2.1 Tendencies of development of PVC-WINDOWS and its significance

Dictionary Dalja describes a window as «... An aperture in a wall for light...». There is a window definition as svegoprozrachnogo an element stenovoj or the roofing design, intended for the message of internal premises with surrounding space, for their natural illumination and ventilation, for protection of internal space of buildings against atmospheric, noise effects.
In above indicated definitions the window is described from the point of view of physical functions executed by it. However windows also execute aesthetic function, supplementing appearance of buildings. Today steel windows one of the major elements of the system supervising light, ventilation, humidity, a sound in a building.
On a material of manufacturing of frames and window covers are divided on produced of:
Tree. Now in the market of windows there are so-called wooden eurowindows and the usual wooden windows used at mass building. Wooden eurowindows unlike usual windows are mostly produced from kleyonogo a bar. Main distinctive line in them is the availability of a double-glazed window. The indicated characteristics lead more to a choice quality and to more seller's price of wooden "eurowindows" unlike simple windows;
Aluminium. Owing to the high heat conductivity of a window from aluminium are used in regions with a warm climate. For
Uses in regions with a cold climate, in aluminium windows in addition place less teploprovodnyj a material that leads to their rise in price; • Composites (the given direction in the Russian Federation practically is not developed).
In addition to the materials of manufacturing of window covers set forth above carry mixed, i.e. consisting of the indicated materials of field performances supplementing one another for the purpose of improvement. For example, a design tree-aluminium urged to combine durability of aluminium (aluminium overlays from a window outer side) and tree aesthetics (from the interior of a window).
In dissertational work the market of windows from polyvinylchloride is investigated. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is the artificial material received in 1835. Polyvinylchloride concerns group of thermolayers (thermolayers — plastic which items after formation save ability to repeated processing). A waste from production and profiles from dismantled windows can be exposed to salvaging to 5 times without any loss of qualitative characteristics of initial raw materials.
The market of plastic windows in the world has actively started to develop with the middle 50 h years of 20th century. Originally the idea of replacement of a wooden frame on the plastic has appeared in the USA. Almost simultaneously from the USA plastic windows began to be produced in Europe. For the last years the following structure of distribution of materials is observed at manufacturing of windows in Europe (tab. 1).
Thus, in Europe there is a growth of a share of windows from PVC. Thus it is necessary to notice, that structurization of the European market of windows, on manufacturing materials, depending on a climatic belt and the developed historical adherences is observed. For example, in the Scandinavian countries the majority of the population is used by wooden windows, and in Spain and Greece predpochtene is given to aluminium designs.
Table 2
Thus, growth of the market of PVC in Europe is observed as in comparative figures, in comparison with the market of windows from other materials, and in quantitative expression. By estimations of experts now the market of windows from PVC in Europe in bolshej to a measure develops for the account of reconstruction of out-of-date windows.
Dynamics of a market capacity of PVC-WINDOWS in Europe in quantitative expression
Year the Market capacity of windows, mli.kv.m. Growth rates of a market capacity, % of 2000 148,4 100 % of 2002 170,6 115 % of 2003 176,9 119 % of 2004 189,2 127 % of 2005 203,4 137 % 39 Data in table 1 and table 2 for 2002 from the journal «Modern Window Encyclopedia» (November, №9), 2003, p. 4.
40 Data in table 1 and table 2 for 2004 and 2003 from the journal «Window review», (May, №2, 2004). (Market distribution in 2004 is underlined as the forecast).
The European market has rendered and significant impact on development of the market of PVC-WINDOWS in Russia continues to make. In comparison with European and
World the markets, the market of PVC-WINDOWS in our country is rather young, it has started to develop widely approximately from the middle of 90th years of 20 centuries.
Originally in our country ready windows from PVC were delivered from Europe. The basic region - the consumer of plastic windows, was Moscow. After August crisis of 1998 domestic manufacturers of PVC-WINDOWS have started to supersede gradually foreign manufacturers, owing to the offer more low prices for production (now, by estimations of experts, import of finished products makes of PVC less than 1 % from the general production). Therefore to import have begun only raw materials for plastic windows (PVC profiles). The basic importers of PVC of a profile in the Russian Federation now are: Germany, Austria, Switzerland, England, France, Turkey. Recently, by estimations of experts, the tendency of mass import to Russia of PVC of profiles for manufacturing of windows from China was scheduled. In connection with high growth rates of the market of PVC-WINDOWS and the increased competitiveness some European manufacturers of PVC of a profile have opened productions in territory of the Russian Federation. It has allowed them to become competitive to domestic manufacturers under the price. The European manufacturers of raw materials and accessories for production of windows offer new technologies in the domestic market, than promote prompter development of the market of PVC-WINDOWS in our country. That is, on the one hand still there are possibilities for an enter into a market of PVC - of windows (that is characteristic for early stages of life cycle of the market). On the other hand existing manufacturers using the western workings out, constantly modernise an end-product (the PVC window), thereby, pushing the market to constant improvement (that is characteristic for later stages of life cycle). In many sources the market in our country is underlined, that, for the past of 10 years there has passed a development way for which in Europe it was required about 50 years.
From end users it is possible to explain demand for plastic windows following reasons:
Relative cheapness (in comparison with wooden "eurowindows" or warm aluminium windows);
Durability (in comparison with usual wooden windows);
High field performances (in comparison with usual wooden windows).
Plastic windows carry to so-called to "modern windows» with double-glazed windows. Window technical characteristics allow to improve use of double-glazed windows. Experiences on production and installation of plastic windows with double-glazed windows were conducted in the USSR. However at mass building cheaper windows with sheet glass (the coupled or separate window blocks) were used. To it promoted it is boundless low building norms of a thermal protection of the designs, acting till 1994. As consequence, the greatest quantity of existing housing accommodation is erected on these нормативам41. Now from the state structures window installation is regulated by various specifications. In them the significant attention is given to significances of a thermal protection. It is connected with attention attraction to a problem energosberezhenija. The problem energosberezhenija can кратко4 be described following facts:
41 Hihluha L.V.architecture and resursosberezhenne/Uarhntektura and building of Moscow. №2-3,05.06.2003
42 Savin V. K «paralogizm, paradoxes and energosberezhenie», the journal «Windows and Doors» №1,2003, p. 39.
«For the last eight years as a whole on the country stocks of power resources have decreased more than for 9,5 %, and in Western Siberia - more than on 16 %. Prirosty stocks do not compensate even their current extraction» 42;
Export energo resources is a significant profitable part of the existing budget of the Russian Federation. Therefore the economy of the given resources at satisfaction of internal requirements will create possibility of increase in volume of export of these materials;
More than 85 % of cost of the housing-and-municipal services represented the population and budgetary sphere, are expressly or by implication connected with financing warmly - elektro - gazo - water supply, and also operating repair of engineering networks of buildings and their constructive elements with the purposes of heat-shielding increase (repairs of roofs, interpanel seams, source doors, window designs, etc.). In sphere housing - utilities 40-60 % municipal бюджетов43 are spent approximately;
«Annually in building branch on heating, hot water supply, ventiljatsiju.i air-conditioning of civil and industrial buildings to be spent 45 % (plus/minus of 5 %) all extracted liquid, firm and gaseous fuel going on home market. Besides, 10 % (plus/minus of 5 %) go on production of construction materials, items, designs and erection of buildings» 44. For heating of buildings in Russia it is spent about 34 % of thermal energy made in the country whereas in the western countries this share makes 20-22%45.
p Bashmakov I.A. «Energoeffektivnost, costs and housing and communal services reform» ъио://™ т
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