Telija, N.D.Arutyunov, J.I.Levin, B.A.Larin, V.P.Moskvin. Lakoff, M.Johnson, etc. Developing various approaches to classification of metaphors and allocating certain criteria according to which metaphors then were distributed on different classes, researchers distributed them on certain types.

According to V.M.Moskvin, «the arch of parametres on which can metaphor classification is made, we have no till now. Therefore ordering, and in variety of cases and revealing of such parametres, i.e. classification of metaphors from the linguistic point of view, is represented really urgent problems of a domestic science about language» [Moskvin, 2000: 66].

In second half of XX-th century occurrence new "kognitivnogo" directions of research of a metaphor is observed. In a basis kognitivnoj metaphor theories the idea that the metaphor is not linguistic, but a mental phenomenon lays.

According to E. V.Budaeva and And. P.Chudinova, «language level only reflects thought processes. Metaphors in language is not an ornament of thoughts, and only superficial reflexion of the conceptual metaphors put in pawn in conceptual system of the person and structuring its perception, thinking and activity» [Budaev, CHudinov, 2006: 41].

As object of studying "kognitivisty" consider human reason, thinking and the mental processes connected with it and conditions. «Kognitivistika is a science about knowledge and knowledge, about perception of the world in the course of human activity» [Maslov, 2004: 6].

Founders kognitivnogo the approach to studying of a metaphor of J. Lakoff and M.Johnson, considering metaphors concerning time and space, have allocated two types of metaphors: ontologic and

orientatsionnye. Ontologic metaphors allow to see events, actions, emotions, ideas etc. As a certain substance, and orientatsionnye, that is the metaphors which are not defining one kontsept in terms another, will organise all system kontseptov in the relation to each other. In kognitivnoj theories the metaphor admits not so much language, how many conceptual result of interaction of various structures of knowledge.

At the semantic approach to studying of metaphors by one of the main bases of differentiation their division on language (usual) and art (individually-author's) is.

Still TSitseron, marking double essence of a metaphor (to be means of language and a poetic figure), wrote: «Just as the clothes at first invented for protection against a cold, began to be applied subsequently as well to an ornament of a body and both the distinction, and the metaphorical expressions entered because of a lack of words, began to be applied in set for the sake of uslazhdenija» [Antique Rhetoric, 1978: 381].

In modern linguistics there are two approaches to a problem of a parity of metaphorical carrying over in language and art speech. Supporters of the first approach (N.D.Arutyunov, M.Verli, V.P.Grigoriev) consider, that between a language and art metaphor of basic distinctions are not present, and the given types of metaphors can be considered as uniform object of research; the position of supporters of the second approach (G.N.Skljarevskaja, B.A.Larin, V.N.Telija) consists that language and art metaphors should be regarded and studied as independent objects of research.

N.D.Arutjunovoj's remark that «language and art metaphors are similar by principles of semantic processes is curious and between them there is insuperable border, as no sphere of their application vzaimopronitsaemy» [Arutyunov, 1999:124].

Justice of the given statement consists that, passing from fiction language in a layer of the common lexicon, separate images are erased, turn to stamps and, on the contrary, in case of occurrence of a new art metaphor as a result of metaphorical carrying over protogenic figurativeness is restored.

Comparing language and art metaphors, it is important to notice, that in a language metaphor associative communications are objective and reflect language experience speaking, reflect individual vision of the world, therefore they «are subjective and casual concerning the general knowledge» [Telija, 1988:37].

From the point of view of the lexical status, distinction of an art and language metaphor too are essential. According to G.N.Skljarevskoj, «a language metaphor - the independent lexical unit freely enough entering semantic links, an art metaphor has no such lexical independence, it is always connected with a context» [Skljarevsky, 1993:47].

At level of semantic structure of metaphorical value distinction of language and art metaphors consists that lexical value of a language metaphor gives in to structurization and leading under certain typical schemes, and each art metaphor is in own way unique.

According to N.D.Arutjunovoj, for an art metaphor following lines are characteristic: «1) contrast with trivial taxonomy of objects; 2) the appeal to imagination, instead of to knowledge; 3) synthetical character, diffusion of value; 4) actualisation of" casual communications »; 5) nesvodimost to literal perifraze; 6) an assumption of different interpretations; 7) kategorialnyj shift; 8) a choice of the shortest way to essence of object; 9) merge in it of an image and sense; 10) absence or neobjazatelnost motivations» [Arutyunov, 1999: 296-297].

The art metaphor translates a subject for limits of the standard of perception, it mnogomerna and differs originality,

proizvodimostju and novelty, and the language metaphor is a ready element of lexicon which it is not necessary to create each time, the given type of metaphors is reproduced in speech without comprehension speaking figurative sense of primary words.

Thus, art and language metaphors can be opposed on a number of signs: a language metaphor

obshcheupotrebitelna, it is anonymous, sistemna, it is reproduced;

The art metaphor is individual, occasional, spontaneous.

Considering language metaphors, G.N.Skljarevskaja allocates motivirovannuju a language metaphor, a syncretic language metaphor and an associative language metaphor.

Motivirovannoj G.N.Skljarevskaja's as metaphor considers «such language metaphor at which there is a semantic element, eksplitsitno connecting metaphorical value with initial» [Skljarevsky, 1993: 49]. At any analysis of processes metaforizatsii as formal criterion of selection motivirovannyh language metaphors data of explanatory dictionaries serve: presence in dictionary definitions at

Metaphorical and initial values of a similar or same word in the semantic plan, or presence in an entry of a comparative turn which realises the same sign, as considered "metaphor".

So, for example, a lexeme polyphony (1) has following values.

1. The kind of polyphony based on simultaneous sounding of several melodies in vocal or tool product. 2. Art variety in something [BTS, 2000:902].

This intriguing polyphony of the points of view hardly is achievable within the limits of a traditional strophe song: more difficult poetics, here nadobny richer means — composite, verbal, intonational (Vladimir Frumkin here is required. Uan-men-ben (d (2003)//«the Bulletin of the USA», 2003.10.29).

The multiple-valued lexeme the overture (2) represents set of following values: 1) the orchestral introduction to an opera, ballet, etc.;

2) concert orchestral product; 3) that serves as the beginning, the introduction to the subsequent actions, events [BTS, 2000:1366].

Now it is clear, why they have called at once as soon as have come for work. Not clearly only, for what the overture with variations on a theme about health, medicines and fruit juice (Magsud Ibragimbekov was necessary. Who will go to Truskavets (1977)).

Process of formation of new (metaphorical) value at the given musical terms is opened, the metaphor in these cases is transparent. The general semantic element in case of (1) is motivating sema: "set"

In case of (2) third value of the given term also represents language motivirovannuju a metaphor. Metaphorical carrying over is carried out on the basis of motivating semy: «the introduction, the beginning something».

Thus, we see, that among musical metaphors meet language motivirovannye metaphors.

«Syncretic metaphor» G.N.Skljarevskaja understands «the language metaphor formed as a result of mixture of sensual perceptions» as the term [Skljarevsky, 1993: 53].

According to scientist A.N.Veselovskogo who has opened psychological bases of formation of metaphors and epithets in works on historical poetics, «the most part of metaphorical transformations of the modern languages goes back to the most ancient time when« physiological illegibility »human consciousness led to that sensual impressions (visual, acoustical, olfactory and others) were perceived neraschlenenno, together, and this unity was fixed in language - in it« everyday formulas »[Veselovsky, 1940: 88].

Extending on all spheres of perception, sinkretizm does not remain within obvious and elementary (sensual) signs.

«Just as seven notes create infinite variety of melodies, and the limited number of the signs perceived by five feelings, forms a basis huge (and if to include and art speech infinite) numbers of metaphors» [Skljarevsky, 1993: 53].

To G.N.Skljarevskaja's syncretic metaphors carries the following:

Brilliant subject - brilliant mind (vision);

Loud sound - a loud name (an acoustic image);

Sweet tea - a sweet voice (a flavouring image);

Aroma of flowers - aroma of the past (an olfactory image);

Friable snow - the friable novel (a tactile image).

Sinkretizm it is shown and in sphere of physical processes, the natural phenomena, a different sort of elements.

Let's consider examples of such syncretic metaphors.

Flame sparks - talent sparks; a water stream - a fresh stream in the literature.

It is necessary to notice, that in our material of such metaphors it is not revealed.

One more kind of a language metaphor is the associative metaphor. The mechanism of formation of the given type of a language metaphor is based on ability of consciousness to find analogy between any objects of the validity.

G.N.Skljarevskoj's statement that «the metaphor formed by a principle of associative communications, takes a leading place in lexical system as in a quantitative sense, and on the influence on occurring semantic processes» [Skljarevsky, 1993: 56] is fair.

Depending on character and specificity of associations in modern linguistics there are two versions of an associative language metaphor: priznakovaja and psychological. Speaking about priznakovoj

To associative metaphor, it is important to note absence of a sign (or of some signs) in semantic structure of initial nominative value, but at the same time presence of communication with denotatom by means of association.

For example, the lexeme a concert has following values.

1. Public execution of pieces of music and other numbers under the certain program. 2. A large piece of music for the solo tool accompanied by an orchestra. 3. About display of the discontent which is pouring out in scandal or a hysterics [BTS, 2000:454].

Sokolsky has got drunk in an insole and has arranged to me a concert

(Tatyana Tronina. The mermaid for intimate meetings (2004)).

The third (metaphorical) value of a lexeme "concert" has resulted from association of loud sounding of music during a concert and loud, dissatisfied barrackings which are an integral part of any scandal or a hysterics. Semy is loud","is noisy"become motivating for metaphorical carrying over« a concert => scandal ».

The lexeme delay has following values.

1. The national wind musical instrument consisting of several tubes, fixed into a leather bag or a bubble used as fur.

2. About hlopotnom, kanitelnom business [BTS, 2000: 147].

She spoke: "When three egoists live together, anything good cannot be"."Yes, but each egoist has an exit, — I spoke. — to find the kind person whom all will forgive it"."It is such delay — to search for the kind person

(Jury Trifonov. Preliminary results (1970)).

The basis for metaphorical carrying over to the given examples is viscosity, monotony of sounding, characteristic for the given musical instrument.

Following criterion on which basis classification of metaphors can be carried out, the psychological factor which became a starting point in division of metaphors on "live" and "dead" is. The matter is that certain expression we can name metaphoric if we distinguish that. To the given criterion satisfy only "live" metaphors because in them the conflict between direct and a figurative sense is distinguished easily thanks to what they and realise function of emotional influence. "Live" metaphors bring new signs in a reality, in process metaforizatsii there is a shift in a word meaning, the direct use is enriched by additional sense.

"Dead" metaphors, having lost the expressiveness, are not used any more as expressive means, their value is not perceived as portable and new.

Version of art metaphors are metaphors "individually-author's".

M.J.Dmitrishin considers, that «the individually-author's metaphor arises as comparison of the objects which similarity seizes intuitively; as a result of an unexpected combination of words in a metaphor there is a sense increment» [Dmitrishin, 2000: 22].

Individually-author's metaphors, possessing the maximum syntagmatic conditionality, are characterised vnesistemnostju, subjectivity (as reflect individual perception of the validity), uniqueness and nevosproizvodimostju. They, as a rule, are not fixed by dictionaries.

V.A.Pishchalnikova considers an individually-author's metaphor «as the core reprezentantom personal senses as it is capable to transfer conceptually significant data and to signal about specificity of author's judgements concerning the validity» [Pishchalnikova, 2009: 266].

The senses consisting in such metaphor, are distinguished not at once. They contain data on personal perception of the validity.

The individually-author's metaphor often contains the realised estimated judgement about the perceived objects, set intentsiej its author. The perception of the person to which come to mind unusual likenings of the concepts belonging to different semantic spheres, essentially differs from the objective description of properties of subjects, the phenomena as in this case we deal with "subjective image of the objective world» [Maslov, 2004:42-43].

The metaphors created by concrete people, arise under the influence of features of their attitude. Sometimes complexity of understanding of sense of the metaphorical individually-author's uses is caused implitsitnym by its expression. The Individually-author's metaphor in this case becomes a riddle. It displaces communications of concepts obvious to all and by that the attention of the reader draws.

According to A.A.Kretova and O.O.Boriskinoj, «all author's individuality, originality, originality in most cases consists in distribution of old metaphors on new words. The author solves a proportion: And/and: And/to / = In/and/: H (And. In - lexemes, sound covers, and. To a sememe, value), receiving H = V/k, as is a product of its language creativity. The innovation of writers in area« individual »metaphors carries more likely quantitative, than qualitative character». [Kretov, Boriskina, 2003: 133-134].

It is possible to agree with this point of view only partially as the subject of speech, i.e. the author of metaphorical use of a lexeme not only increases quantity of metaphors, but also reproduces qualitatively new (own) sight at the world, builds unpredictable similarity between subjects and the phenomena, as does such metaphors by unique and seldom fixed dictionaries. Certainly, they make a class of potential lexical units which, probably, will be fixed subsequently by the dictionary, i.e. become leksikografirovannymi.

To solve, on what communications of assimilated subjects and the phenomena belonging to the different subject worlds are based, it is necessary to reveal motivating to this, that elementary semantic component on which metaphorical carrying over is based. Only in this case there is clear a direction metaforizatsii, and, means, and sense of the metaphor and metaphorical model.

By present time all set of the researches devoted to a metaphor, to processes of its formation and use in various discourses has developed in independent area of linguistics - metaforologiju to what O.N.Laguty's work (2008) testifies.

According to O.N.Laguty to define object of studying metaforologii it is difficult enough, because «it is possible to name a metaphor not only any speech statement / the text with so-called figurative sense, all activity of the person and its comprehension of world around» [Laguta, 2008:16] can be metaphoric. However already there are the researches which have become basic in this area.

In works And. P.Chudinova (2001, 2008) is investigated specificity of a political metaphor, in G.A.Buchinoj's (2003) linguistic researches, Logachyov With. A (2008), Ovsjannikovoj E.V. (2009) is fragmentary described a military metaphor, in dissertational research Tub Thi Thu Hyong (2011) is carried out the analysis of the metaphorical use of lexicon of semantic sphere "meteorology" in modern Russian, in work E. V.Pikalovoj (2012) is investigated a medical metaphor.

The given work is devoted a musical metaphor and is continuation metaforologicheskih researches.

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A source: HOHONIN DMITRY EVGENEVICH. LEXICON of SEMANTIC sphere "music" in METAPHORICAL USE. 2014

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