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2.2. Metaphorical use of names of musical forms

can be distributed All pieces of music conditionally on genres.

The genre is historically developed sort of art or the literature, characterised certain subject, composite, stylistic, etc. signs; separate versions of this sort.

[BTS, 2000:1259].

The concept of a genre exists in all art forms, but in music, owing to specificity of its artistic images, it has special value.

The musical genre is the multiple-valued concept characterising various childbirth and kinds of musical creativity in connection with their origin, and also way and conditions of their execution and perception. [SMT JAnyh, 2009: 67].

The polysemy of concept of a musical genre is connected c by what not all factors defining it operate simultaneously and c with equal force. The concept of a musical genre displays the basic problem of musicology and a musical aesthetics — interrelation between vnemuzykalnymi factors of creativity and its especially musical characteristics. In the given work as the major factors causing a musical genre, we consider the maintenance, appointment of music and character of its execution, according to it we allocate following musical genres: a folk music, variety music, classical music, vokalno-tool music, dancing music.

The special place in the given classification of musical genres occupies a genre of dancing music. Music serves in the given genre as the organizer of movement, on the first place there are such means of expressiveness, as rate and a rhythm. As dancing movements are more difficult and more various, than simple walking, dancing music differs the big variety of movements.

On a structure pieces of music can be carried to various musical forms. Definitions of the musical form and a musical genre are in many respects crossed.

By "form" in music are meant «the organisation musical whole, ways of development of a musical material, and also the genre designations, which authors give to the products» [SMT JAnyh, 2009: 286].

Concept of the musical form inseparably linked with an embodiment of the musical maintenance, speaking about the musical form, we mean the certain template applied to creation of music of certain style. Each musical form is characterised by the complete organisation of melodic motives, a harmony and harmony, metre and the polyphonic technics, timbres and other elements of music.

So, in spite of the fact that such things as a melodic basis, the theme and a tonality depend only on the composer, for example, a sonata as the complete piece of music consisting of initial, average and final parts - submits to requirements sonatnoj forms.

In our material metaforizatsii names of the form of a genre of classical music and the form of a genre of dancing music are exposed to process. The most widespread musical forms of a genre of classical music are: the symphony, an aria, an opera, a fugue, a sonata, a concert, etc.

Let's consider examples metaforizatsii this group of names.

Aria

1. Vocal or a musical part for one voice or the tool as the finished episode or independent number.

2. The vocal or tool musical play of melodious melodious character [BTS, 2000:47].

Let's consider examples metaforizatsii the given lexeme.

The vigorous morning aria of mum calling children to rise

(I.Grekova. A pheasant (1984)).

In the given example just as a word an aria in value «a musical part for one voice» as a constant component of any classical product, for example operas, and in expression the aria of mum is a word staticizes value «a sounding constancy» appeal of mother in the morning.

Motivating sema: "solo part".

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => mental concept».

On such pause - a tragical aria of the first assistant to the editor-in-chief of "Friendship of the people” Jury Kaleshchuka in doubled majskoijunskom number. For the first time for all history of magazine number should be doubled, and why - it becomes clear from text Kaleshchuka, placed on a title top:

“To speak about it it is heavy, though we know, that you will understand us... Becoming since July of last year the independent edition, we... Have joined quickly in publishing activity, have managed... To earn money with which have paid off with publishing house for the fourth and for this here dual fifth-sixth numbers. It is more than money at us is not present...”

(A lion Anninsky. Ten years, which have shaken the world (1999)//«Friendship of the people», 1999.05.15).

In the given example the expression use the tragical aria of the first assistant metaphorically means «speech of the person». Motivating sema - "solo part".

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => mental concept».

Still an example metaforizatsii on the same model:

Lights up koptilka (they called her almost in Italian "kabadilla"). A samovar aria. A teapot aria (I.Grekova. A pheasant (1984)).

In this case metaphorical carrying over semoj «the long sound published by subjects» is motivating.

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => physical concept».

Concert

1. Public execution of pieces of music and other numbers under the certain program. 2. A large piece of music for the solo tool accompanied by an orchestra. 3. About display of the discontent which is pouring out in scandal or a hysterics. [BTS, 2000:454].

Me have concluded in the terrible dungeon defined for humility of the most severe barbarity; the poor food was weak my reinforcement; dampness, a gloom, a cold made true interlocutors of my solitude; and rattling chains of my companions concluded with me in the nearest neighbourhood, made usladitelnyj a concert!

(The unknown person. Varenka (1810))

In this case rattling chains assimilate to sounding of the musical instruments which are taking part in a concert, and companions - to executors of this piece of music.

Motivating metaphorical carrying over sema: «cumulative sounding».

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => physical concept».

The nocturne is a small lyrical piece of music [BTS, 2000:655].

The given classical form of a piece of music,

Extended from the beginning of XIX century, has lyrical, pensive character. At the heart of "nocturne" usually melodious melody thanks to what it represents an original tool song lays. Usually nocturnes are written for a piano, but there are also similar compositions for other tools, and also for ensembles and for orchestras.

Marvich in that history was completely lonely; all time a nocturne, a loneliness blues; and here I am surrounded by friends; sonmishche the nearest!

(Vasily Aksenov. Mysterious passion (2007))

In this case the author uses musical terms a nocturne and a blues, wishing to transfer a sincere condition of the hero. The nocturne is a product of lyrical, pensive character, and a blues (from English blues — melancholy, grief) - quiet, sad music. To the occurrence the blues is obliged afroamerikanskomu to Southeast USA community. Bljuzovaja the subjects are under construction on a sensual social making life afroamerikanskogo the population, its difficulties and the obstacles arising on a way of each black person.

The sincere condition of the character corresponds to lyrical sounding of a piece of music, the grief caused by unrealizable dreams. Motivating metaphorical carrying over semy: «grief, grief».

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => mental concept».

Prelude

This multiple-valued lexeme represents set of following values: 1) the introduction to a piece of music; 2) the independent piece of music which does not have the strict, established form; 3) introduction, the beginning, a presage something [BTS, 2000:964].

The third value of the given musical term represents a language metaphor which is extremely widely used both in fiction, and in publicism.

Let's consider examples metaforizatsii the given lexeme.

But was games and in the XX-th century beginning a little. There was a game seriously — a crash prelude. The decadence seemed vyklikaniem chasms and with last attempt from it to be covered (Sergey Shargunov. Russia should be invented anew? (2011)).

While the furniture prelude to their marriage lasted, he was more and more convinced of exclusive advantages Aleksandry Georgievny

(Lyudmila Ulitskaja. The medea and its children (1996)).

Bad prelude to the forthcoming June approach, reflected it is sad on spirit of armies and in particular on mentality of commanders-in-chief... (A.I.Denikin. A way of the Russian officer (1944-1947))

War in Iraq is a prelude of intrusion into helpless Russia where «the fifth column» has already handed over to the enemy nuclear objects, strategic airdromes, command posts of the state, and «the Commission on investigation of crimes in the Chechen Republic» equates Putin to Milosevic, and in the Hague the convenient prison cell with a two-headed eagle and Peter's small bust is already prepared

(Alexander Prokhanov. A pancake "Putin" (2003)//"Tomorrow", 2003.03.09).

Flattery — the best prelude of hypnosis. — it is good, that you have not led me to yourself, in insurance, — Tamara has explained

(Peter Akimov. A payment for fear (2000)).

The card is only a prelude to the present conversation

(Andrey Troitsky. Blow from the past (2000)).

At first I thought, that a feast — a necessary weakening and uniting prelude to the further working disputes and discussions

(The Ruby dyne. Last wild boar from woods pontevedra (1999)//«Friendship of the people», 1999.04.15).

But all perfectly understood, that the main thing — ahead, that it is only plausible prelude to the further finding-out of relations

(Alexey Kozlov. «The goat on a saxophone» (1998)).

The bureaucratic prelude will end at the best only next year (My dear capital (1997)//"Capital", 1997.06.10).

In the given examples a lexeme the prelude is used in value «the beginning, introduction, a presage something». Motivating metaphorical carrying over sema: "presage".

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => abstract concept».

Serenade

In modern Russian there are some values of this musical term.

1. A song under accompaniment of a lute, a mandoline or a guitar in honour of a beloved, executed under its windows (usually as a love appeal). The vocal serenade was widespread in a life of the southern Romance people. 2. A piece of music of type of a suite for tool ensemble. 3. The multiprivate play for the big tool ensemble [BTS, 2000:1179].

During an era of baroque the serenade (also named the Italian serenade - as this form has been most extended in Italy) was type of the cantata executed on open air in the evening, and included both vocal, and tool execution.

Let's consider examples metaforizatsii the given lexeme.

The melancholy, viscous roar fills a settlement. "Well and well! - I am terrified. A serenade of hungry cows on public zhivodyorne". But the visitor is happy

(Vladimir Skripkin. Tinga//"October", 2002).

In this case a metaphor is the second value of the musical term a serenade. Expression a serenade of hungry cows assimilates to execution of a piece of music on open air, and cows - to executors of this piece of music. The given metaphor generates irony.

Motivating sema: «invocatory sounding».

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => physical concept».

The symphony

1. A scale piece of music for an orchestra (usually consisting

From four parts). 2. A harmonious combination of set of various sounds, paints, tones, etc. [BTS, 2000:1156].

Let's consider examples metaforizatsii the given lexeme.

The fantastic symphony of sparkling paints was poured, gleamed, curled and streamed, arresting a sight the almost hypnotic charm (I.A.Efremov «the Bay of iridescent streams» (2003))

Today gardeners know more than six hundred kinds of a lilac, the whole lilac symphony (Homes and Gardens, 2004.04.30).

The symphony of different adverbs («the Bulletin of the USA» 2003.11.12).

The museum is the symphony where the conductor conducts an orchestra from quiet, majestic moderate the beginnings of XIX century to violent allegro Odessas the twentieth years

(Bell Ezerskaja. Odessa, the Literary museum (2003)//«the Bulletin

THE USA », 2003.07.09).

The symphony of voices bulgakovskogo the novel

("Theatre life", 2003. 08.25).

In the resulted examples we can observe a transfer of meaning of a lexeme from one semantic spheres (music) in others denotativnye spheres (paints, flowers, sounds of voices), that gives the chance to make figurative, bright impression.

In a following fragment use of a musical metaphor generates ironical implied sense:

The symphony of a great dump continued to stride under the sky of the immortal world (E.Haetskaja. Dark blue dragonflies of Babylon (2011))

It is remarkable, that today there is an increase in volume of value of a lexeme the symphony, at the expense of its metaphorical use in a publicistic discourse.

In IV century is born and the marvellous symphony of the government (Magazine of the Moscow patriarchy 2004.08.30) gets stronger

In this example the musical metaphor generates other pragmatical sense - a positive estimation of the power in the fourth century. Value of harmony in music is transferred on object which, apparently, cannot be characterised in any way as the symphony. The musical metaphor appears capable to assimilate semantic spheres extremely far from each other. Such rhetorical reception creates effect of unexpectedness so, gives to all statement illokutivnuju force.

In a following example a lexeme the symphony has turned to a steady language metaphor on the basis of the same motivating semy «a harmonious combination».

The architecture is a symphony in a stone (the World and the House. City, 2003. 10. 15).

In all cases of metaphorical carryings over semoj value «a harmonious combination» is motivating.

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => abstract concept».

The suite is the classical form of a tool piece of music consisting of plays several laconic and contrasting among themselves [BTS, 2000:1301].

Let's consider examples metaforizatsii the given lexeme.

Top of creativity of Dubinsky was the big suite of water colours on themes of "Duel" A.Kuprin (Boris Efims. Ten decades (2000)).

«Dancing Ajsedora Dunkan» is a whole suite of sculptural portraits of the glorified ballerina

(S.T.Konenkov. From the book «My century» (1970)).

That is stated at Sossjura as "diahronija", demands the further explanations and first of all, as it is paradoxical, the synchronic judgement, as the language history cannot be stated as a suite dispartnyh the facts («history and», «the history of a genitive case», «history of a word of M» and t. p (A.A.Reformatsky. Principles of the synchronous description of language (1960-1970)).

V.Muhinoj's basic, most difficult work is a suite of sculptural compositions for the Moskvoretsky bridge

(D.Aranovich. In masterful V.I.Muhinoj (1939.01.14)//«the Soviet art». № 7 (587), 1939).

Suite of drawings Vasileva — last large contribution of the Soviet artists in Leniniane

(N.Kravchenko. An image of Lenin in art. A great theme (1938.01.22)//«the Soviet art» Body of All-Union committee on affairs of Arts at Sovnarkome USSR № 8 (414), 1938).

In the given examples we meet metaphorical use of the given musical term a suite, that considerably expands sochetaemostnye abilities of this lexeme: a suite of water colours, a suite of sculptural portraits, a suite dispartnyh the facts, a suite of sculptural compositions. In all these examples motivating metaphorical carrying over semoj there is a value "combination". Just as in a suite plays laconic and contrasting among themselves are combined some, in representation of authors paints, the portraits, the contrasting facts are combined.

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => abstract concept».

The overture

This multiple-valued lexeme represents set of following values: 1) the orchestral introduction to an opera, ballet, etc.; 2) concert orchestral product; 3) that serves as the beginning, the introduction to the subsequent actions, events. [BTS, 2000:1366].

The third value of the given term also represents a language metaphor.

It - as though a prologue, the overture to reorganisation

(G eorgy Arbatov. The person of System (2002))

The overture of my life surpassed all my expectations: to me twenty years, my name rattles on the world along with a name most CHigrashova, my persecutions are blest, for once again prove correctness of the most impudent my youthful guesses into the account

(Sergey G andlevsky. NRZB//"Banner", 2002).

Began to be shown gradually and chains of mountains which the wind waves drove to us because of horizon. The pre-dawn overture of colours began. Even in wind noise its music was heard

(M.N.Zadornov. Egypt//"October", 2002).

Then the curtain of Russian tragedies rose, the overture of October has died down guns across the Kremlin (to B.A.Pilnjak. Wolves (1923-1924)).

Now it is clear, why they have called at once as soon as have come for work. Not clearly only, for what the overture with variations on a theme about health, medicines and fruit juice was necessary

(Magsud Ibragimbekov. Who will go to Truskavets (1977)).

In the given examples the musical term the overture is used in value «that serves as the beginning, the introduction to the subsequent actions, events».

Metaphorical carrying over is carried out on the basis of motivating semy: «the introduction, the beginning something».

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => abstract concept».

Fugue

1. The consecutive introduction of the several voices repeating what-l. A theme. 2. A piece of music based on such distribution of voices. [BTS, 2000:1435].

Let's consider examples metaforizatsii the given lexeme.

From the bottom throat, arhangelski booming, the fugue of the captivated spirit (Andrey Voznesensky will not be pulled out. On a virtual wind (1998)).

The statement that the fugue is the most difficult form of polyphonic music is fair. In this case value «the difficult polyphonic form» is motivating metaphorical carrying over semoj.

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => abstract concept».

Let's consider examples metaforizatsii the lexemes designating the forms of a genre of dancing music:

The waltz is the pair ball dance characterised tryohdolnym by a rhythm and consisting in progress of smoothly turned pairs. The second value of the given musical term - a piece of music in size and character of this dance [BTS, 2000:110].

In all it was a little interesting — a waltz of jersey from Baltic in exchange for Russian kalinku nonferrous metals and TVs

(Victor Slipenchuk. Zinziver (2001)).

In the given example we meet metaphorical expressions: «a jersey waltz» and «Russian kalinka nonferrous metals and TVs». The author uses the musical term a waltz as a metaphor, staticizing "smoothness" motivating to this, "fluidity". These properties the knitted material possesses. Kalinka is a dance expressional, fast, with accurate, sharp movements that allows to construct an image of industrial targets and to oppose to its other industrial target - a knitted fabric.

She lives in itself, it is a waltz which only was yesterday somebody from our number: the person has disappeared, has passed in sounds, and we never learn about it (Sasha the Sokolov. School for fools (1976)).

In the given example human life assimilates kruzheniju, characteristic for a waltz. Motivating metaphorical carrying over sema: "kruzhenie".

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => abstract concept».

The cancan is a variety dance of fast rate with high vskidyvaniem feet [BTS, 2000:414].

For a cancan following movements are characteristic: ejection of a hand, a foot, a head, jumps headfirst, an effective twine and vigorous moves feet.

Let's consider examples metaforizatsii lexemes "cancan".

The pre-election cancan and art life are in full swing, in Big have put "Hovanshchinu", having restored all denominations, and performance comes to an end now, when the underground is already closed

(Vasily Katanjan. A scrappy blanket (1990-1999)).

In the given example pre-election campaign assimilates to dizzy energy of the given dance. A basis of metaphorical carrying over is sema: «vigorous mobility, with application

Various movements ».

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => abstract concept».

Minuet

1. The ancient French dance characterised by smoothness and a slowness of movements, a considerable quantity of bows and curtseys.

2. A piece of music in beat this dance [BTS, 2000:533].

It was bothered with this automobile minuet; deaf fury already boiled whence from the roots, can, from predstatelnoj glands, that the working day has been spoilt; and it does not suit anywhere — today absolutely sober head and exact actions is necessary to it

(The Ruby dyne. White the pigeon of Cordoba (2008-2009)).

As the minuet is the slow dance characterised by smoothness of movements motivating metaphorical carrying over semoj "sluggishness" in this case is.

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => physical concept».

The Rock'n'roll is the dynamical pair dance which has arisen in the USA, differing improvisation and ekspressivnostju executions, deliberate negligence in relation to the partner, etc. [BTS, 2000:1127].

Distinctive lines of the given dance: an accurate rhythm, dancing rate, relaxedness of execution.

Let's consider examples metaforizatsii the given lexeme.

Hopes have broken together with a sheaf, in a life the rock'n'roll, and though in some years I again began to confirm masterful level has begun, the train has left

(V.Rekshan. Run on long distances//"Spark". № 13, 1991, 1991).

In this case the second value represents a metaphor that allows the author to transfer a sincere condition of the person. Expression «in a life the rock'n'roll» has begun means, that human life became very dynamical, proceeding in fast rate. Motivating semami are: "dynamism", "relaxedness", «fast rate».

Metaphorical model:

«Musical concept => abstract concept».

Conclusions

1) In a lexical set of "the name of musical forms» 28,9 % of units are subject to processes metaforizatsii.

2) Metaphorical carrying over is carried out on the basis of the following motivating this: "solo part", «cumulative sounding», "grief", "grief", "presage", «invocatory sounding», "sluggishness" «a harmonious combination», "introduction", «the difficult polyphonic form», "kruzhenie", "dynamism", «fast rate».

3) As a result of the analysis of processes metaforizatsii following models of metaphorical carryings over are revealed:

Musical concept => abstract concept (7)

Musical concept => physical concept (4)

Musical concept => mental concept (3)

4) It is revealed 9 neleksikografirovannyh metaphors.

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A source: HOHONIN DMITRY EVGENEVICH. LEXICON of SEMANTIC sphere "music" in METAPHORICAL USE. 2014

More on topic 2.2. Metaphorical use of names of musical forms:

  1. 2.4. Metaphorical use of names of receptions of game on musical instruments and musical strokes
  2. 2.1. Metaphorical use of names of musical instruments and their components
  3. 2.6. Metaphorical use of names of musical frets
  4. 2.3. Metaphorical use of names of musical rates and dynamic shades
  5. 2.8. Metaphorical use of names of the persons connected with musical activity and a trade
  6. 2.9. Metaphorical use of names of the musical terms which are not forming lexical sets
  7. 2.5. Metaphorical use of names of accidentals
  8. 2.7. Metaphorical use of names of singing voices and their registers
  9. musical genres in lyric poet A.I.Tsvetaeva
  10. the CHAPTER II. The MUSICAL BEGINNING And ITS ART FUNCTIONS
  11. 2.1. Metaphorical carrying over
  12. musical symbolics in A.I.Tsvetaeva's poetry
  13. 2.2. Metaphorical comparison and an autometaphor
  14. 1.4.3.1. Metaphorical and metonimichesky epithets
  15. activity of the emigrant out-of-school and educational organisations on familiarising of children with musical art
  16. 1.1. Concept and typology of is musical-poetic genre interaction