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3.1. Foreign experience of support of development of the enterprises of a wood complex: possibilities of adaptation to the Russian conditions

World practice shows, that one of the most effective ways lesosyrevogo maintenance derevoobrabatyvajushchih and the pulp-and-paper enterprises is the accelerated cultivation of wood on lesosyrevyh plantations.

Annually in the world it is created more than 1 million in hectares plantatsionnyh cultures for reception of balances, pilovochnika, a plywood range, raw materials for power ­ needs. On such plantations it is prepared more than third of world consumption ­ of wood. Leaders in the given area are the USA and China. In these countries ­ development of such kind of wood business is actively supported by the state ­ structures.

the contribution of timber industry plantations to the decision ­ of the cores social and economic and present environmental problems - struggle against poverty, the food safety, renewed energy sources, change of a climate and biodiversity preservation Widely admits­. In many developing ­ and developed countries timber industry plantations became an essential component of productive and protective wood resources.

last years activity on creation and operation of timber industry ­ plantations is designated as strategically important in the Latin American countries thanks to what they began to take leading positions in the world market of pulp-and-paper manufacture.

To Africa 5,8 % (15,4 million in hectares) are necessary the global area of large forests. In Asia is 123 million hectares of timber industry plantations that constitutes almost half of world volume.

In Europe about 69 million hectares of wood plantations (including ­ the Russian Federation) or 26 % from a total area of the wood earths.

On a share of timber industry plantations of the North America it is necessary about 14 % (37,5 million in Hectares) to the global area of woods.

In Canada timber industry plantations constitute 3 % from a total area of woods, in Mexico - 5 %, and in the USA - 8 %.

Development of wood plantations in Canada is closely connected by economic model of concentration of manufacture of wood in intensively operated areas of woods. Intensive lesopolzovanie allows to achieve a gain of productivity of timber industry plantations over natural forest stands or extensively operated forest stands.

In the USA woods occupy 33 % of the area of all earths and are subdivided into ­ forest plots, reserve woods and other woods [228].

the Basic part of timber cuttings of wood in the USA is carried out in private possession and the woods directly belonging to the timber industry companies ­[226].

the Initial stage of creation of wood plantations in territory of the USA leaves in time during a colonial epoch. Then planting of a plantation of wood trees in any way was not stimulated with the state, was profitless and was carried out ­ by exclusively private land owners.

At a stage of steady growth of the area lesopolzovanija private investments have provided an annual gain of the area of timber industry plantations on 2,4 %. By 1999 the total area of private timber industry plantations has reached about 968 000 hectares, that on 76 % exceeded their area in 1976.

the Wood complex plays now the important role in economy ­ of Sweden, providing more than 10 % of a total public product. Thanks to the wood complex Sweden is one of the most developed countries with ­ socially focused market economy.


the Wood industry and a forestry are the important sector of a national economy (12 % of export, 20 % of investments into the industry, a quarter of world export of cellulose, third of export of a paper). Woods occupy 27 million in hectares (67 % of territory), including productive woods (an annual gain 1ģ 3 /hectares and more) - 22,7 million in hectares. On a share of the state woods 18 %, private - 51 %, the companies - 24 % [227] are necessary.

Unlike the majority of the countries-suppliers of wood on the world market, Sweden is characterised by stable increase in the area of woods, including plantatsionnogo type [202].

Woods are the main natural riches of Finland and about 70 % of the area of the country is covered by woods [212]. Wood for Finland is the important object of managing with which activity of many branches ­ of a national economy and the general ecological condition is connected­. The share of production of a wood ­ complex in a total cost of export constitutes 40-45 %.

Finland cautiously approaches to development of power plantations, during work more and more attention giving processings of a wood waste and ­ low-grade and malomernoj wood.

Under the possession form in the Peoples Republic of China the state woods constituting ­ approximately 73-74 % prevail­. It mainly the woods having industrial value [167].

Timber industry plantations are extended and used for ­ reception of average and small sortimentov at age of cabin in 10-20 years.

the mixed cultivation young evkaliptovyh ­ trees with maniokoj, pineapples, grasses or tea is usually applied­. Also lesosyrevye plantations are used in agriculture of the Peoples Republic of China as pastures for the Indian ­ buffalo s, poultry or for apiaries. On the area of timber industry plantations ­ of the Peoples Republic of China is the champion in the world. Among the growing Asian markets of the Peoples Republic of China tests the greatest deficiency of a wood fibre, therefore the government
the Peoples Republic of China makes the big efforts that by 2020 to increase the area of wood plantations by 20 million in hectares.

Woods and timber industry plantations occupy now more than 1/5 (20,4 %) territories of a land of the Peoples Republic of China. From 2002 it has been created ­ 6,55 million hectares of timber industry plantations for reception of a wood pulp and small sortimentov. For the period between two inventories of woods the share of plantations in total amount of wood prepared in the country has increased from 12,3 % to 39,4 %.

the Peoples Republic of China in general is an exception as creation of timber industry ­ plantations in China it is not simple performance of the state plans on reproduction lesosyrevoj bases, but also a way of improvement of material and food conditions of a life of 300 million Chinese citizens in a countryside.

the Territory of Germany on 30,8 % is covered by woods that corresponds to the area of woods of 10,7 million in hectares. In the majority of the European countries the areas occupied with woods,­ are continuously reduced, in Germany some decades ­ opposite process - constant growth of the wood areas including at the expense of creation of timber industry plantations [220] is observed­.

In the report «Wood plantations on farmlands of Germany» professor Albrecht Byommann (Albrecht Bemmann) from Institute of the international forestry and wood industry G amburgskogo the Federal centre of wood researches and wood economy, has noticed, that in Germany there is ­ a fast growth of manufacture of a wood fuel biomass by creation of wood plantations on farmlands. If in 2010 for ­ cultivation of a wood fuel biomass in Germany ­ farmlands were used ­ by a total area of 4,5 million in hectares by 2020 it is planned to finish the area of such earths to 7,3 million in hectares. The basis of creation of woods with a short ­ cycle of preparation of wood is the Law on European Union agriculture (KN - Codex 0602 90 41). The matter is that according to the current legislation
plantations of trees with a short cycle of preparation of wood are not wood. The maximum cycle of reception of forest products, at a rate of ­ 20 years is thus established also­.

Creation of timber industry plantations in Germany is stimulated by granting of the grants which size can reach 85 % from necessary ­ expenses. Besides, during the period till 20 years after creation of wood ­ plantations, - to owners of sites - the annual ­ award for initial creation of plantations at the rate from 600 to 1400 marks/hectares, depending on conditions of concrete economy and objects in view was given to the enterprises­­.

At the organisation of timber industry plantations on the fertilised earths ­ plantings of the fast-growing and highly productive wood breeds mixed ­ on specific structure, one-age and consisting of the hybrid grades ­ giving at 10-12 time bolshy a gain of a wood pulp, than in usual forest stands are created­­.

the Bookmark in G ermanii, and in all Europe timber industry plantations of fast-growing breeds of trees on agricultural or marginalnyh the earths is rather perspective business and are focused on needs ­ mainly power.

During too time for increase in the areas of a bookmark of plantations of fast-growing ­ breeds of trees with a short turn of cabin, the further measures of the state support are necessary. We will notice, that under timber industry plantations the areas which have left from under agricultural value (as it is paradoxical, but in Germany and, in whole, in Europe, it is a lot of such areas) are used. The best way of introduction of not used earths in economic circulation is a creation of timber industry plantations.

Plantations in the world occupy only 7 % of the area of woods (264 million in hectares from 4,2 mlrd hectares), but give about 30 % of industrial wood. On them prepare 1 mlrd m 3 from 3,4 mlrd m 3 total amount of preparation of wood (according to Fao of the United Nations). Now industrial lesosyrevye plantations are wasps ­
novnoj a raw-material base for a pulp and paper industry all over the world,­ and first of all in the countries of Indochina, Latin America and Africa. ­ The world pulp and paper industry on 54 % is provided plantatsionnoj ­ with wood (malomernoj on diameter) [86].

the General line of the considered foreign countries in use of the earths for creation of timber industry plantations or as they speak: «plantations of wood trees» the preference staropahotnyh the earths which have been not occupied earlier with woods is. Distinctions in amounts of works on a bookmark and operation ­ of wood plantations it is defined, mainly, market and ­ sotsialnoekonomicheskim by demand for wood plantations of a certain kind.

Development of wood plantations in Canada is closely connected by economic model of concentration of manufacture of wood in intensively operated areas of woods. Intensive lesopolzovanie ­­ the maximum of a mid-annual gain on a stock allows to achieve a productivity gain lesoposadok over natural forest stands or extensively operated ­ forest stands after cutting down of trees at rather young age, right after ­ achievement. Wood plantations ­ possess high efficiency. So, the average gain on a stock on ­ larch plantations ­ in Quebec constitutes from 5 to 8 m3/hectares already at the age of 5-10 years, and at the age of 20-25 years probably reception pilovochnika.

Thus, the most effective it is necessary to consider plantations with ­ a short turn of cabin which allow operation of tree species to five turns from the moment of planting.

Timber industry plantations with a short turn of cabin possess two important properties: they are high-efficiency and undemanding regarding quality of soil and care of trees. Advantage of use of a poplar and a willow for korotkooborotnyh wood plantations consists in high energy ­ of vegetative renewal of these trees after trunk cabin.

the Share of wood prepared on wood plantations constantly increases­: in the world there is an increase in volumes of manufacture of wood on lesosy ­
revyh plantations, the timber industry companies create such plantations as the raw shops.

Thus, timber industry plantations are good ­ alternative lesosyrevoj base for lesopererabatyvajushchih the enterprises of Europe and Asia.

Following logic of our research, we will consider developed in the countries of the world practice of support of activity on creation and operation ­ of timber industry plantations.

In the Great Britain, lesopolzovatel, getting ­ for arrangement of wood plantations, possibility of subsidising ­ by the interest rate state under the credit for these purposes has farmlands­­.

Besides, lesozagotovitelnoe the enterprise uses preferential taxation­. In some cases the organisation which is engaged in creation of wood plantations on rekultivirujushchihsja the earths, can count on the grant ­ of the Ministry of preservation of the environment, the foodstuffs and development of rural areas ­ of the Great Britain.

In Germany creation of new wood plantations is stimulated by ­ granting to owners of sites of the grants which size can reach 85 % of necessary expenses for the specified works. Besides, during the long ­ period (till 20 years after creation of afforestations) ­ the annual award for an initial afforestation is paid to owners of sites­.

Many European countries last years led a policy of increase in a share of renewed energy sources in the general consumption of energy with a view of struggle against change of a climate and elimination of the problems connected with a rise in prices for fossil fuel and power safety. This policy stimulated ­ a growing demand for wood as an energy source and has led ­ to considerable state and private investments into manufacture of biofuel from wood of timber industry plantations.

the Stage of the accelerated development of timber industry plantations in the USA has been caused ­ by a life by a high market demand and a high market price for ­ forest products against a benevolent tax policy and various programs of individual share of the state in lesoposadkah which have amplified at this time. As measures of support of activity in sphere of timber industry plantations works on creation lesoposadochnyh cars for the mechanised ­ planting are led­. The result of the spent analysis of foreign experience of creation and operation ­ of timber industry plantations has shown, that the developed alternative practice of the organisation and use lesosyrevoj bases is positive ­ and can be extrapolated on a wood complex of Russia.

Moreover, provided by the Wood code of Russia use ­ of the earths for cultivation of wood plantations can be expanded for the account of woods and the earths which are not a part of wood fund.

Occurrence of the new technologies, the corresponding markets of demand on ­ dimensionless sortimenty wood for manufacture of cellulose and a paper, wood ­ biofuel (wood granules and briquettes), charcoal, is multilayered ­ kleyonyh plitnyh forest products which manufacture on new to technologies wood suits melkorazmernaja, porubochnye the rests, lesosechnye a waste and a waste lesopilenija, creates favorable conditions for activity development on operation of timber industry plantations.

At the same time the wood legislation of Russia does not promote development of wood plantations. First of all, on the earths of wood fund it is impossible to reduce ­ a cabin turn even in the event that the target image grows up fast-growing ­ forms and clones of wood cultures [50].

Besides, according to timber regulations, on cuttings down it is impossible to land wood cultures for choice the manufacturer: they are already accurately defined. Thus, for cultivation of wood plantations by a comprehensible ­ variant there is use of the farmland which has left a turn, ­ which at present in Russia about 40 million in hectares [93].

the Decision of the specified problems is beyond our research, however,­ acts as the factor constraining development of timber industry plantations,­ along with is standard-legal, prirodno-climatic and ­ business factors (fig. 21).

Drawing 21 - Problems of creation and operation of timber industry plantations in the Russian Federation

In our country, considering its federal device and variety of ways of life, the big practical value has invariancy of strategy of multiresource management of woods taking into account the organisation of perspective ­ ground balance of subjects of the Russian Federation. In a combination that a general recognition ­ of the high importance of biospheric functions of natural woods, including preservation of a biodiversity, biospheric functions of woods over their economic functions,­ especially in territories with high density of residing of the population, with -

zdaet favorable public atmosphere concerning development lesosyrevyh ­ plantations.

the Prospect of the further universal development of timber industry plantations in Russia is connected with set of brave factors to which we have paid attention in the second chapter and as with set of external conditions of managing which owing to the specificity can promote activity development on creation and operation of timber industry plantations (such, as already available experience) or to constrain it (such as problems institutsionalnogo ­ character). For example, two problems more often allocate.

the First problem. In the countries of Europe refusal of natural renewal of wood and transition to manufacture of coniferous monocultures on the areas which have left from - under continuous cabins, have been focused on reception of "fast" profit at the expense of increase of a stock of a forest stand and a current gain. The given way lesovyra - shchivanija is accompanied by decrease in stability of plantings to action various bioticheskih and abioticheskih adverse for wood of factors of environment. As a result of an expense for indemnification lesopatologicheskih losses bring to nothing expected economic gains from wood realisation. In particular, in such countries as Germany, Austria, France, the areas of the damaged woods constitute accordingly 52, 26 and 24 % of the wood area and annually increase ­ on 2 - 3 %. And, the maximum damages are marked in plantings of an artificial origin [224].

the Second problem. In 1980th years quality ­ of saw-timbers from the wood received at cultivation of wood with a short turn ­ of cabin has been established, that,­­ it is ready below quality of saw-timbers from ripe wood at ­ traditional lesovyrashchivanii. Similar changes in qualitative ­ characteristics of cellulose from wood which is grown up in forest stands of an artificial ­ and natural origin [210]. With reference to the decision of problems of the given research we will notice, that rates of creation of timber industry plantations ­ in Russia and the world countries are obviously insufficient now, and in blizhaj ­
necks to plantation prospect cannot satisfy demand for wood in ­ the world market [218].

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A source: TORZHOK IVAN OLEGOVICH. the MECHANISM of STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT of the ENTERPRISES of the WOOD COMPLEX. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Voronezh - 2018. 2018

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