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Ekosistema innovations

It ' s war: Innovate or die.

R.Cooper, 2005

Innovations arise and extend in the real economic environment having various properties, making certain impact on their formation. Excessively hostile environment can stop development proryvnoj innovations, and the moderate competitive environment on the contrary, will urge on development, having eliminated unpromising ideas.

So for understanding of features of process of distribution of innovations it is necessary to consider social and economic systems in which innovative processes proceed, namely innovative systems.

Without dependence from scale to define innovative system it is possible from the point of view of following items:

• From an item institutsionalnoj theories, as set of the institutes supplying production, distribution and use of new economic knowledge [68].

•! From an item of the network approach, as system which makes modern technologies and innovative biznesy on their basis.

• From an item of the structurally functional approach, as the system supplying maximisation of scientific and technical progress at observance ekosistemnyh of restrictions [69].

Despite distinctions and accents in these definitions of innovative systems, the general is the aspiration to reflect all stages of life cycle of an innovation: from origin of idea and business idea to it kommertsializatsii, i.e. the aspiration to reflect the process approach in the resulted definitions is shown.

On the basis of scale and geographical territory it is possible to allocate six levels of innovative systems:

• global national system;

• nadnatsionalnye innovative systems;

• national innovative systems (NIS);

• regional innovative systems (RICE);

•! Branch or klasternye innovative systems;

•! Innovative systems of the enterprise (ISP).

Such researchers, as F.Cook, B. attended to development of the theory of construction of innovative systems. Lundvall, G.Nelson, I.L.Tukkel, J.V.Jakovets [38, 70-73], other

Let's dwell upon innovative system of the enterprise.

Innovative systems of the enterprise (English Corporate Innovation Systems) execute function tselepolaganija innovative activity of the enterprise, influence working out, advancement and use of innovations among other participants of innovative activity. Researcher U.Granstrend one of the first has defined ISP, as set of subjects, actions, resources, institutes and causal relationships which are necessary for effective innovative activity of the enterprise [74].

ISP it is represented in structure NIS as an initial link. Thus innovative activity of the enterprises is the basic criterion of efficiency of functioning of innovative system as on national,
And at regional level. According to A.N.Piljasova: it is perfect in a new fashion, kognitivno, the business phenomenon - as process of concentration of the knowledge disseminated in the regional environment and it kommertsializatsija in a firm contour is understood now. [75, with. 15].

The tool for achievement of necessary level of indicators of efficiency of innovative activity of the enterprise is the Program innovative developments (FEAST) at the enterprise. Program working out means definition of the purposes and problems of innovative development, the model of development considering not only a condition of the enterprise, but also a condition of corresponding branch, region and the country as a whole.

According to the order of the Government of the Russian Federation from December, 8th, 2011 №2227-r About the assertion of Strategy of innovative development of the Russian Federation for the period till 2020 with a state participation it is recommended to companies to develop programs of innovative development [76]. In an enterprise FEAST the decisions made by a management as in the field of strategic development, and connected with realisation of a wide class of innovations [77] should be consolidated and concretised.

The concept of innovative system can be expanded at the expense of features ekosistemnogo the approach. Ekosistemnyj the approach considers innovative systems as the live, social organisms constantly changed under the influence of new motivations of participants and new circumstances [78].

In work [69] the assumption is made, that J.Shumpeter the first has indicated evolutionary feature of innovative systems: Like C.Darvinu who saw in a combination of a variety of biological kinds and inhabitancies factors of evolution natural ekosistem, SHumpeter has seen in an innovation and the market key elements of evolution artificial ekosistem.

The direction of development of the theory of construction of innovative systems, concept formation "ekosistema innovations" (further - ESI) has begun with the beginning of 1990th years, including from M.Rothschild works where it has compared global economy with biological ekosistemami in which there are defined

Interactions between participants [79]. In 1993 of J. Moore has presented idea enterprise ekosistemy (business ecosystem) in which asserts, that relations between the companies are similar ekosisteme in the nature, and thanks to interaction it is possible to reach sinergeticheskogo effect.

Enterprise ekosistemy are condensed from initial whirlpool of the capital, interest of clients and the talent generated by a new innovation, the same as successful kinds in the spring from natural resources: a sunlight, water and nutrients in soil. [14, with. 76].

Active development ekosistemnogo the approach was promoted by occurrence of the concept of the open innovations offered by G.Chesbro in 2003. The enterprises become compelled to interact with an environment more actively: beginning from search of ideas and check of viability before deducing on the market [80, 81].

CH. V.Vessner has developed concept of the concept ekosistemy innovations in 2005, has justified transition from static model to the dynamic: interrelations are considered not only in institutes NIS, but also with world around. As he said: Such approach will help us to understand, first, that the system is not fixed, and evoljutsionno grows and develops according to new requirements and new circumstances, and, secondly, that this system is subject to changes in result of new political initiatives. [82, with. 2]. In ekosisteme innovations attention focus is displaced from participants of system on their interaction directed on creation and development of innovations.

One of the further directions of development ekosistemnogo the approach was V.Hvana and G.Horovitta's work Tropical wood: a secret of creation of the following Silicon Valley, manufactured in 2012 [78]. Authors assert, that innovative ekosistemy are not simply similar to biological systems — they them are actually. Variety and kommunikativnost communities increase probability of occurrence and distribution of innovations. When the system has a variety, confidential, standard rules and irrational motivations then ' arteries ' extend, allowing ideas,
To talent and the capital to extend on a network more fast. [78, with. 275-276]. Measurement of speed of movement of these nutritious elements - the tool for supervision over dynamics of a state of health innovative ekosistemy.

According to the theory of difficult systems ESI concerns to samoorganizujushchimsja, to self-regulated and spontaneous, open systems. Development and adaptation ESI under changed conditions of functioning occur in the course of its operation [73].

Questions of formation innovative ekosistem were mentioned also in I.R.Agamirzjana, I.A.Brusakovoj, T.Veblena, G.Itskovicha, S.Klein, T.Polterovicha, M.Russell, N.V.Smorodinsky, I.L.Tukkelja, C.Edkvista's works [69, 8390], etc.

As it is possible to understand from above told, innovations extend in social and economic systems not separately, and in the certain method influence against each other. Moreover, extending, the innovation makes certain impact and on the environment, changing its parametres. Such interaction can affect radically characteristics of innovative process, especially a stage kommertsializatsii on which actually and there is a distribution of innovations.

In innovative sphere questions of mutual influence were lifted in such areas, for example, as construction of innovative systems and a choice of technological strategy [91-94], at formation of portfolios of innovative projects [22, 27, 49, 59, 95], etc. However questions of influence of parametres of environment on innovation distribution, including reflecting quantitative characteristics of adjacent innovations, remain insufficiently studied.

Consideration of process of distribution of an innovation within the limits of ESI will allow to consider availability and influence of other innovations, and also influence of changed parametres of an environment on the given process.

At the stage of realisation of the innovative project it is necessary to consider data about interaction of results of innovative projects among themselves at the stage of kommertsializatsii and about effect rendered by them on an environment.

Otherwise not the account of mutual influence in practice can result not only in loss of investments into innovative projects, but also omission of favorable possibilities [31]. At the stage of kommertsializatsii the account of mutual influence of innovations will allow to construct more precisely a trajectory of distribution of an innovation, to define corrective actions for achievement of the local purposes of management by process.

For the decision of the given problem it is necessary to formulate positions about existence of mutual influence of innovations (paragraph 2.2) and to define a management method process of distribution of innovations (paragraph 3.4).

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A source: TSvetkova Hope Andreevna. MODELS And the MANAGEMENT METHOD PROCESS of DISTRIBUTION of INNOVATIONS With allowance for THEIR MUTUAL INFLUENCE In SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Tech.Sci. St.-Petersburg - 2018. 2018

More on topic Ekosistema innovations:

  1. 1.3 Mathematical models of distribution of innovations
  2. Strategy of introduction of innovations
  3. Interaction of innovations
  4. 4. Strategy of innovations
  5. 2. A principle of continuous innovations.
  6. 3.4. An estimation of possible risks at financing of innovations
  7. 1.1. Concept of innovations and a role of a bank of commerce
  8. Chapter 3 Management of process of distribution of innovations
  9. Distribution of innovations
  10. the Consequence of the theorem of existence of mutual influence of innovations
  11. Mathematical model of distribution of innovations
  12. the analysis and synthesis of actual creative toolkit on geneyoratsii and to development of innovations: design thinking, TRIZ and lateralnoe myshyolenie
  13. 1.2. The organisations of competitive production with use of technological innovations.
  14. the Organization of competitive production with use of technological innovations.
  15. Chapter 2 Mutual influence of innovations in the course of their distribution
  16. the Theorem of existence of mutual influence of innovations