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concept, essence and the importance of design management within the limits of strategic development

In the modern concept of management uniting all kinds upravyolencheskoj of activity, the significant place for today takes design management. The given term has also variations «management of projects» and «design management».

Basically the authors investigating questions of design management, agree in opinion, that it is synonyms [1]. Therefore in the given work we will use the term design upravyolenie. Occurrence of such economic phenomenon as design upravleyonie has been caused by necessity of a finding of new ways of increase of productivity of various resources, including chelovecheyoskih, and the equipment of the companies.

Design management, as well as many modern spheres upravlencheyoskoj sciences, originates in the field of information technologies. In 50th years of the XX-th century in the USA experts of companies "Duponts" and "Remington Rand", M.Walker and D.Kelli, in the course of research of possibilities of as much as possible effective application of computer Univac have developed a simple and rational method of the description of the project with primeneniemelektronno - the computer (COMPUTER). Initially given method has been named in honour of developers, namely: Walker-Kell's method, however, then it peyoreimenovali in the Critical path method (English Critical Path Method) (MKP or CPM) [2]. It was the beginning of management projects which in posledyostvii has developed in high-grade scientific area with the principles, the methods, specific problems and in the methods of their decision.

As a whole some bases of design management have started to be shown even earlier, approximately in the thirties the XX-th centuries, when on the basis of special methods of coordination of engineering of large projects in the USA, osushchestvljayolas administrative activity in such significant branches as aviatsionyonaja and oil and gas [3].

For today principles of the design organisation have outgrown in the whole direction in which frameworks problems planiroyovanija the project are considered, course of its fulfilment, its resource maintenance (chelovecheyoskimi, material and financial resources), and also otsenyoki investment efficiency.

The design methodology was extended in Russia in the late nineties, first of all, within the limits of a corporate governance. The developed social and economic conditions have defined character vneyodrenija the given methodology. As a result of transition to market system obyorazovalsja so-called «institutsionalnyj vacuum» [4] which demanded filling with formal and informal institutes. The given tendency was observed against absence of experience of the organisation of design activity in the conditions of market system, competition, construction of separate strategy of the enterprises with allowance for an uncertainty high level. VsledYOstvie it metodologi the design approach have been compelled to address to the western workings out having for that moment almost 50-year-old reserve.

Thus, the system of design management to Russia went other by, rather than in other countries. As F.Hayek considered, development of institutes is a consequence of evolution sotsiokulturnoj system [5] in which course there is a selection of the most effective and corresponding to the developed system. Unlike an evolutionary way of development to our country vnedreyonie in economic practice of design management has gone through import
Necessary institutsionalnoj environments.

One of the basic authors, rasyosmatrivavshih problems of import of institutes, are A.Olejnik and V.Polterovich. They mark following features of the given process:

1. Institutes take root to existing system disregarding trayoektorii the previous development.

2. Preformations occur sharply and in one stage.

3. Impossibility of the directed influence on imported inyostituty.

4. The high social risks caused by an uncooperative altitude of company.

As we see, introduction of design management for present time is conducted by such method. Basically the western experience was adopted disregarding internal factors, features of the Russian mentality and inyostitutsionalnoj environments.

For today importance economic-psychological and instiyotutsionalnyh factors is marked in all social and economic sektoyorah economy from science and education [6] before private business [7]. It, bezuslovyono, demands revision of used methodological principles and or adaptations of foreign experience to existing social and economic realities, or developments of the way of the organisation of design activity in the conditions of the Russian economy.

Now introduction of methodology of design management in government system that demands special attention and the account of the factors indicated by us as it is a question about konkuyorentosposobnosti not the separate enterprise, and economic-political system as a whole, and also the countries in world social and economic proyo has begun
stranstve. According to the commission of the President of the Russian Federation provoyoditsja reorganisation and perfection of system state upravyolenija as at level federal, and the separate regions, based on introduction of the design organisation of management.

As one of most thorny questions of introduction of design management with reference to any objects correlation design podhoyoda and traditional organizational structures (tab. 1) acts.

Table 1 - the Comparative analysis of kinds of organizational structures

Organizational structure Advantages Defects
The linear Clearness and efficiency upravleyonija on the basis of one-man management and peryosonalnoj responsibility Absence of flexibility, vyyosokie requests to rukoyovoditelju in view of otsutstyovija distributions nayogruzki
The functional Accurate distribution of powers and otvetstvennostej High risks vsledstyovie inadmissibility dubyolirovanija funktsionalyonyh responsibilities
The divisional Autonomy and the independence of divisions considering speyotsifiku made production, service Complexity of the control and system regulation
The design Flexibility of structure, aiming at positive end of the project Complexity of transition to similar system
The matrix Optimum combination of several structures Complexity of a subordination and distribution funkyotsionalnyh loads

Source: Kertsner, G.Strategicheskoe management in the company. Model of mature management proektayomi [Text]: the Lane with English / G.Kertsner - M: DMK the Press, 2010. - With. 135

Though, it is obvious, that resulted above the form of organizational structures in bolshej degrees concern the management organisation on predyoprijatijah, for the analysis of management of objects of culture they also are to the full applicable. Apparently from table 1 the design system organizatsionyonoj structures is a special kind of the organisation of management which sharply resists under the characteristics to all other traditional structures, except the matrix.

Meanwhile, developed in the Russian Federation as of today the control system obekyotami cultures can be carried to linearly-functional and to diviyozionalnomu to types. It means, that introduction of principles of design management demands or revision of all system of the organisation of management by the given sphere connected with failure of all other types of administrative structures, or demands comprehensive plan working out on integration eleyomentov system of design management in developed practice hozjajstvoyovanija.

As it is marked in A.B.Tlisova, N.N.Kiselevoj's works, «introduction of design management in activity of government bodies is caused stremleyoniem to adapt accumulated more than for half a century successful experience krupyonyh the companies on realisation of strategic priorities and management izyomenenijami on the basis of design management. Advantages of design management are: 1) effective interaction of economic agents — participants of the project; 2) optimum resource levelling; 3) monitoring possibility at all stages of realisation of the project; 4) motivation and personal responsibility of participants of the project» [8].

Traditionally activity is considered as object of management in the form of the project in the event that:

- Activity objectively has complex character and important znayochenie for its efficient control has the analysis of internal structure of all complex of works (operations, procedures, etc.);

- The basic contents of activity is defined by transitions from odyonoj works to other;

- Achievement of the purposes of activity is connected with posledovatelnoyoparallelnym fulfilment of all elements of this activity;

- In the course of fulfilment of a complex of works special significance have ogyoranichenija on time, material, labour and to financial resources;

- Duration and activity cost obviously depends from orgayonizatsii all complex of works.

J.N.Lapyginym allocates following criteria of reference to obekyotam design management: «it is accepted object of design management schiyotat in a special way organised complex of works directed on reyoshenie certain problem or achievement of a definite purpose which fulfilment is limited in time, and also it is connected with consumption konkretyonyh financial, material and a manpower. Thus work is understood as an elementary, indivisible part of such complex of actions» [9]. In the works it considers the project as system, fulfilment of works within the limits of the project at which represents a black box (fig. 1).

Drawing 1 - project Model as systems

As the most popular and developed for today metodologiyoej design management acts so-called «Agile» or flexible meyotodologija. The term and an essence have appeared in the beginning of 2000th years in the USA within the limits of the activity organisation in sphere of information technologies. OsYOnovnymi principles of the organisation of activity is the following:

1. A division principle. Work is conducted by small sections vremeyoni (iterations), lasting not more than a month. The given principle poyozvoljaet objectively to trace a course of work and fulfilment terms.

2. An integrity principle. In the end of each period of time (kazhyodoj iterations) the customer receives a ready part of a created product or the executed service. The given principle defines specificity of division into iterations. Division not on time intervals, stages, and on works which should be completely executed.

3. A cooperation principle. The design command on an extent vseyogo project fulfilment co-operates with the customer.

4. A convertibility principle. Unlike standard planirovayonija in which changes slow down the work without delay, the given technology nayooborot welcomes constant changes which are put at once into operation.

The English Association of projects-managers postanavlivaet sledujuyoshchee definition «the project is a separate enterprise with defined tseyoljami, often including requests on time, cost and quality of reached results. Design management represents uniyokalnuju set of the co-ordinated actions (works) with opredelennyyomi the beginning and termination points, undertaken by an individual or organizayotsiej for achievement of definite purposes with target dates, zatrayotami and fulfilment parametres» [10].

According to standards ISO «the project is the unique process consisting of a set vzaimouvjazannyh and controllable works with dates nayochala both the terminations and undertaken to achieve the object conformity konyokretnym to requests, including restrictions on time, expenses and resuryosam» [11].

The Australian institute of design management indicates following definition of the project: «unique set of the interconnected actions
(Works) with certain dates started and the terminations, intended for successful achievement of a general purposes »[12].

Considering the definitions set forth above by object design upravyolenija it is considered to be the organised complex of works directed on the decision of a certain problem or achievement of a definite purpose, vypolneyonie which it is limited in time, and also it is connected with consumption konyokretnyh material, labour and financial resources. Object proektyonogo managements is, as a rule, the complex of the interconnected works directed on the decision of some original problem. Thus "work" is understood as an elementary, indivisible part of the given complex - of actions [13].

Thus, the modern concept of management of projects sforyomirovalas and the beginnings will extend on the world in the late sixties of the XX-th century. To the XXI-st century beginning design management became extended, effektivyonym and the reliable tool of the administrative activity, to the bringing companies fast and relevant result, according to them strategiyocheskimi the purposes.

For that accurate understanding that represents design upravyolenie it is necessary to consider various approaches to definition of the given economic phenomenon.

According to A.I.Balashova and E.M.horn, it is necessary to use the definition formulated by Institute of design management, namely: design management is «application of knowledge, skills, instruyomentov and management methods to design activity for satisfaction of requests presented to the project» [14].

The made definition differs that assumes draught on funds of traditional management for management of such specific object as the project. Hence, authors, mean, that specificity of design management is caused only by object of its management, in our opinion, it not absolutely so as at present the theory and praktiyoka design management has accumulated enough specific knowledge, inyostrumentov and methods, characteristic or adapted for it.

According to foreign authors, taki as K.Heldman and G.Kertsner, management of projects represents «a sphere of activity, in a course koyotoroj accurate project objectives are defined and reached at balancing between amount of works, resources, time, quality and risks» [15]. In tseyolom the made definition reflects the basic idea of design management, however, in our opinion it has some applied character, not otyorazhaja generalising character of principles of design management which gives the chance to consider it as separate scientific area and nayopravlenie scientific researches.

According to a group of authors including such scientists, as M.L.Razu, T.M.Bronnikovu, J.V.Jakutina, design management predstavyoljaet itself «the special kind of administrative activity basing on preliminary joint working out of in a complex-system model of actions on achievement of the original purpose and directed on realisation of this model» [16]. Dignity of the given definition is that it underlines a prominent aspect of design management, namely, originalyonost ideas of each realised project. For understanding of essence proektyonogo management and its practical application this aspect is very important. However, accentuation of authors of the given definition on working out of model will mix reference points towards protsessno-design management a little,
Which, in turn, is development and, accordingly, a part obyoshchej concepts of design management [17]. Therefore, on ours, opinion danyonoe definition has private character, not looking on its dignities.

A number of authors adheres to following definition: design management represents «methodology of the organisation, planning, a management, coordination of human and material resources on protjayozhenii the project life cycle, directed on effective dostizheyonie its purposes by application of system of modern methods, engineering and technologies of management for achievement of the results defined in the project on structure and amount of works, cost, time, to quality» [18 [19].

The indicated definition in detail enough allocates all osobennoyosti design management and underlines, that it is separate viyodom administrative activity. We in the given work will lean against the indicated definition as it, in our opinion, most full opens essence of design management.

Base element of design management is the concept "project". In the special literature there is a set of definitions of data teryomina. We will result some of them.

The British standard on project-management defines the project sleyodujushchim in the image is «original set co-ordinated poyostupkov or works with the caused beginning and end, which realiyozuetsja the assignee or the organisation to achieve a specific goal in certain term, with the limited size of costs and

19 with certain characteristics of realisation ».

According to such authors as the project it is possible for A.Tovb and G.Tsines opreyodelit as «the unusual form of realisation of purposeful changes,
Which provides, that these modifications should be osushchestvleyony within the limits of the established restrictions on terms, cost and harakteriyostikam expected results »[20].

The collective of authors including I.Masur, V.Shapiro, N.Olderog-ge, has formulated following definition of the project. The project represents the purposeful, developed and planned product or modernisation of material object, engineering procedure of the technical and organizational documentation, including administrative decisions and actions for their realisation [21].

The American institute from management of projects (English Ameri - canInstituteofprojectmanagement) defines the given term the following obyorazom. The project represents «the time enterprise created for formation of a unique product or service [22].

The Australian institute from management of projects (English Australian Institute of project management (AIPM)) defines the project as «unique set of harmonious acts or works on the established dates nayochala and the terminations which are necessary for successful achievement sovmestyonoj for the purpose» [23].

The uniting factor for all resulted definitions of the project is underlining of triplicity of requests presented to it, namely: availability of a certain combination of terms, resources and the purposes. Uniqueness of each separate project, which opyoredeljaet specificity of design management is besides, underlined. This specificity is shown in necessity each time to create a command of the project which polnoyostju would correspond to its unique purposes. In spite of the fact that within the limits of design management there are universal stages and techniques,
Managerial process very hardly depends on project specific goals. TaYOkim in the image, the clear accurate understanding of that represents the project gives the chance to carry out its efficient control and to reach, in the issue its purposes.

Except definitions which are indicated above, the term "project" konkreyotizirujut various standards and gosty, developed for a regulation of design management (tab. 2).

Table 2 - Standards of design management

The Russian standards GOST R

54869­2011 - TrebovaYOnija to upravleyoniju proyoektom

GOST R 54870­2011 - TrebovaYOnija to upravleyoniju portfeyolem proyoektov GOST R 54871­2011 - TrebovaYOnija to upravleyoniju proyogrammoj GOST R

ISO 21500

- RukovoYOdstvo on proektnoyomu meyonedzhmentu

GOST R 56715 - Design management. Systems proyoektnogo meyonedzhmenta
mezhdunayorodnye a camp -

24

darty

ISO 21505:20

17 Pre­view Project, pro­gramme and port­folio manage­ment-YOGuidance on gover­nance

ISO 21504:20 15 Pre­view Project, pro­gramme and port­folio manage­ment-YOGuidance on portfo­lio man­agement ISO/PRF 21503 Project, pro­gramme and port­folio manage­ment-YOGuidance on pro­gramme manage­ment PMBOK Guide ameyorikansky natsionalyonyj stanyodart managements of projects BS 6079 1:2010и APM Body of Knowledge Are developed in Velikobrita -

25 nii

DIN

69901 RazraboYOtan in GermaYOnii

Source: it is made by the author

All standards presented in таблице2, are focused on realiyozatsiju business projects, that once again underlines necessity of scientific working out of standards of design activity in state upravleyonii with allowance for the Russian administrative specificity. The given process on [24 [25]
The first stage it is quite realizable on the basis of resulted standaryotov, however further it will be necessary to develop and introduce poyodobnye standards at level of the state and regional projects.

As the legislative base regulating process sozdayonija of projects at the state and regional levels, the selection of documents acts sleyodujushchaja:

- Methodical recommendations about application of criteria of an estimation and other control actions of realisation of priority projects (proyogramm), the Governments confirmed by design office (from May, 31st 2017 goyoda № 3754p-P6) [26];

- The order of the Government of the Russian Federation from 25.01.2018 N 80-r «About the plan meroyoprijaty on development of design activity in the Government of the Russian Federation for 2018» [27];

- The decree of the President of the Russian Federation from 19.07.2018 № 444 (red. From 19.11.2018) «About streamlining of activity consultative and consultative bodies at the president of the Russian federation» [28].

Initially concepts "project" and «design management» concerned only the commercial companies and have been intended for increase of efficiency of different aspects of their activity. Thus design management, basically, associated with large business and osushchestvyoljalos is fragmentary without strategic planning elements. In process of development of the concept of design management upravyolencheskoj activity representatives of an average and a small-scale business began to show interest to the given kind. Development of ideas of design management, set creation effekyotivnyh techniques and tools has allowed to adapt design upravleyo
nie for the indicated scales of business [29]. Thus application eleyomentov strategic planning [30] was a general tendency proyoektnogo managements in business already by the XX-th century end. Thus, design upravleyonie left on strategic level.

The XXI-st century beginning was marked by one more significant tendency proyoektnoe management has started to be used gradually not only on mikro, but also and at makro-mesolevels [31]. The given tendency was subsequently zayokreplena in Russia legislatively within the limits of the Governmental order of the Russian Federation from October, 15th, 2016 № 1050 «About the organisation of design activity in the Government of the Russian Federation» to public authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation it is recommended to pass to the design organisation of activity [32]. Then in the given sphere proyoizvola reorganisation on the basis of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation from 19.07.2018 № 444 (red. From 19.11.2018) «About streamlining of activity consultative and consultative bodies at the president of the Russian federation») [33].

As classical understanding of mesolevel its characteristic as parts of the economic system which is in economic prostranyostve between macro-and microlevels acts. In sphere of attention of mesoeconomy nayohodjatsja regions, branches, the markets, interbranch complexes, etc.

According to G.B.Klejnera, in the developed conditions for maintenance of development of all social and economic system it is necessary to supply development of intermediate systems, agents, structures which are in

34 economic space between macro-and economy microlevels. It is caused by that operating impulses from federal level of management frequently are transformed and reach microlevel in izmeyonennom a kind. From microlevel answer-back signals of economic agents on corrective actions can be deformed at mesolevel and reach federal level in the deformed kind, that in turn can lead to acceptance of incorrect administrative decisions at macrolevel.

We share G.B.Klejnera's item according to which each uroyoven system can represent itself as "transformer", both administrative effects, and feedback distortion on given vozyodejstvija from individual economic agents (fig. 2).

Drawing 2 - Distortion of administrative effects at vzaimodejstyovii different levels of economic system and processes of generation of the blessings

34Мезоэкономика developments / under the editorship of the member correspondent of the Russian Academy of Sciences Klejnera G. B; the Central economic-mathematical in Russian Academies of Sciences. M: the Science, 2011. With. 6-7.

Special problem area in the given cut is process, svjayozannyj with management of system of rendering of services and generation of the blessings obshchestvenyonogo appointments, management which has uzkonapravlennuju specificity and demands adaptation to modern conditions of economy and to a company level of development as a whole.

At present design management is gradually integrated with system of strategic development of regional objects of management. This process urged to increase efficiency of strategic management on reyogionalnom level, and causes of realisation scientific izyskayony in frameworks, both design, and strategic management. Including the special attention is demanded by development of new approaches to strategic management of welfare sphere which owing to the specificity cannot be operated from an item of traditional management. At present there is an objective necessity of studying of toolkit of working out of strategy of development of welfare sphere on the basis of principles of the design approach. The design approach to management sotsialnoyokulturnoj sphere meets the requirements, which are presented in the given sphere as corresponds to its specificity. Therefore it is necessary rassmotyoret prominent features of working out of strategy of development sotsialnoyokulturnoj spheres for a finding of ways of integration into the given process proyoektnogo the approach and use of its mechanisms for increase effektivyonosti managements of welfare sphere at region level.

1.2.

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A source: Tarnovsky Vladimir Viktorovich. WORKING out of STRATEGY of DEVELOPMENT of WELFARE SPHERE ON THE BASIS OF MECHANISMS of DESIGN MANAGEMENT. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. An eagle - 2018. 2018

More on topic concept, essence and the importance of design management within the limits of strategic development:

  1. 1.1 Concept and essence of strategic management.
  2. the Technique of a strategic choice (decision-making) within the limits of the strategic program of branch development
  3. the analysis of the Russian experience of application of design management of welfare sphere within the limits of working out of strategy of development
  4. working out of algorithm of strategic design management by objects of welfare sphere at regional level
  5. a substantiation of system of indicators of an estimation of efficiency of design management at strategic level
  6. working out of methodical toolkit of strategic design management by welfare sphere
  7. working out of the conceptual scheme of the organisation of design management by welfare sphere within the limits of working out strateyogii developments
  8. 2.3 Tendencies of development of branch and their influence on strategic management.
  9. 1.3 Theoretical aspects of research of strategic management of processes of regional development
  10. the Design approach as the management tool sotsialnoyoekonomicheskim region development
  11. 3.1. The analysis of efficiency of design management sotsialnoyoekonomicheskim region development (on an example of Kursk area)
  12. the Complex estimation of design management sotsialnoyoekonomicheskim region development
  13. 3.1. Technology of working out of strategy of development sotsialnoyokulturnoj spheres of the regional level, including mechanisms of design management
  14. the APPENDIX 1 Sights of opponents of the design approach and modern vision of design management
  15. 2.1. Influence of the concept of "life cycle" on processes of strategic management by the enterprises of a wood complex in the conditions of integration
  16. CHAPTER 3. PERFECTION OF DESIGN MANAGEMENT BY SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF REGION
  17. THEORETICAL BASES INNOVATSONNOGO OF DESIGN MANAGEMENT OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUDGETARY ORGANIZATION