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2.1. Convergence of accounting standards in the different countries

Being elements of the general system of the economic information, all kinds of the account - accounting (financial), administrative and statistical - should be interconnected among themselves. Such interrelation probably to supply:
Synchronism - unity of classification and coding of economic indicators at all levels,
Coordination - optimum use of the economic information;
Coordination - maintenance of interrelation separate composed the general system of the account.
The known researcher of West European account Noubs explained occurrence of classification of accounting systems as follows [134]:
Classification promotes more exact definition of similarity and distinctions between the countries;
Classification can help with formation in the country of accounting business and choose the system most suitable to the given state;
Classification of systems is the excellent informative tool granting fine possibility to be focused on the key countries, each of which is an example the approach to
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To formation of an accounting system and the reporting of certain type; for experts in accounting business classification of systems becomes a reference point, allowing to predict proceeding from experience of application of typical system, the country can face what problems. Besides, according to J.N.Snopok, the unity in each kind of the account having specific receptions of transformation of the economic information [167] should be supplied. Means of maintenance of unity at this level are modelling, harmonisation, standardization, unification, adaptation and account convergence.
By consideration of registration systems as objects of modelling, it is necessary to notice, that quality of functioning of any registration system is defined by its elements or subsystems: methodology, a technique, the organisation, technology. Each element is separate object of modelling: in methodology the structure of records of operations on an abacus, the correspondence of accounts is modelled; in a technique - distribution of requisites in basic documents, structure of account ledgers, interrelation synthetic and analytical accounting; in the organisation - structure of the registration device, structure of elements of registration process, distribution of responsibilities; in technology - process of processing of the registration information.
Application of principles of modelling in the course of convergence of the Russian national system of the account with MSFO will give the chance to make selection
From all variety of possible variants of decisions expedient mini -
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muma the best variants supplying the effective decision of administrative problems.
Let's analyse process of formation of various systems of the account.
First, among the factors influencing the contents of the account in the various countries it is possible to allocate:
Sharing of investors in a business management;
Degree of development of the financial market and stock market;
The basic users of the information;
Degree of sharing in the international business.
Influence presented above factors can be tracked on an example of development of the countries. So, industrial revolutions in the USA and the Great Britain at-conducted to sharp increase in a national wealth basically for the account zaro-zhdenija average business. It has served as the reason of development of the financial account as the quantity of investors and creditors grew.
Many companies have outgrown in the multinational corporation, and their holders gradually kept away from management of an ownership capital, transmitting these functions professional justices-ljajushchim. In such situation the financial information became the major source of data about well-being of the company. Occurrence in the USA also Is great-britanii a stock market and exchanges has required bolshej analyticity fi-nansovoj the reporting and has led to that profitability definition hozjaj-stvennoj activity became the major purpose of the financial account [56].
In Germany and Switzerland the financial policy is defined by the bank organisations which satisfy a significant part of requirements
Business is demanded also by the publications of the financial reporting. In France and Belgium book keeping has a little bit other orientation. In these countries gosu-darstvo plays defining role in management of a national resource [68].
In the English-speaking countries the account is conducted in interests of creditors and an investo-ditch. The professional approach to accounting to the account, that oz-nachaet working out of registration principles by the accountants united in Asso-tsiatsiju jury accountants is supplied. The bodies authorised by the state ut-verzhdajut the standards of the account developed and accepted by Association [79].
In the countries of Continental Europe the account is conducted in interests and by the principles formulated state, including tax, by the bodies. In Latin America the big attention is given to inflationary processes [221]. The countries with Anglo-American system of the account keep account proceeding from the accumulated practice of the account. The English variant is used by Australia, the Great Britain, New Zealand, Southern Africa. The American system Canada, Japan, Mexico, Philippines use the USA. The continental countries divide on two groups: recognising advantage of registration data before tax (Germany) and, on the contrary, tax before registration (for example, France, Italy, Spain, Belgium) [65].
The greatest distribution was received now by classification by book keeping models. Usually allocate four groups of the countries which accounting activity is united by the general signs: 1. The English-speaking countries;
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The continental countries;
Latin American;
4. The former socialist countries and the CIS countries. The popular belief, that in the world does not exist also two countries with iden tichnymi account systems. However in the countries with economic conditions of system of the account similar socially - have much in common, in particular, the standard principles of record-keeping and the reporting, mortgaged in a basis on tsionalnoj an accounting regulation.
Because the helpful information is required to investors, which means availability of its characteristic lines (relevance, reliability, comparability, clearness, confidentiality), is undertaken attempts, both on international, and on regional levels of improvement of quality and comparability of the information represented in the reporting. These efforts are directed on the international unification of standards of book keeping and the reporting.
Unification process in the account sets as the purpose data of existing variety of methodological, organizational, technological rules to a minimum of variants. The basic methods of unification of book keeping concern: restriction of application of separate forms of account, organizational decisions, methods and methods of the account and an estimation, drawing of methods of modelling. Between unification and standardization there is a close interrelation which opens essence of unification as the basic tool
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Standardization. Therefore unification precedes creation of any a camp-darta.
Standardization is a result of unification and differs from it that rea-lizuetsja in the standards-documents regulating fulfilment of any activity, or parametres of any object. We will underline, that working out and introduction of registration standards is the important means of maintenance of unity of book keeping along with modelling, as the standard-it some kind of model of organizational decisions, operations, mutual relations of executors.
Working out of the list of questions co-ordinated between the various countries which should be reflected in the financial reporting of the multinational corporation became the first step in this work. Results of the decision of this problem have found reflexion in conclusions of an intergovernmental working commission of experts of the United Nations, in instructions of the international stock exchange (MFB) and created in 1973 KMSFO. The commission of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY has made the decision on joining to the Committee consultative group so that the future actions of EU in the field of account unification os-novyvalis on the standards developed by Committee.
Existence of alternative decisions on many questions of the account contradicts a comparability principle, therefore recently SMSFO undertakes a number of attempts with the purposes of removal, how much it is possible, alternative approaches in already developed standards. Till 2000 KMSFO put a problem of harmonisation of national accounting standards. This process represented development by Advice of qualitative decisions registration
Problems which then should become a basis for unification of national standards. Provided SMSFO convergence process assumes development by Advice and national supervising bodies of decisions on removal of registration complexities which supply the most effective both qualitative formation and information submission in the financial reporting. Differently, unlike harmonisation convergence represents movement of Advice and national regulating bodies towards one another for a finding and acceptance of the best decision in questions of formation of uniform standards of book keeping.
Is of great importance, that convergence process is supplied with a number of the concrete measures provided by the Charter and procedures SMSFO [165]. The major among them are: definition of some national regulating bodies as Advice partners; regular (not less than 3 times a year) meetings of Board of Advice with national regulating bodies; coordination of plans of work; appointment of members of the Board responsible for communications with concrete national regulating bodies; the coordination of processes of acceptance of standards; creation of joint working groups.
The researches carried out recently have confirmed ability of Advice on MSFO to establish uniform standards of book keeping. First of all, as the basic questions Advice considered the problems, concerning character of plans of convergence and difficulties which had to face the countries on a way of convergence of national systems of the account with MSFO. Research was conducted by distribution among experts in area buh -
/
galterskogo the account in 59 countries, including Russia, the questionnaire on plans on convergence realisation. Answers have reflected the point of view of experts in the field of book keeping of each country which sometimes differed from an item of the national governments and developers of standards. By results of research recommendations for the governments have been produced, I regulate-shchih bodies, the professional organisations and others interested hundred-ron on the further advancement to creation of uniform system of standards fi-nansovoj the reporting at global level [197].
For the further research we will consider features of national models of the account, in particular, the britano-American and continental models. In the countries using, for example, the britano-American model stock markets where the majority of the companies is found by additional sources of funds are well developed. Main principles of the given model are developed to the Great Britain, the USA, Holland, therefore it still is called as britano-American-Dutch. For this model it is not characteristic rigid reg-lamentatsija book keeping. The basic idea is orientation buh-galterskogo the account on queries of investors and creditors.
The national system of the account of the Great Britain was formed under the influence of following factors: an economic situation in the country, national features, legal company, the tax legislation, vzaimoot-carrying with other countries and accountancy requirements and the reporting, sharing of the professional accounting organisations.
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The accounting system and the reporting of the Great Britain bases on the concept of authentic data presentation about a financial position of the companies. A legislature establishes only main principles and does not resort to detailed instructions concerning the daily facts hozjaj-stvennoj lives. And though lawyers of the Great Britain insist on an establishment of the fixed rules and the unified forms of the financial reporting, buh-galtery believe, that the priority of the economic contents over juridiche-skoj the form is one of main principles of accounting system of the Great Britain. Possibility is meant a principle of a priority of the economic contents over the legal form to recede from is established th rules of book-keeping and reporting drawing up if these rules do not allow to reflect real position in the enterprise. Other basic concepts of the account of the Great Britain are the principle of authentic reflexion of the facts of an economic life and a request ratsional-nosti at book-keeping and reporting drawing up. Razrabot rules and book keeping standards in England attend profes-sionalnye the accounting organisations. In 1969 as the initiator of creation of such standards the Institute of Jury accountants of England and the Wales (ICAEW) was, and already approximately in a year the rule buhgal-terskogo the account (SSAP 1) "Affiliated companies" has been developed. Advice under registration standards (Accounting Standard Board — ASB) has developed tens Positions about the standard th to book-keeping practice (Statements of Standard Accounting
Practice - SSAP) and accounts standards (Financial Reporting
/to
Standards (Standards of the financial reporting - FRS). Some of them were firm for several years, and then many positions have been cancelled because of entering of significant changes into the country legislation. In 1996 ASB has confirmed the Declaration in which main principles of accounting standards of the account have been fixed. The concept of authentic and diligent reflexion of the facts of an economic life underlies all professional standards and acts on book keeping and the financial reporting. Now in the country act about 30 standards on book keeping and the reporting [218].
In the USA rules of book-keeping and drawing up of the financial reporting are regulated by the standard accountancy requirements which are developed by the professional organisations of accountants. All problems of the financial account in the USA are in detail shined in the Letter on problems of the financial reporting. According to this document the financial reporting should: to be useful to the present and potential creditors for realisation of rational capital investments and decision-making on credits; to grant data about economic resources of the enterprise; to supply with the information on financial results of activity of the enterprise during the certain period; to help users of the financial information to evaluate the sum of prospective inflow of money resources under dividends and percent, and also a gain from realisation or settlement of loans or securities [129].
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For reflexion of operations on an abacus of the account and reliability of submission of the financial reporting the accountant should make the decision on three questions: the recognition moment, a cost estimation, reflexion on a book keeping abacus. Distinctions in conceptual approaches to book keeping of the USA are reflected in terminology and indicators of the financial reporting.
Continental model most typical for the European countries. Here activity of the companies is in a close contact with bank structures and with the state which satisfy their financial inquiries. In this system book keeping is regulated by the legislation. Account practice is directed, first of all, on satisfaction of requests of the state, especially concerning the taxation. It is remarkable, that orientation to administrative inquiries of creditors is not the book keeping main task. The given model use: Austria, Belgium, Algeria, Ivory coast, Guinea, Germany, Greece, Denmark, Egypt, Zaire, Spain, Italy, Cameroon, Luxembourg, Mali, Morocco, Norway, Portugal, Senegal, Sierra Leone, France, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan [68].
In Europe is about 40 states united among themselves by uniform historical, political, economic both cultural events and relations. Integration processes of the European countries have received a push from creation in 1947 of the Custom union (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg); from signing in 1951 of the Agreement for creation of the European association of coal and a steel (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands и1 Luxembourg); from signing in 1957 of the Roman agreements for Euro - creation
pejskogo communities on an atomic energy and the European economic community [59].
The above-stated events have considerably accelerated integration economic processes that promoted an establishment of closer on-liticheskih communications between the states participating in agreements.
On April, 8th, 1965 the Agreement for merge , in conformity has been concluded, with which the uniform Commission and uniform Advice of three communities (the European association of coal and a steel, Economic community and Euroatom) [67] has been created.
Acceptance MSFO by the majority of the largest countries, as well as general tendency to globalisation, should promote that other countries in the future will consider MSFO as the supervising document. For today only two countries from among surveyed - Kenya and Cyprus - have already accepted MSFO as obligatory national standards. From 59 surveyed countries of 95 % already have accepted or namereny to accept MSFO, or plan to carry out convergence of national rules of the financial reporting with these standards. In table 6 the list of such states is indicated. Iceland, Japan and Saudi Arabia as of the end of 2002 have not expressed intention to conduct convergence of national systems of the financial reporting with MSFO. In 39 from 54 surveyed countries there are official plans on acceptance or convergence of national systems of the financial reporting with MSFO which mean corresponding decisions of the governments or other regulating bodies on working out of standards of the account and financial from -
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Parity. In table 7 the list of the countries where the plan of convergence with MSFO is in a working out stage is presented.
Table 6
The countries which have confirmed intention to follow MSFO
Australia Israel Malaysia Thailand Austria India Mexico Taiwan Argentina Indonesia the Netherlands Tunis Belgium Iran New Zealand Philippines Bulgaria Ireland Norway Finland Brazil Spain Pakistan France the Great Britain Italy Peru Czechia Hungary Canada Poland Chile Venezuela Kenya Portugal Switzerland Germany Cyprus Russia Sweden Hong Kong China Romania Estonia Greece Latvia Singapore the republic of South Africa Denmark Lithuania Slovakia South Korea Egypt Luxembourg Slovenia the USA Table 7
The countries in which the convergence plan is in a working out stage
Argentina Egypt Iran Mexico Chile Brazil Israel Canada Pakistan Switzerland Venezuela Indonesia China Thailand South Korea attracts attention that fact, that the largest international capital market - the market of the USA - yet has not accepted the obligation to bring the national standards into accord with MSFO, since 2005. Taking into consideration that fact, that the primary goal of process convergence in
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2005 consisted mainly in consideration of questions of coordination MSFO and GAAP the USA, it is essential, that SMSFO and FASB were obliged to work in common under the basic projects for the purpose of realisation in the long-term plan of process of convergence MSFO and GAAP the USA.
On the other hand, convergence is considered as the long-term project, therefore convergence MSFO and GAAP the USA should be directed on working out of new standards and uniform mechanisms of interpretation, instead of on an exception of specific distinctions between acting MSFO and GAAP the USA.
On the basis of the aforesaid it is possible to draw following conclusions:
For each country individual distinctive lines of the accounting statement are characteristic;
Distribution MSFO is directed on creation of global model with-stavlenija and distributions of the financial information, on achievement of the purpose of integration. Harmonisation of systems of the account and the financial reporting can be reached as a result of complex application of various methods of distribution MSFO;
Blind acceptance MSFO in any country, without any changes as the international standards are a constant finding of compromises between leading systems (models) of the account in the world is impossible.
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A source: Vladimirets Anastas Anatolevna. the THEORY And PRACTICE of CONVERGENCE of the ACCOUNT. 2008

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