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Development of information technologies and evolution of approaches to construction of an information infrastructure of management of the organisations

Development of modern digital technologies involves povysheyonie the importance of such processes in activity of the companies as: processing, storage, transfer, production and use it is constant uvelichivajuyoshchegosja volume of data.

Today the accent from possession is displaced by any resource towards availability of data about this resource, possibility ispolyozovat these data for the purpose of planning further economic dejayotelnosti the organisations [1].

The basic signs of formation of new economy are: fast growth of value of the information which is infinite resuryosom; absence of accurate borders of activity of the companies in the conditions of the network market and democratic enough rules of an establishment of interactions of its participants; size of financial resources and quantity of workers usyotupajut to fast intellectual decisions with high availability to interested parties thanks to technical possibilities.

Formation of digital economy demands revision ekonomicheyoskih relations, methods of social interaction, search new spoyosobov cooperation and coordination of activity of the various companies for soyovmestnogo the decision of certain problems. The high role of influence of digital technologies is obvious, however not enough attention is given to methods of possible increase in digital potential of the companies and formings of interactions with all players of formed digital economy.

In this connection, we will be based on the assumption that pereyovod the majority of the Russian companies of a part of functions on IT Outsourcing is caused by the reason of active development of digital economy.

The concept of digital economy for today has no accurate definition. We will consider existing submissions about the contents danyonogo concepts. In the academic environment the opinion that poyonjatie «digital economy» has appeared in 90е years of the XX-th century was generated. In the ideoloyogii American scientist-informatik Nicolas Negroponte has defined it as «transition from movement of atoms to movements of bits» [2].

According to Russian expert Jury Hohlova, the chairman of board of directors of Institute of development of information company, «digital economy» for the first time use has received definition in the book «Elektronno-digital company» of Don Tapskotta - the leading kiber-guru of the world (Don Tapscott, 1997). In the work Don Tapskott results 10 osnovyonyh the reasons which transform information field development into new economy. The basic changes are connected with transition from the analogue engineering to digital, from semiconductors to microprocessors, from tsentraliyozovannyh calculations to architecture the client-server, from separate sushchestyovovanija data, the text, the image and a sound to multimedia, from spetsializiyorovannyh systems to open systems and others. Set oboznachenyonyh inevitable changes is a basis of formation of electronic community.

In 2014 leading advisers of the American company, spetsialiyozirujushchejsja on researches of the market of information technologies, Gartner Inc. Following definition has been formulated: «digital business» is the new model of business covering people, business, things; scaled globally for all world at the expense of use information tehnoloyo
gy, the Internet, and all of them the properties, assuming effective personalyonoe service of all, everywhere, always »[3 [4].

In the report «Russia 2025: from shots to talents» The Boston Consulting Group have noticed, that tsifrovizatsija is use vozmozhyonostej online and innovative digital technologies all participants of economic system - from separate people to the large companies and gosu -

4

darstv.

In Strategy of development of information company of the Russian Federation till 2030 poyonjatie «digital economy» has received following definition: «It dejayotelnost in which key factors of production are the data presented in a digital form, and their processing and use in great volumes, including is direct at the moment of their formation, allow in comparison with traditional forms of managing essentially poyovysit efficiency, quality and productivity in various kinds of production, at storage, sale, delivery and consumption of the goods and usyolug» [5].

The world bank wider understanding of digital economy is offered, concerns not only developments information-computer tehyonology, together with deep transformation of all economy as a whole. eksyoperty bank offer such definition: «the Digital economy is noyovaja a paradigm of the accelerated economic development».

With that the concept demands wider approach to it opredeleyoniju, than development and introduction information-computer tehyonology is simple, many world experts from the different countries agree: «the Global network of economic and social kinds of activity, which podderzhiyovajutsja thanks to such platforms, as the Internet, and also mobile and
Touch networks »(the Government of Australia);« the Markets on the basis of digital technologies which facilitate trade in commodities and services by means of electronic commerce on the Internet »(OESR);« the Economy capable preyodostavit a high-quality IKT-INFRASTRUCTURE and to mobilise vozyomozhnosti IKT for the blessing of consumers, business and the state »(the Issledovayotelsky centre of the journal«Economist»and company IBM).

«The digital economy» poyozvoljaet to conclude the carried out analysis of definitions of concept, that the digital economy is an evolutionary development of traditional economy. Acknowledgement of it is the concept tehnoyologicheskoj singuljarnosti which has been presented in 1993 matemayotikom Vernorom Vindzhem on symposium Vision-21 [6]. According to given konyotseptsii the moment when technical progress becomes so bystyorym and difficult that will appear inaccessible to understanding will come. This process is connected with development of information technologies, biotechnologies, nanotehnology and kognitivnyh technologies. Interaction of all of these tehyonology will create superhuman intelligence, original network soznayonie.

Today speed of changes has sharply increased. Visually it demonstriyoruet the information presented in table 1.1.

Internet occurrence in 1990th years has allowed to integrate inforyomatsionnyj an exchange into the uniform environment that has predetermined explosive rates poyosledujushchih changes.

Thus, speed and efficiency of information interchange narasyotala within several centuries. At the same time speed izmeneyony in all spheres of a life accrued also. Today we are in a critical point when old methods of reaction to changes will not work any more (KonstanYotinov G. N, 2013).

Table 1.1.

Time, year Achievement Company (transition) Development kompjuteryonoj technologies
1448 Printing house GutenberYoga. Publishing Mechanical / proyo

myshlennoe

1876 Electronic kommuyonikatsii. The first teyolefonnaja a line Industrial / mehanizayotsii
1895 Radio - combination of a communication of information and technologies razvleyocheny Mechanisation / avtomatizayotsii
1969 Network ARPANET Automation/cybernetics
1983 The first cellular teyolefon companies MoYOtorola Cybernetics
1991 The Internet - tehnoloyogichnyj informatsiyoonnyj an exchange, vozyomozhnost to carry in a pocket the huge

Information volume

(USB-flesh-memory)

Optimisation cybernetics /
2007 iPhone Optimisation Computer tehnoyologija sovershenstvuyoetsja desjatikratno: in an hour is faster, than in the first 90 years after the invention
2013 Google Glass Optimisation / the independent Surpasses vozmozhyonosti a mouse brain
2030 Number of robots can exceed chisyolennost the population

The earths

The independent Surpasses vozmozhyonosti a brain of the person
The future Surpasses vozmozhyonosti all people on a planet

Technological singuljarnost

Hence, digital economy - a new stage economic razyovitija companies. Change of economic paradigms is caused by development tehyonology. Data exchange between participants of processes in a mode has come online in the stead of analogue interaction. It is necessary to carry simplification and acceleration to the basic advantages of digital economy vzaimodejstyo
vija the parties with management of economic processes of more simple and transparent methods with possibility of scaling to mezhdunarodyonyh scales and easy integration into processes which proceed in gosuyodarstve.

Let's define digital economy as economy which is based on data exchange between its participants in a mode of real time, zatrayogivaet all branches of economy and promotes economic growth, preyodostavleniju qualitative services and unlimited scalability biz - bore-model on the basis of application of new technologies. Obvious is, that evolutionary development of information technologies defined tehniyochesky progress, occurrence of new technologies for search and processing danyonyh. The stage of digital economy as already was is told, connected with carrying over of accent from development of technologies on formation strategic preimushcheyostva the organisations in the competitive environment.

Apparently from the presented stages of evolution technological sinyoguljarnosti (tab. 1.1), till today the information did not carry to vazhyonejshim to assets of the organisation. Mainly basis of management orgayonizatsii was personal effect of a management indifferently to process of the account of the made efforts of managers for the decision proizvodstyovennyh problems and the analysis of data. Working out and acceptance administrative reyosheny leant against experience and intuition of a management of the organisation, in nekotoyoryh cases - on earlier prepared variants of decisions with account risyokov and possibilities for the organisation with use specially obraboyotannoj information.

Only in the several large companies it was possible to observe raboyotu the analytical centres for preparation and processing special mateyoriala for decision-making. tsifrovizatsija has hardly changed okruyozhajushchuju the environment of the organisations and has created conditions for reformatting of internal processes of its activity.

The digital economy accompanied by globalisation and integratsiyoej, considerably expands possibilities for the organisations in the field of creation of competitive advantages. That organisation in which the control system allows to grant the consumer the information on offers wins, costs, possibility to make purchase and to do orders within 24 hours of 7 days per week per any place where there is an access to a network inyoternet. In the given market openness, any of the organisations, despite of own sizes, cannot garantirovanno be in safety and stable competitive position. To become konkurentospoyosobnym the player of this market, the organisations are necessary the newest tehnoloyogii for information support and maintenance in an actual condition of a communication system.

Thus, the availability effective becomes the decisive, strategic factor of success for soyovremennyh the organisations, is constant obnovyoljaemoj and developing advancing rates information infrayostruktury the managements, built on modern technological (appayoratnoj and programmno-algorithmic) base. Further, for brevity expositions, for a designation of the indicated infrastructure under the text dissertayotsii we will use the synonymous term "IT Infrastructure".

At traditional management of the organisation with consecutive vyyopolneniem functions high results of activity of the company nedostiyozhimy. Speed of reaction to changes in business ñÑn±Ôѽı¡«ßÔ¿ environment of the company plays a main role in its competitive item and demands constant communications between specialised podrazdeyolenijami and services. Uninterrupted information interchange allows fast and to carry out in coordination organisation activity in different directions. And management of information technologies acquires, in this case, paramount significance.

However, today there are barriers which are necessary for overcoming to the majority of the Russian companies on a way to realisation of the dejatelyonosti in the conditions of digital economy:

1. Because of absence of skills and qualification at management in understanding of an essence of network technology, principles of its work and possibilities of its use, introduction and reception by means of it advantages, ocheyovidna unavailability of development of productions with its help.

2. Defect of "digital talents» regarding the description, dekompoziyotsii and optimisation of business processes, regarding the analysis of data and machine training for the decision of concrete business problems in various branches, in chasyoti creation and maintenance of a base IT Infrastructure of the company.

3. Defect pravoohranenija and pravoprimenenija for protivodejyostvija kiberugroze [7].

4. Threat of unemployment after introduction of digital technologies, namely problems of liberation of staff and its adaptation to the created conditions.

So that to come to the designated dividends from development of digital economy it is necessary to define methods of removal of barriers [8].

Transfer of a part of functions of activity of the company, connected with upravyoleniem the IT Infrastructure and digital technologies on outsourcing javyoljaetsja in the favorable method in this case. The reasons, podtveryozhdajushchimi necessity of the circulation to IT Outsourcing by the companies, javljayojutsja: economy on a payment and taxes; interchangeability; vysvobozhyodenie internal resources for the decision of more important problems; sistematizayotsija works IT of department; use of the newest equipment; IT Infrastructure development; the warranty of availability of a professional knowledge and tehnoloyo
gy; decrease in level of risks which are connected with realisation of various business processes; increase of speed of acceptance of administrative decisions.

The co-ordinated integration and introduction of managerial processes by the IT Infrastructure i^ili IT Processes which supervises professioyonalnyj autsorser, supply continuous management, big reyozultativnost and favorable conditions for constant sovershenstvovayonija organisation activity.

Requests of digital economy can supply conformity of volume and quality of services of outsourcing of an IT infrastructure tolyoko under condition of the system approach to management with them. The availability of standards to rendering of services of outsourcing not only will make clear and transparent the market of these services and will exclude unfair players, but also will create vozyomozhnosti and will increase digital potential of all diligent participants of this business: service providers, their contractors and partners, and also noyovyh players of digital economy.

The today's call of digital economy to the companies consists in search of investments by them for increase of level of client service. The profit which they will be poluyochat from one client throughout all cycle of their interaction becomes main value of the companies. In this case importance acquires ability to involve the user in proyotsess, built with allowance for its its preferences and to be arranged under its changed requirements. Forming and a data control protsesyosami is impossible without automation and the analysis of great volume informayotsii which allow to communicate with the client, to offer it personal offers on the basis of its preferences.

The IT companies for today overtake raw on an indicator of market capitalisation that does their active participant of digital economy that data on the Russian market confirm, received
Experts Tadviser (fig. 1.1) [9]. In 2016 and 2017 the growth rate of the market of IT services was saved and has made increase in the previous rates in comparison with the organisations, rendering other services.

Fig. 1.1. Structure of the Russian market of IT Services.

The most demanded directions IT - outsourcing, on danyonym the research conducted by agency Marketvisio Consulting, javljajutyosja, presented to table 1.2 [10].

According to data which are presented in researches, it is possible to assume, that the IT Outsourcing market will be divided into two segments: nayopravlennyj on service of small and average business (the so-called mass market of IT Outsourcing) and directed on service korpoyorativnogo a segment (the market of professional services, which predpolayogajut an individual approach).

In regularly increasing stream IT of-problems outsourcing in the given area becomes necessary (motivating factors to transition to the IT Outsourcing, revealed on the basis of interrogation of chiefs IT ¡á»Óáó½Ñ±¡¿® in 181 organisations which are carrying out the activity in territory of the Russian Federation, are presented in table 1.3).

Table 1.2

Demanded directions of IT Outsourcing (230 respondents)

Development of business appendices and integration 41,7 %
IT Infrastructure outsourcing 33,9 %
Outsourcing of management of the IT Infrastructure 23,0 %
Support of workstations 18,7 %
Support service outsourcing 16,5 %
Hosting and management of business appendices 16,1 %
Hosting of a network infrastructure 16,1 %
Hosting TSOD 12,2 %
Hosting of systems of a data storage 10,0 %
Contact-centre hosting 10,0 %
Outsourcing of the unified communications 8,7 %
Outsourcing of design office 7,0 %
Press hosting 5,7 %
Services of cloudy calculations 4,3 %
Autstaffing 3,5 %
Other 0,9 %
0 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 %

Table 1.3

Motivating factors to transition to IT Outsourcing (506 respondents)

Defect of own IT Examination 34,2 %
Shortage Sobstvennogoit - staff 26,7 %
High technologies of the IT Provider 22,3 %
Deadlines on IT Project realisation 18,8 %
Necessity of improvement of quality for the internal user 17,8 %
Shortage of own equipment 12,8 %
Reduction of expenses 1,8 %
Other 10,5 %
0 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 %

For the reason that the Russian market of IT Outsourcing shows stable dynamics of development and saves not only material resources, but forces and time to businessmen and the large companies, all of them it is more
Prefer external contractors [11]. Development digital ekonomiyoki demands from the realisation companies bolshego time online on otnosheyoniju by time for the decision of business questions an offline. Obvious stanoyovitsja, that to the majority of the companies without working out own funktsionala on the basis of IT Outsourcing not to manage any more.

With development of digital economy the one who will learn to solve fast and professionally questions at level of a nucleus of the business will win, and all not profile functions to transmit on IT Outsourcing. As a result given dynamics will lead to network interaction and formation regionalyonyh and national autsorsingovyh digital platforms which will serve a considerable quantity of the companies of various areas of economy, and to the company, in turn, within the limits of the activity on each nayopravleniju will be limited to one (two) experts in work with autsorsinyogovymi the organisations for the purpose of the decision of strategic problems.

1.2

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A source: Repin Nikita Vasilevich. DEVELOPMENT of the INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE of MANAGEMENT by the ORGANIZATION With IT OUTSOURCING USE. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Perm - 2018. 2018

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