2.3* Definition of level of motivation of trading staff in the course of service of consumers

Vital issue for the majority of trade enterprises in Russia is absence of the complex approach to management of a manpower. It in turn leads to the certain difficulties connected with fluctuation of the personnel, insufficient professionalism of employees.
It is natural, that unsatisfactory quality of trading service becomes a consequence of the given problems in the issue. To management of human resources each firm applies strategic approaches with allowance for the specific features. On success of decisions of this question depends, whether the staff will aspire to work well or employees will simply pretend, that work not bad. This problem is especially actual for retail trade enterprises where results of economic activities directly depend on diligence of commercial clerks to please requests of modern buyers. The author of research notices, that modern requests to qualification of trading staff are constantly increased according to development of technologies, change of range of production, occurrence of shops of new formats, expansion of a regional network etc. If to consider as a whole specificity of a labour market in retail trade sphere here it is possible to allocate the following at times mutually exclusive the characteristics of features of movement of trading staff: - The high level of fluctuation of the personnel in retail trade system is marked (on the average from 30 to 150 % a year) basically it is a question of a link of executors of services - sellers, cashiers, sellers-advisers; - There is a competitiveness high level on a labour market among the largest trade enterprises; - Low social prestigiousness of trading trades in company is observed. Researches in the field of motivation of trading staff should be begun with the analysis of one of powerful factors of motivation, such as a material aspect of compensation for own work. The author of research had been carried out the comparative analysis of average wages in branch in comparison with other branches on rendering of services to the population. Analysis data are presented in table 2.3.1.: Table 2.3.1 The monthly average nominal added wages of workers The organisations by economic activities kinds, (in rbl.) 1995 j 2000 2001 ' 2002 j 2003 2004 2005 All in economy 472,4 ^2223! 4_ 3240,4 4360,3 = 5498,5 6739,5 8554,9; Wholesale and I! Retail trade 341,3 1584,5 2294,9 3068,9 i 3974,2 4906,2 ........ i 6552,1; Hotels and j 1 restaurants 302,1 1640,0 2403,6 3039,3! 3966,7 4737,3 6033,4 Transport and communication 716,4 j 3220,2 4304,2 5851,5 j7471,3 9319,9 11351,1 Financial i; activity 705,3! 5232,2 8885,2 13245,9 J556I.2 17383,8:22463,5 Operations with immovable 1: 1 • property, lease and granting? Services 406,9 2456,7 3545,6 4677,1: 6196,3 7795,4: 10236,8 Formation; 1240,2 1833,0 2927,3: 3386,6 4203,4 5429,7 ·zdravoohranenie and::: ·predostavlenie:! ' social services 348,5 1333,3 1959,9 3141,3 3662,6 4612,0 5905,6: the Source: Federal service of the state statistics of Russia The analysis of data of the table has allowed to track dynamics of growth of monthly average wages in sphere of retail trade which in 2001 has made 44,8 %, in 2002 growth has made 33,7 %, in 2003 - 29,5 %, in 2004 - 23,4 %, in 2005 - 33,5 %. Now monthly average wages in branch below average wages across the Russian Federation as a whole on 30 %. Practically at identical level there are wages in sphere of tourist services, utilities and in trade sphere.
The subsistence level in sphere of educational services - on 20,7 %, in sphere of medical services - on 11 % lags behind sphere of trade. Thus, now speech does not go about socially high status of trading trades. The motivation is usually defined as the process inducing people to activity for achievement of definite purposes. In the XX-th century beginning the American engineer and the theorist of school of scientific management F.Tejlor considered wages as unique motivator work and aspired to co-ordinate a payment to its results accurately. Modern motivatory are those factors which increase an overall performance of the person and-or its satisfaction because correspond to its internal requirements (motives) which at the moment partially or completely are not satisfied and the satisfaction demand. L.Burlakovoj [129] allocates the basic driving motives of commercial clerks: - Compensation - the employee works for the sake of money and other blessings; - Social motive - for it approval of its activity from colleagues and a management is important; - Process - work for the worker brings pleasure, i.e. the worker takes pleasure in the process of work (service); - Achievement - aspiration of the worker to self-affirmation and self-realisation on a job; - Ideological motive - for the employee important achievement joint with the company of the high purposes. Attention accentuation on management human to resources becomes one of the basic strategy of development of modern trading business of the advanced trade enterprises. In an English word-combination «human resources)) - human resources - the whole philosophy of business dealing which assumes is concluded, that any resource demands development, a various sort of expenses and investments. Numerous researches incontestably prove, that in long-term prospect competitiveness of the company defines well trained, qualified and motivirovannyj staff. The author of research believes, that the motivation of staff in retail trade sphere is one of the major conditions of the organisation of process of qualitative service of consumers. Undoubtedly, accumulated experience of management in the given area testifies that the most difficult managerial process by the organisation is management of motivation of its employees. Complexity of management of motivation of trading staff consists in its following features: - Motivational process as a whole is based on knowledge of psychology; - The motivation, as a rule, has the individualised character; - Universal techniques on motivation of staff, more often, no. According to the interrogations conducted among the Russian managers, the portrait of an ideal job for staff is made by following key factors: - Possibilities for career growth; - The big authorities; - Material indemnifications (wages and other forms of material compensation; - Training for a company account; - Noegenesis in other areas; - The high social status, etc. As follows from the diagramme, the Russian managers put development and advancement possibilities above indemnification. Nevertheless, to the Russian companies as to good employers the staff has less than trust, than it would be desirable. According to the same interrogation conducted on a site www. executive.ru As a place of continuation of career of 44 % of managers see the international company with a known brand. Work or fidelity of employees to collective, it can supply only their physical presence on a job. Effective contact to sellers as a result of successful purchase creates feeling of satisfaction at the buyer. As the large part of consumers, build the relations and evaluate trade enterprise work on mutual relations with staff. The progressive technologies, the new equipment and enterprise financial resources cannot supply success of activity of the enterprise completely. In success achievement human resources start to play the increasing role. But it should be not simply diligent executors, but also workers, able to advance the goods, company services. On supervision of the author, the increasing effect on an overall performance of the firms working in sphere of services, renders effect of a direct connection between quality of intrafirm processes, quality of external service (satisfaction of requirements of clients) and firm profit. That is, according to the author, the close connection between the processes promoting satisfaction of buyers and internal processes of motivation of staff of trading organisation is observed. Motivirovannyj the employee is capable to render to buyers qualitative services in sale of the goods. And on the contrary, the employee is not enough motivirovannyj, not in a condition to be precautionary, polite, competent. For this reason, it is possible to assert, that the motivation of staff should become a priority of the trading management having for an object achievement of a high level of quality of trading service. Researches have allowed to reveal vital issues in the field of motivation of staff which demand a close attention from trading management. And quality of trading service the author of research has expressed the interrelation of motivation of staff described above in the form of the following scheme where the economic interrelation between motivation of staff and enterprise profit is obviously traced: To use not only material stimulation of trading staff, but also to develop conceptually new systems of moral incentive. Carried out by the author of research the analysis of the basic stimulus in work of trading staff of commercial network "Алдина", «the Kid +», "Tulpar" in the city of Almetyevsk, has allowed to reveal the following structure motivatorov in work of staff: 1 monetary compensation; 2-importance of in-progress activity; 3 high trust of the chief; 4 possibility to show the abilities; 5 opinion of collective Fig. 2.3.3. Distribution of stimulus in work of trading staff Supermarkets The analysis conducted by the author, allows to draw a conclusion that for the majority of workers (54 %) monetary vozna.razhdenie continues to play the leading part in the field of motivation. The part of workers (23 %) considers, that for them as the most powerful factor of motivation the element of importance of in-progress activity acts. The feeling of a dissatisfaction of staff work is valid, frequent enough arises while the result of importance of own work is insufficiently traced. Work with staff means first of all its training for the purpose of formation of a new sight and approaches in the field of communications with buyers, to features of a consumer' behaviour, priobreteshsja practical skills of possession of psychological receptions of dialogue and oral advertising. Experts of a labour market notice, that now preference at selection of candidates for work in retail trade system are given to those workers who besides fundamental professional training have narrow specialisation. Experts in selection of staff assert, that complex hybrids of trades are extremely popular. In trading business demand for the managers having narrow specialisation in sphere of logistics, operating brands, management of sales is especially great. On last speciality it is necessary to a demand quarter in demand total amount. In small and average business more and more demanded there are sales managers, to marketing and development. The labour market requires qualified experts FMCG (fast moving consumer goods-stimulation of sales of the goods of mass demand). According to the Stockholm school of economy in capitals of Russia and regions appreciable growth of demand for employees in following directions is marked: - In a marketing direction managers and analysts, especially in the field of the analysis assortimentnoj politicians are claimed; - In personnel services the requirement for universal experts in training and development of staff is high; - In the field of sales prospects of experts in management of regional sales are highly evaluated; In retail trade according to the personnel company the ANCHOR, for the first half of the year 2006 demand for the qualified trading staff has increased on 44 %, just the same the indicator was marked and one year ago. Stable demand for professional shots of various specialities and qualifications in commercial firms speaks active development of retail businesses. At the same time regional expansion ritejlovyh networks leads to increase of demand for shots in large and average cities where commercial networks "Ашан" now move ahead, "Underground", "Ramstor", "Kopeechka", "Magnet" and a number of other companies. It means, that in short enough space of time the whole commands are formed of managers and experts of mass trading trades. To solve the given problem on forces to only skilled manager having the big ambitions, liderskimi qualities, professional experience. On creation of the new enterprises the perspective metropolitan managers are directed to regions of Russia, capable to realise the project of start of activity of a supermarket from a zero mark with allowance for enough high corporate standards. Thus they should be in practice «designers interaction» and in not simple local conditions to build serious business communications with the regional authorities, business cycles, the local public. However, more serious problem, according to the author, training and construction of certain standards of work with buyers, advancement on the market of new competitive advantages, maintenance of stable work of collective is. As practice shows, the large companies decide a problem of preparation of staff basically own forces. So, company Metro Cash&Carry has created own multilevel system of training of personnel including training-centre in France (for top-managers) and training-centre in Moscow (for chiefs of an average link and staff of shops). Long-term techniques provide the UNDERGROUND (formation) - programs of cooperation with average educational institutions - basically, it is TECHNICAL TRAINING COLLEGE which prepare sellers, cashiers-controllers, etc. permanent training of pupils Besides, practises UNDERGROUND shopping centres where they receive skills of work on the computer and on the Internet. Curriculums HR are developed Experts together with professors of educational centre BZF in Magdebourg (Germany). High schools (the Russian state trade and economic university is key - RGTEU) prepare for Metro Cash&Carry experts and branch managers of purchases, logistics and the finance. 10 best students receive grants from a network and are directed on training to Germany. The modern scheme-approach to training of staff in the large Rendering service on training of staff for the short-term period (from one month about six months). Doubtless dignities of the given approach are efficiency, high speed of training with application of a practical training that is worthy and now. Continuing comprehensively to investigate a problem of motivation of trading staff, the author of research had been developed the following questionnaire (the appendix 9 see). The purpose of realisation of questioning was revealing of level of satisfaction of trading staff by in-progress activity. As a whole results of interrogation in a graphic kind are presented on fig. 2.3.5. 579 workers taking various posts participated: the seller-adviser, the cashier-controller, managers of a trading hall, etc. According to results of interrogation the author reveals following "problem" zones: 1. Relations with managers satisfy"only 22,10 % of the interrogated workers that is the certificate of an inefficient feedback with subordinates, and a number of communication problems which can be initially adjusted from managers, with use of known management methods. 2. The modern policy of the enterprise satisfies"only 19 % of the interrogated workers, that also is a consequence of inefficient trading management, absence of accurate and concrete strategic and tactical plans in the field of management of trade enterprise. 3."Dissatisfaction"of staff in the field of catering services in lunch breaks is traced, only 19 % of staff"are satisfied"by a state of affairs in this direction. There are serious problems with schedules of granting of a lunch break to workers. Schedules of an hourly lunch break are not maintained. 4. Working conditions satisfy" only 43 % interrogated, that also is the certificate of some problems with the organisation of working space of staff. On supervision of the author in a number of supermarkets ergonomic requests to the organisation of jobs are not maintained, that, in the end, leads to occurrence of not realised feeling of discomfort in attendants during a labour shift, level of conflicts, both among colleagues, and among buyers is increased. 5. The modern payment suits only 13 % of employees, the others of 87 % of the interrogated employees stated a regret that are not satisfied by modern approaches in material stimulation of staff. Along with revealing of elements of a dissatisfaction of trading staff by work, there were also positive aspects of the given interrogation which were showed in the following: 1. The mode of operation suits the majority of employees (76,6 %) that is additional stimulus in own work. 2. Mutual relations with colleagues satisfy 71,2 % of the interrogated employees that testifies to a positive example of construction of communication channels of dialogue with one another. Whether Z.Na a questionnaire question «you Are satisfied by dialogue with buyers?», 67 % of employees have positively answered. Undoubtedly, given indicator is the certificate of professional optimum orientation which is expressed in aspiration to receive satisfaction by means of dialogue with colleagues and consumers of services. Thus, according to the author, in results of the given research original causes of such widespread phenomena in retail trade sphere as fluctuation of the personnel, an inadequate degree of quality of service of buyers are concluded. In addition the author of research does a conclusion that process of motivation of staff has related roots with process of formation of feeling of satisfaction at staff own work. Absence of attention to the given problems from trading management inevitably leads trade enterprise to failures, absence of economic efficiency. Problems of the organisation of motivation of staff in work should become prime on a way of formation of quality of trading service from management. Now forces of some the Russian scientists form the domestic concept of motivation of labour activity. It is a question of V.V.Adamchuka, I.G.Akpsrova, N.A.Volgin, V.A.Djatlova, A.L.Egorshina, A.J.Kibanova's works, JU.P. Kokina, I.M.Kulintseva, S.S.Levinoj, A.A.Litvinjuka, Z.V.Moslikovoj, J.G.Odegova, S.D.Reznika, O.V.Romashova, B.A.Sosnovsky, etc. In these works is looked through new understanding of motives of actions of the person satisfaction of requirements of the person in the conditions of market economy. As base concepts of research of motive of labour behaviour of the worker level of a public division of labour, prospect of scientific and technical progress, degree of development of a private pattern of ownership serve. Acquaintance to the fundamental techniques of motivation developed in Russia last years, can promote formation of effective model of stimulation and motivation. In particular, the technique of motivation on the basis of the base requirements, developed by the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Russian Federation, reveals a primary orientation of workers on realisation of separate groups of values of work and work. She allows to define the work groups, differently reacting on material, creative, obshchegruppovye stimulus of work. According to a technique of formation of standard motives of the work, developed by collective of scientists of the Moscow state university of Lomonosov, the motivation is a set of the motives forming a motivational profile of the person on the basis of standard characteristics. The technique of the analysis of incentive motives to the work, developed by group of scientists of the State university of management under the guidance of professor A.J.Kibanova, represents the quantitative approach to an estimation of motivation on the basis of an estimation of local indicators [145]. The contribution to formation of national model of motivation was introduced by the Concept of motivation of the administrative work, developed by group of scientists of the Penza state university of architecture and building under the guidance of professor S.D.Reznika. It was generated on the basis of research of the western and domestic theories of motivation of work and experimentally approved in the building organisations of Penza, Samara and Tolyatti [146]. Practical interest for formation of effective model of motivation and work stimulation on trading enterprises is represented by the theory Motivational complex of the labour activity, developed at the Russian state trade and economic university professor A.A.Litvinjukom and approved on trading enterprises of Moscow. It recognises that on behaviour of the individual, group and staff as a whole some groups of incentive motives (consumption, submission and energosberezhenija) simultaneously influence. Their force of action is not identical. In a motivational complex the failures caused by the various reasons are possible, it is statement of personal motive, the conflict of motives and fadient the purposes more often. By means of questioning and interrogations of staff most hardly acting groups of motives get out, and then stimulus which can satisfy these motives are formed. Stimulus co-ordinate with results of activity of workers. As a result there is effective enough mechanism of motivation. In the appendix the sample of the questionnaire according to an overall performance of trading staff which also is based on mark system of an estimation is presented. Certainly, system engineering of stimulation and motivation of labour activity on each trading enterprise can have the features as all the methods long economic encouragement can have motivational effect on employees. The author of research allocates some universal positions about material stimulation of trading staff: - Awards to employees should not be frequent and extended, differently the given form of material stimulation will be perceived as an obligatory part of the salary; - Process of awarding of employees should be necessarily interconnected with the personal contribution of the worker to process of service of buyers; - Such important characteristics of staff should influence a rate of commission as a skill level, the work experience. As it was already marked, methods of provision of economic incentives of staff should depend not only on specificity of work of firm as a whole, but also to vary depending on specialisation of workers. In table 2.3.2. Possible methods of provision of economic incentives of various groups of the staff, offered by V.Lukashevich [145] are demonstrated: Table 2.3.2 Provision of economic incentives of various categories of trading staff The staff of the Form of compensation Trading group Individual commissions from a sales volume Group commissions with increase in sales volumes in comparison with last year Group system of individual share in profit Advancement on more prestigious posts, with higher salary Auxiliary workers Group, price-work system of a payment of the Award for preschedule end of work of the Award for overtime work the General scheme of individual share in profit Secretaries, reviewers Compensation for overtime work the General scheme of individual share in profit Increase on an office ladder Chiefs Compensation for overtime work the General scheme of individual share in profit the Offer on individual share in business Generalization of domestic experience of stimulation and motivation of work in retail trade sphere allows to make a number of conclusions: 1. In modern system of retail trade the highest wages are observed not, and this fact is not stimulating workers to high efficiency of work and improvement of quality of trading service. 2. The author defines the scheme of influence of level of motivation of staff on process and quality of trading service. It is proved, that the unmotivated employee cannot supply a proper degree of quality of service of buyers. On the other hand, the high wages cannot guarantee fidelity of workers of the organisation and not always lead to the best performance of the labour responsibilities. Possibilities of strengthening of motivation of employees by means of its increase have certain limits. Process of definition of level of motivation of employees labour-consuming enough also demands application of special techniques of research. Z.Otsutstvie to the accurate and balanced communication between a payment and the individual labour contribution of the worker leads to a dissatisfaction of staff with work, conflicts to colleagues and buyers. It is necessary to consider such factors, as the work organisation, moral encouragement, informing and intraorganizational PR, the circulation to the most significant for workers to values. So, the work organisation should be directed on a variety of skills, on completeness of executed tasks, and also for their importance and importance. Thus not last role is played by a feedback, i.e. the information on an overall performance, lead up by subordinates to a management. 4. Moral encouragement objectively supplements a complex of material stimulus so competitions on a rank «the Best seller» or «the Best worker» can essential increase interest of staff in results of activity of the enterprise. However this practice, unfortunately, is used not by many subjects of managing. 5. Ustanovleio, that if workers of trade enterprise are badly informed on the plans for development of the enterprise having for them essential significance it sharply reduces their spirit for work with high return. And on the contrary, duly and complete informing allows to lower intensity level in collective, promotes increase of satisfaction by work, increases trust of workers to the decisions accepted by a management. To achievement of the same results should promote and intraorganizational PR which is understood as the information policy of a management directed on staff. Its purpose - to promote formation of fidelity of workers of the organisation and feeling of pride of it. The major condition of effective motivation - ability of the chief to influence the most significant for people of value. It is possible to carry self-esteem of workers, their financial well-being, responsibility to their number before collective, interests of the organisation, career prospects, working conditions, a policy of management of the enterprise. Motivation process it is possible to operate and receive successfully thus the information for the further development of the enterprise on a way of perfection of quality of trading service. The total analysis in the field of modern quality management of trading services in retail trade has allowed to reveal effective approaches to working out of the given process on the basis of structurization of stages trading-engineering procedure. Main principles of the organisation trading-engineering procedure trade enterprise are allocated: maintenance of the complex, process approach to its construction, creation thus the maximum conveniences to buyers, achievement of the most rational use of premises and trading-process equipment shop, creation for workers of shop of favorable working conditions and the rest, supplying high culture and labour productivity. The leading part of estimations of quality of service from buyers in the given process is defined and proved. The author's technique of an estimation of quality of trading services on the basis of questioning of buyers is offered. The essential interrelation between motivation of trading staff, satisfaction degree its own work and quality of trading service is proved. Key directions of management are allocated by motivation of trading staff, the key role of corporate training to certain standards of work of trading staff is designated.
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A source: Yermolaev Natalia Nikolaevna. PERFECTION of QUALITY MANAGEMENT of SERVICES In SYSTEM of RETAIL TRADE. 2007

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