4.2. Conceptual bases of development of methodology of working out of creative administrative decisions

we Will consider very important question: as there is a creativity process, i.e. How there are creative decisions? The answer to it will help to develop the organizational-economic mechanism, capable to stimulate this process.
For a control system it will be essential step
Forward, as will allow to guarantee to some extent the creative approach there where it is really necessary.
However in the given chapter we will try to develop methodology of working out of creative administrative decisions, placing emphasis on how there are these decisions, without detailed consideration of the organizational-economic mechanism promoting realisation of creative potential. That is the creative potential of the individual will be focus of this section.
To answer a question what exactly underlies kreativnosti or creativity of the individual, it is necessary to address to philosophy, psychology of the person and human physiology, to be exact its brain.
In the philosophical literature there is a different understanding of the nature of creativity. Some scientists place emphasis on character created, its innovative nature. Others - on activity of the subject, considering creativity as self-realisation of the Person. The creativity analysis is first of all the analysis of its major tool - thinking, thus it is important to consider thinking in an evolutionary cut.
The understanding of creativity as the process including stages of statement of a problem, tax and judgement of basic data, inkubatsii ideas, inspirations (insajta, "aha"-experiences), and also formulations and checks of hypotheses, findings of consequences from them, establishments of relations between them, etc. is known also. (39, c.l 11-142; 71, с.165; 99). That is in this case attempt to standardise creativity process is realised, to spread out it to parts that then to repeat.
The modern philosophy even more often addresses to the sources of creativity which are in activity of ancient shamans and sorcerers. So, I.P.Merkulov develops thought that modern psychophysiological researches of mechanisms of creativity draw the bases for the conclusion: the mystical experience of extraction of the new information fixed in ancient texts is not a legend deprived of any real contents. In force
Irreversible character kognitivnoj evolutions then shamans and sorcerers really had ability (and possessed corresponding psi-hotehnikoj) to get and "survey" such layers of long-term memory which remain inaccessible to representatives of modern civilised populations. This mystical experience as a source of sacral knowledge has been successfully assimilated by attendants of a cult (magicians, priests etc.) early civilisations. Further ezotericheskie knowledge, integrally twisted in a fabric drevnevostochnyh religious-mystical doctrines, most likely has been borrowed by an early Ancient Greek science and philosophy (43).
In psychology there are two understandings of creative endowments: in narrow sense it identify with divergentnostju thinking, i.e. From it raznonapravlennostju, with ability to find different variants of the decision in the same problem situation. In a broad sense is the mental abilities connected with a certain set of qualities, which allocation as characteristic (it is unequivocal its setting) it is caused by submissions of each given researcher about the nature of an interesting phenomenon.
Among them originality and fluency mysh-lenija, sensitivity to discrepancy and incompleteness of knowledge, ability to overcoming of stereotypes, etc. (98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 106) usually appear.
For example, kreativnost across Torrens (the known psychologist, — the researcher kreativnosti children) is shown that the individual becomes sensitive to problems, to deficiency and blanks of knowledge, to association of the versatile information, to disharmony of elements; defines the problems connected with it; searches for their decisions, puts forward assumptions and hypotheses about possibility of decisions; checks and denies these hypotheses; modifies them; rechecks them; definitively justifies result (91).
The psychology has the big arsenal of hypotheses and proofs of features of physiology of course of creative processes. However it does not allow
Till now unequivocally to explain occurrence kreativnosti. Summation of researches existing for today in area kreativnosti in psychology has allowed to draw following conclusions (36):
There are no certain criteria of an estimation "creative" (there are approaches which take for criterion - creation of a new product, and also - realisation by the person of own individuality, creation of any product is thus not so obligatory, etc.);
The phenomenon nature "tvorcheskost" (kreativnost) has no uniform explanation: the maximum expression of mental abilities, a recognition of independent creative ability (has no uniform contents), the phenomenon of special type of the person.
There are various approaches to consideration of creative ability as congenital (not changed characteristic) and as giving in to changes (thus development kreativnosti is carried out by different methods, but underline influence of the cultural environment of education of the individual).
There are no unequivocally interpreted concepts of this area.
Thus, it is possible to say that creative activity proceeds neosoznavaemo. In this connection attempts to understand movement of thought during the work including these stages, inevitably represent reconstruction by means of consciousness of that material which, by definition, is out of sphere of its control. Therefore a significant role in such models the most general submissions analyzing (whether it be the author of opening, its biographer or metodolog play sciences) about the nature of creative process (13).
Apparently, neither the psychology, nor philosophy do not give the unequivocal answer to a question: how there is a creative activity? However there are accurate acknowledgement to that kreativnost can be both congenital, and the person acquired in development. Thus the psychological
Researches assert, that on kreativnost the cultural environment of education of the individual hardly influences. For us it is very important, as allows to hope, that it is possible to operate in any measure kreativnostju employees, at least to try to develop and improve it.
Creative abilities of the person are defined it kognitivnymi by abilities, i.e. Abilities to think, perceive, imagine, etc. Kognitivnye processes are connected with functioning of a human brain. The big break in a science on research of functioning of a human brain has been made by G.Hakenom who has tried to apply sinerge - tichesky the approach to research of principles of functioning of a brain (83). In work there is a large quantity of the experimental data confirming functioning of a brain in a mode of recognition of images. It means, that the human brain cannot perceive a complete picture of the world, i.e. Basically it is not capable to holisticheskomu to perception of the difficult validity. The brain works in such a manner that serially focuses attention to the different key parametres describing a complete condition of object. Thus, there are some patterns (templates or stereotypes) which the person can use at the description of the same validity. It is interesting, that patterns or templates are formed at the person since the childhood in the course of its training and nauchenija. The person gets used to see many objects of the validity according to the patterns generated at it (thinking and perception stereotypes). There is a so-called effect of a hysteresis at recognition of patterns. It means, that the person even in different situations will act how it acted last time. This effect defines conservatism or stereotype of human thinking which prevents to show to many people kreativnost, i.e. A thinking and perception non-standard.
This effect known American psychologist Edward de suggests to overcome Bono with the help lateralnogo thinking which assumes a certain shift of perception, i.e. Pattern change, so occurrence of new perception of old object. New non-standard creative decisions are as a result received. E de the Bond writes: "Lateralnoe the thinking designates concrete methods and the tools regularly used as a method of a finding of new ideas and new concepts. Lateralnoe the thinking is connected with change of concepts and perceptions... It is a little blocked with" creativity "as both concepts are connected with generation something new, but lateralnoe thinking — more concrete definition of process of change of perception: changes of our outlooks on life" (92).
Lateralnoe the thinking tries to introduce logic in creativity. "Lateralnoe the thinking also differs from divergent thinking though besides they are partially blocked. Divergent thinking - only a process part lateralnogo thinking. Lateralnoe the thinking is connected not only only with generation of alternatives, but also with change of patterns, with transition to new and best patterns. The end-product lateralnogo thinking is inspiration (insajt), instead of variety of alternatives" (92, с.10).
On the basis of a principle of recognition of images G.Haken explains decision-making process (83, с.283). Haken notices, that usually meanwhile, that is known, and that it is necessary to know for decision-making, there is a rupture (fig. 4.3.).
How the person fills rupture between known and unknown data? G.Haken answers: "Generally, known data can in the various methods be added to compensate missing data. Depending on that, how we compensate missing data, various decisions" (fig. 4.4 can be made.).
Known given Unknown danny z Actions It is necessary ye data for Decision-making of a Fig. 4.3. Demonstration of shortage of data for decision-making

Fig. 4.4. A variety of decisions depending on a method
Additions of data
The reception domyslivanija data which does not suffice at the expense of use of creative potential is known for a long time. Experts in the field of creative management also mark this property of creative thinking. G.I.Vanjurihin notices, that the creative thinking prompts the following: if the human factor does not give in to mathematical interpretation it is possible to give it freedom for the decision of the problems which are not giving in to formalisation. It is meant, that by the initiative, activity and creativity of people if conditions for their display are created, can compensate defect of the information or incompleteness of aprioristic knowledge of action of economic laws (18).
Further G.Haken does the following conclusion: people often use similarity between the given situation and a situation meeting in the past. Also a number of psychological factors, for example osve-domlennost, attention, displacement and belief thus matters. Hence, at decision-making the person tries to distinguish patterns already known to it, to -
torye also will correspond to alternatives of decisions. Therefore the more at the person has accumulated patterns concerning concrete situations, the it is more than alternatives can consider. Depending on previous experience of the person the whole hierarchy of patterns which we will test for sufficiency for the given situation can be built.
We can continue logic. The pattern actually means certain perception of a situation, the perception under a certain corner is more exact. Ability of the person to look at the same situation under a different corner of sight (or perceptions) actually means possibility of formation of new patterns, i.e. Care from stereotypes and use of creative potential. Such type of thinking is called as divergent, i.e. Thinking which is characterised by process "movements in different directions", a divergence of ideas to capture the various aspects relating to the given problem. If the person is initially capable to such thinking thanks to the congenital or acquired skills it already is capable of a creative.
If the person is not capable of it it can be trained in it if will in detail and deeply study bases of creative thinking, for example lateralnogo. After all realisation of shift of perception (change of a corner of sight) also is called lateralnym as shift that corresponds lateralnomu to thinking.
Rationally conceiving person, most likely, in any situation will search for analogies, making use of the experience, i.e. To use already developed patterns. It in general is not bad, but then such person should have big own experience that on the same situation to impose set of the patterns which have developed in its consciousness. The type of thinking of such person is the closest to konvergentnomu to thinking.
Thus, it is received, that kreativnost the person it is defined by its abilities to lateralnomu to shift of the thinking and perception.
Edward de asserts Bono, that creativity is possible algoritmizirovat, i.e. The person it is possible to learn to carry out lateralnyj shift. So, methods of working out of creative decisions can quite work if to create for this condition.
It means all, that is possible and it is necessary to operate development of creative potential of the company, influencing on all its the basic making - creative potential of employees, the organizational-economic mechanism and resources.
It is possible even to allocate two basic strategy of development of creative potential:
Strategy of a set of creative employees. Well the system of selection of experts which on an input in the company would carry out an estimation kreativnosti (such techniques for this purpose should work is);
Development strategy kreativnosti own employees. In this case the company carries out special actions for stimulation and development of creative abilities of already existing staff.
It is natural, that these strategy can be used in parallel.
Considering all aforesaid it is possible to formulate more accurately the basic qualities which the person capable of creative activity should have. We will take advantage of tab. 4.1 and whether we will check up all factors have considered, when described group of the personal factors influencing the decision. We have allocated:
Qualification of the employee - this factor is not subject to doubt and undoubtedly influences creative abilities of the individual. Here too it is necessary to notice, that for creative process sometimes happens early specialisation of the individual on any concrete area of research is too pernicious. Often early specialisation creates as though invisible borders for human perception which cannot get into adjacent fields of knowledge for search of new any more or nonconventional decisions new any more. Therefore not -
Looking at importance and necessity of narrow specialisation, at command formation kreativshchikov it is necessary to consider, that into it should enter both narrow experts, and versatile persons.
Experience of activity in the given area. This characteristic has correlation with qualification though also carries also quite independent character. As it has been noted above, experience creates possibilities for formation bolshego numbers of patterns (though there are also situations when with experience the person becomes conservative and incapable of realisation lateralnogo shift more and more). The skilled person will always make use of own experience at decision-making. Often it is a useful and necessary condition of acceptance of the satisfactory decision. Also it is necessary to notice, that in situations when essentially new nonconventional decision is necessary, experience can become the negative factor. Therefore in this case it is better to prefer the person without experience.
Perception and propensity to certain type of thinking. As a rule, these factors are hardly interconnected, as concern to kognitivnym to processes, i.e. To knowledge processes. Perception initially in relation to thinking as it precedes thinking. As above the perception already has been shown connected with razpoznavaniem patterns, that in turn forces the person to use this or that type of thinking. At the same time, meaningly applying, for example, lateralnoe thinking, the person can change the perception of a situation. Thus, the perception and thinking type are interconnected and can be changed both at will of the person, and under effect on it from the outside.
Development of intuition. Perhaps, it is the most resistant opisa-niju and treatment the factor. Intuition usually we name that we can not explain. It something, we yet do not know an origin of that, but by all means we learn thanks to the further development of a science. However it is necessary to notice once again, that the intuition characterises not process of working out of the creative without delay
Decisions, and choice or decision-making process. The person intuitively chooses that which really is udov-letvoritelnoj from several alternatives. Therefore the developed intuition is without delay necessary (from the point of view of management of the organisation) for the chief or LPR, than to the usual ordinary employee, even in a case when he attends to a creative. But in any case the availability of the developed intuition is a side benefit of the candidate on a creative post.
Personal motives and expectations. The personal motivation always promotes object in view achievement. Therefore coincidence of personal motivation of the employee to the company purposes always gives a positive effect. The same it is possible to tell and about expectations of the employee. Coincidence of expectations by that it receives from the organisation, sharply increases its personal motivation to success achievement on a job.
Propensity to training and naucheniju. If the person in a condition to be trained in something new is always the positive factor for its reception for work. The life is constant process of updating and adaptation. Training - the necessary factor of a survival of the person. Training creates effect nauchenija when the person acquires experience of certain reaction to an event. The effect nauchenija is especially positive in industrial activity, especially, when it is a question of simple work, for example work on the conveyor. Nauchenie allows the person to increase labour productivity, that effectively affects product cost. In nauchenii there is also a negative effect from the point of view of creative activity. Nauchenie creates stereotypes in activity, i.e. The invisible frameworks which are not allowing thinking to pass their border. In this case the person becomes not capable to creative activity. Thus, the creative person should be capable to refuse stereotypes nauchenija when they prevent to overcome inertia of consciousness.
- The relation to risk and innovations. Actually the risk and innovation characterise absence at the person of fear. However risks happen different, degrees of risks are more exact. Therefore it is very difficult to say that ability and desire to risk always is positive property of the person. However, when it is a question of the creative person most likely he should more like to risk, than to be cautious. As to innovation the creative person should be by the nature the innovator, differently it not the creative person. Absence of fear new is a key characteristic of the creative person.
Thus, we have allocated and have described the basic properties of the creative person which should be defined at a reception of the person on a post, or to be developed in the employee, holding a post assuming ability creatively to think.
In structure of creative potential of the company two more subsystems - a subsystem of resources and the organizational-economic mechanism of realisation of creative potential of the company are allocated.
As to a subsystem of resources - own and involved their structure is traditional. As own resources of the enterprise it is necessary to allocate all kinds of the resources, which companies can use for realisation and development of creative potential. The structure of resources is defined by following principal views: material resources (buildings and structures, engineering and the equipment, other material subjects, financial resources, material information resources, human resources, etc.) and non-material resources (non-material information resources, intellectual resources, organizational resources, etc.).
As the involved resources all same kinds of resources, but involved from outside in exchange for other resources, for example the financial can act. It can look as attraction of advisers, eksper -
tov or supplementary information acquisition, a communication of experience with other companies, etc.
Now there is a wide spectrum of methods of working out of the creative decisions put into practice. The analysis of the given methods has allowed to classify them by several criteria.
On time during which the result is expected:
Methods of education of the creative person, focused on potential result in the future, are the methods used in the course of training of children, teenagers, students, and also listeners of the higher schools in which process there is a problem not so much reception of concrete results or creative decisions, how many a problem of the general development of the creative person capable of result in the future.
Methods of activization of the creative process, focused on result reception in the present are methods which are used within the limits of really functioning structures (commercial or noncommercial) which purpose is reception of current concrete decisions, i.e. Today.
On area in which creative occurrence achieve:
Methods of scientific and technical creativity;
Methods of creative management;
The methods of creativity used in a science, art, etc.
Universal methods are methods which can be applied in all spheres of activity of the person — for example, insajt as a method of comprehension of true.
On area of influence on human consciousness and thinking:
Psychological methods of activization of creative search or kreativnosti - are directed on activization of work of human subconsciousness, on nauchenie the person in the course of game or training to use the latent creative abilities;
Methods of compulsory activization of creative process are the methods used in a case when there is a necessity of fast decision-making, i.e. In emergency situations;
Methods of algorithmization of creativity - the methods assuming, passage of the person on the certain programmed stages with reception in the end krativnogo result;
The methods leaning against talent and intuition of the individual, are methods which to explain and repeat it is impossible. These are methods of the individual creativity based on personal talent or intuition of the individual.
Last group of methods is classified most accurately for management as gives concrete recommendations about a situation in which these methods can be applied. We will consider them in more details.
Psychological methods of activization of creative search or kreativnosti
This group of methods is used more often in the course of training or training as adults, and children. Therefore for management they are faster methods which should be used at realisation of trainings for staff.
In this group of methods it is necessary to allocate the following:
Methods of the description of creative activity of the most presented people. In psychology attempts to explain creativity by means of the description of experiences of the creative person in the course of the creativity certificate are constantly undertaken. However, as a rule, such descriptions do not give any concrete information on how all the same it occurs. As a result of a set of the information in the course of such researches the stages of creative process including preparation, frustratsiju, inkubatsiju, insajt and working out have been in details developed.
Methods of psychological games, problems, trainings.
One of the first programs of development of creative thinking were developed by American E.P. Torrance. The idea of overcoming of outwardly imposed restrictions and thinking standards became leading idea of Torrance. As the basic methodical means of training problems, anagrammes and psychogymnastic exercises act. Recognising treniruemost divergent thinking, Torrance has formulated requests to the receptions, allowing to stimulate not realised components of creative process (67, with. 178).
Today there is a set of programs of activization of the creative thinking, focused both on adults, and on children. Trainings are successfully applied within the limits of the company when employees of firm in common solve the general problem. Such trainings not only develop kreativnost, but also create command spirit, form methods of collective creativity and decision-making.
The hypnosis method also is successfully applied to activization of processes of creative thinking. Moscow doctor-psychotherapist B.JI. Rajkov on the basis of experiments on disclosing of creative possibilities of the person in a hypnosis condition has received curious results: "So, not able to draw in a hypnosis condition executed" similar "realistic portraits, easily entered into the set role, played chess etc. more productively. As a rule, examinees after approximately 10 sessions had an opportunity active creative drawing already in a wakefulness condition" (69).
There is also a set of examples of experiments with people in various situations when examinees influenced certain smells, sounds, vibrations etc. In some cases achieved very interesting results. However all these methods did not guarantee result.
Meditation represents achievement of high degree of concentration in which the person can try to establish connection with the under -
Consciousness. Probably, that subconsciousness will prompt to the person the answer to a question tormenting it. However such techniques are too risky for unprepared people as can lead in general to loss of any consciousness.
From the point of view of management psychological methods of activization of creativity is better to use as methods of preventive maintenance of a creative, i.e. Within the limits of corporate training of employees.
<< | >>

More on topic 4.2. Conceptual bases of development of methodology of working out of creative administrative decisions:

  4. the Control over efficiency of working out and acceptance of administrative decisions
  5. 3.3. Is administrative-legal disputes at development of administrative decisions in management personnel
  6. 2.2. Conceptual positions of modelling of acceptance of administrative decisions in the vertically-integrated enterprise structures
  7. 2.3. Methodological principles of working out of administrative decisions in the vertically-integrated enterprise structures
  8. §2. Working out of conceptual bases of codification of the right
  10. 3.1 Technique of optimisation of acceptance of administrative decisions in a direction of development of marketing processes at the enterprise
  11. § 1. The conceptual bases of development of intelligence of students of medical college
  12. working out of the conceptual scheme of the organisation of design management by welfare sphere within the limits of working out strateyogii developments
  13. development of conceptual bases of the maintenance of gymnasia formation in second half XIX centuries
  14. Conceptual bases of formation and development of free economic zones in Russia
  15. conceptual approaches to development of theoretical bases of formation of the investigated period of noble family
  16. potential of development of conceptual bases of the maintenance gimnazicheyoskogo formations in the Russian pedagogical Abroad