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Functions, principles and methods of strategic management of the noncommercial organisations in the conditions of crisis

Studying of modern conditions of functioning of the noncommercial organisations of Russia has shown, that they work in the turbulent environment generated by an uneasy political and social and economic situation.

Requirements and conditions of activity of each concrete organisation can strongly differ depending on the approaches accepted in the country, experience of the organisation and the purposes facing it.

Everyone NKO is obliged to be responsible and in advance seriously to consider the control system. In advance thought over control system defines a successful course of development of the organisation, providing stability and the weighed decision-making in the organisation.

Diligent, appropriate management also is the certificate of integrity of the third sector in the country. Involved in organisation work the responsible board sets standards to a management of the organisation and the behaviour approves base values NKO. In this sense existence and board activity are not less important for NKO, than for private or public sector.

System management of the noncommercial organisation is based on division of functions of the general management and management and distribution of powers between them. Such principle helps to constrain influence of any one person or group, to provide the best resource management, and also to watch, that the organisation did not deviate the socially useful orientation.

the Working group Central and the Eastern Europe concerning management NKO defines management as transparent decision-making process at which management NKO is effective and responsible
metes resources and supervises over the organisation, being based on the general values. [31]

NKO are accountable to communities NKO and should aspire to the accountability most advanced stage. NKO are created proceeding from a principle, that citizens have the right to be consolidated freely in association. The state can confirm also this right, expanding direct or indirect financial support NKO which can include full or partial clearing NKO of taxes. In turn, NKO undertake, that their activity will answer needs of local community or a society as a whole, instead of to commercial interests of proprietors or stejkholderov.

Now NKO get direct or indirect state support, it is expected, that they will show high degree of the accountability to community of the parties in interest. Such community includes members of the organisation, blagopoluchatelej, donors, authorities and others stejkholderov or clients. Even the member organisations should be accountable to wider community depending on that expressly or by implication they depend on its support.

NKO should show the accountability even in those countries where it is not claimed yet by general public or where the political and legal situation is not favorable for the third sector. The insufficient accountability of the third sector in Russia speaks that NKO do not feel a great demand for it from the stejkholderov: donors do not ask, as means are spent, blagopoluchateli do not ask, who finances the organisation and why. Nevertheless, the best NKO consider, that an advancing of this demand - good possibility to prove, that they
deserve the special privileges. Leading the responsible activity meeting requirements of community, NKO shows the adherence to service to public interests.

it is unconditional, the management structure should be put in pawn in constituent instruments of the noncommercial organisation. Important very precisely to define, which body in the organisation will be the managing director as it clears up on whom exactly the basic responsibility for decision-making and the control over meeting commitment in the organisation lays down. The clear structure of management is the first step to an establishment of stable and predicted system of the reporting in NKO.

NKO can have double structure of management. Such system assumes two operating bodies - supervising which watches financial affairs of the organisation, and body which usually is called as council, or board. The basic advantage of this system - introduction of diligent management during a daily life of the organisation. The problem here arises, if the board consists of employees of the organisation and so it usually and happens.

Even if they know and understand the organisation better others, presence of employees at operating bodies washes away a difference between management and management and very quickly leads to the conflict of interests and the subsequent crisis.

the Situation becomes even more problematic if the supervising body meets one or two once a year. At such "activity" this body runs into hibernation and does not carry out the problems, depriving NKO the present internal supervision. In the presence of these factors NKO should harden the control system, having made relations between operating bodies clearer and simple.

Basic documents NKO - the certificate on registration, the charter, the activity regulations - can put in pawn a basis for effective system
managements if in them the following information on operating body contains:

- the name of operating body or bodies;

- the higher both main supervising bodies and their mutual relations with other divisions of the organisation;

- the basic duties and powers;

- personal obligations of members of the board (loyalty, observance of confidentiality, etc.);

- a minimum quantity of members of the board;

- the rules concerning membership in board (including an order of election, stay of membership and an exception of board);

- a term of appointment, restrictions for re-election;

- a minimum quantity of meetings of board in a year;

- conditions of carrying out of meetings (who initiates as dates who offers the agenda, etc. are established.);

- decision-making procedure (the quantity of participants necessary for quorum, an order of carrying out of voting and the requirement to report conducting);

- position about the conflict of interests.

Irrespective of the fact which the management structure is accepted in the organisation, in it there should be a uniform operating body which carries out the constant and consecutive control and has powers for decision-making. A management principal organ sometimes not the same, that the supreme body: for example, in member associations the supreme body is the meeting of all members which decisions have predominating value. However the meeting meets at some o'clock only time in a year, and it is clear, that it cannot carry out "constantly and consistently" function of management.

one more is usually necessary, the general manager body to incur management problems during the period between organisation general meetings. It can be called as supervising board, executive bureau or board of directors.

In constitutional instruments of the member organisation conditions at which general meeting delegates responsibility to the general manager to body should be registered.

the Organizational scheme showing delegation of the power and responsibility from operating body or bodies through the head of the organisation to employees is a necessary tool for clearing of mutual relations in NKO.

a management Principal organ: board. As a rule, it is separate structure which carries out current administrative functions, for example, forms a line of conduct or defines organisation strategy. The board often delegates execution of the decisions to employees of the organisation (regular or to volunteers).

Being accountable to the higher operating body, the board nevertheless has powers to make many decisions on behalf of NKO. The board makes of the decision jointly. The basic value of board that is the collegiate body. The board represents numerous stejkholderov NKO, and such collective leadership helps the organisation to adhere to its mission and to counteract interests of separate groups or persons. In this sense the board supplements the head of the organisation who introduces the talent in a management, charisma, the vision and influence.

Collective leadership has also practical advantages. As the board is nevertheless group in comparison with the individual leader at it horizons and richer experience are wider. Thus, being uniform body,
the board from many points of view forms common opinion, acting, thus, consolidating force of the organisation.

the Joint management is frequent not the short cause, therefore the basic documents should establish the method of adoption of joint decisions to help board to function as an effective command.

For example, in them should be fixed, that the board makes of the decision only during official meetings on which there is a majority members (quorum). Constitutional instruments should define, how many members of the board make house, as meetings and how on them decisions are accepted and fixed should be assembled. Such rules help board to execute steadily the functions and to avoid doubts concerning competency of the accepted decisions.

the Executive office or the individual head often executes the decision of the higher and a management principal organ, and also supervises over daily life NKO. In associations this function is carried out by the senior management. In funds this role is carried out, as a rule, by one person - the chief executive. In any case this command or this person are accountable to higher operating bodies.

Supervising body: the control and audit. Sometimes in NKO there is a separate structure which watches how decisions as means are spent are accepted and carried out and as the legislation is observed. Such supervising bodies, as a rule, are independent of board and report directly ahead of the supreme body.

to make the proved decisions, members of supervising body have the right to visit board meetings, to study the documentation, to observe of activity NKO, however they do not have vote.

Outside of base standards style of decision-making in board can differ very strongly. As a rule, it is dictated organizational
by culture and character of mutual relations between the people entering into board. In one boards the consensus is reached easily, and in others it is necessary to vote at the slightest pretext. Any of these ways (or their combination) is quite comprehensible, as allows each member of the board to participate in decision-making on equal terms. The way of decision-making should be necessarily fixed in the report along with decisions.

to make the decision out of session board should only in case of emergency. Decision-making by e-mail or only a board part even if these decisions of all arrange, can contradict constitutional instruments so they can be called into question or cancelled. Therefore the board should establish in advance the rules regulating decision-making out of session, and it is obligatory to approve the made decision at the following meeting.

In the majority of constitutional instruments NKO those decisions which are accepted by board at official sessions at necessary quorum admit legitimate only. However, if there is an emergency situation - it is necessary to operate urgently, and to collect all board or to provide necessary quorum in the short term it is impossible, then the board should have possibility to make of the decision to protect interests NKO and its employees. Clear procedure of acceptance of urgent decisions will allow members of the board to operate responsibly even in emergency conditions. This procedure should give the chance to take immediate measures after consultations by phone, e-mail or meetings on which are present less members, than it is necessary for quorum.

the decisions made thus should be necessarily approved subsequently on following board meeting and are fixed in the report.

each member of the board has personal obligations. Though members of the board operate as a part of the general collegiate body, they have also personal duties. From members of the board it is expected, that they will regularly visit sessions, is active in them to participate, and also to put interests NKO above own, professional or corporate. In details registered list of duties of members of the board can help to understand better it the role and how is better it will execute. Besides the cores, the board can delegate to separate members and any specific duties. For example, the expert under the finance can receive powers to observe of preparation of the annual budget of the organisation, to the lawyer who is a part of board, it is possible to charge to supervise legal questions NKO. Investment with such powers should be approved on board and cannot automatically extend on members of the board on occupation characteristics. Besides it is impossible to limit duties and powers of members of the board only to services in their professional sphere. The first and most important duty of each member of the board - to bring the contribution to collective decisions of this body.

Though members of the board should not get a payment for the work, useful will constitute the written description of their duties in board. It will help them to understand how to behave as a part of board, and to place priorities in activity. It also the good tool to show to new members of the board for what exactly from them wait. It is necessary to include such points in the description of duties [32] :

1) the nobility and to support organisation mission;

2) regularly to participate in board meetings;

3) in advance to prepare for sessions;

4) to observe confidentiality;

5) to offer the proved and unbiassed recommendations;

6) to avoid the conflict of interests and not to impose the agenda;

7) to participate in work of committees and special actions;

8) to support an organisation management;

9) to participate in development of resources of the organisation;

10) to advance the organisation in community.

the Members of the board involved in affairs of the organisation, nesmotrja on any kind intentions should not forget, that outside of work in board they do not possess the personal power. The opinion of the founder has more weight. From its part, founders value work in the organisation which they have created, and are ready to remain with it for ever.

NKO, having strategic prospect, understand, that should cancel gradually those privileges of founders which are not fixed in the law or the organisation charter.

it is unimportant, how much tsenen the contribution of the founder, - if it operates and makes of the decision counter with rules which concern all the others it can is unintentionally negative affect a life and organisation development.

One of ways to keep the founder from that it the influence did not brake organisation development is to inspire him to work in board on equal conditions with others (if it the member of the board). For example, the board establishes a rule according to which decisions are accepted only at sessions in the presence of quorum, and enters the fixed terms of appointment. Such changes of the status should be presented very diplomatically that the founder has not decided, that to it war and the organisation is declared is ungrateful to it. It is necessary to explain, that these changes will promote strengthening NKO, that
they mean the general for all game rules. Some NKO consider useful to develop new roles for founders - very important and honourable, but not influencing strongly on decision-making, for example, chapters of a board of guardians.

the Members of the board involved in affairs of the organisation, nesmotrja on any kind intentions should not forget, that outside of work in board they do not possess the personal power. The member of the board voluntary participating in one of programs NKO, cannot specify to employees or other volunteers of this program, that they should do, only on the ground that it or she is a member of the board. In the noncommercial organisations quite often there are problems and with founders as they can possess the powers considerably surpassing powers of other members of the board.

Working with the chairman of board, the head of the organisation is interested in that members of the board understood the nature of the powers and did not break border, trying to supervise NKO directly. To begin with it is expedient to spend a self-estimation.

the Chairman answers, mainly, for coordination of work of board and serves as a link between board and the personnel, in particular - the head. Duties of the chairman usually include carrying out of meetings and appointment of members of committees. The chairman has no right to vote if only it directly is not delegated to it by board. The chairman can be appointed different ways, for example, to choose it on general meeting or at board meeting. Among personal qualities which the chairman of board should possess, - ability is fair, but strictly to lead discussion, and also to follow the established procedure and the approved agenda. Good skills of time management and strategic vision are not less important. To avoid misunderstanding and conflicts, an order of appointment of the chairman and it
the basic duties should be stated in organisation constitutional instruments.

the Role of the chairman of board consists in the following [33] :

1. Planning of meetings of board.

2. Agenda development (together with an organisation management).

3. Conducting discussion during meeting; observance of the agenda and following to procedure.

4. Coordination of activity of board during the period between sessions.

5. Appointment of chairmen of committees.

6. A management of process of employment and an estimation of activity of the chief executive.

7. Maintenance of good work of the board including an estimation of its own activity.

8. Public representation of the organisation.

Research shows, that heads NKO not always wish to create board in the organisation. However much bigger risks arise in the event that the organisation does not involve board in the work as develops. Eventually the head faces that the more the budget, the is more than expectation stejkholderov that organisation resources are spent competently and in the target image. It can visually be shown during those moments when the organisation should pass from exclusively foreign financing to diversifitsirovannomu to financing from local sources.

to Stimulate local donations it is possible in those cases if local stejkholdery are assured, that the organisation effectively operates in public interests.

we Consider, that the organisations which wish to develop, recognise, that long-term stability demands diligent, efficient control which begins with division of functions of board and employees of the organisation.

the Board operates, and employees carry out management. Division of functions of management and management means both division of duties, and restrictions on participation in different bodies. In the majority of models of management it is underlined, that the basic spheres of responsibility of board is:

1) the control over that the organisation followed the mission;

2) formation of values and standards;

3) maintenance with resources;

4) expansion of number of supporters.

it is unconditional, it does not mean, that employees should not participate in working out of strategy or that members of the board should not bring the contribution to daily life NKO. It means only that exists thin, but very important line, dividing these two spheres.

One of ways to provide differentiation between management and management is to be convinced that nobody carries out at once both these functions. For this reason employees never, should not have in vote board at all.

Principles of strategic management of the noncommercial organisation represent base norms and installations which should be considered and realised in activity on management levels. They possess simultaneously objective and subjective character because, on the one hand show an objective reality, not imejushcheju the relation to consciousness of the individual, and on the other hand it is a subjective design as the administrative personnel realises them at level of the knowledge, professional kompetentsy.

Use of traditional principles of management in practice of the noncommercial organisations is inadmissible and demands their identification taking into account features of the given organisations.

we Will consider a base spectrum of principles of the strategic management, which use, according to the author, it is expedient at formation of effective management NKO in the conditions of crisis.

1. The principle tselepolaganija is the major in control system NKO as on essence the given organisations have not for an object profit extraction. Target vector NKO is focused on charitable, rendering of social services, education. In the conditions of uncertainty of an environment and turbulence of internal potential important correctly to choose target reference points of strategic development.

2. The scientific character principle assumes construction of control system NKO on a scientific substantiation of the chosen approaches.

3. The principle sistemnosti obliges in NKO process of acceptance of any administrative decision to build on studying of joint interaction of object of management and operating system and with application of the system analysis and synthesis.

4. The integrated approach principle in control system NKO assumes the account of all kinds and activity directions at all stages of their realisation.

5. The one-man management and collective nature principle is very important in management of the noncommercial organisations because on the one hand powers should arrive from one head, and on the other hand make the administrative decision expediently jointly, especially when of the decision difficult, caused by risk and high uncertainty.

6. The Unanimity and internal skoordinirovannosti provides mutual coordination in control system NKO

7. The feedback principle in management NKO provides preservation of stability and adaptation to new influences of factors of the external and internal environment which can have negative character.

is considered to add necessary the given list of principles of management NKO on which the system in the conditions of crisis should be formed.

8. The principle fraktalnosti in management NKO assumes the account of recurrence of crisis, presence of "effect of memory, inertness of system of management.

9. The interdependence principle assumes the account of interdependent factors in management NKO.

10. The objectivity principle obliges NKO at a choice of methodical approaches to management in the conditions of crisis, to use their identifications objective indicators and statistical data.

11. The principle of a priority of public interests, is caused by purposes of functioning NKO.

12. The partnership principle obliges management NKO to build on a triad of mutual relations with the state, business and a society.

Taking into account designated funktsionala in a control system of the noncommercial organisations, principles of construction of the given system it is expedient to open approaches to management NKO in the conditions of crisis.

In management of the noncommercial organisations in the conditions of crisis it is necessary to use following approaches:

- the anti-recessionary approach, consists in system monitoring of external and internal environment for the purpose of preliminary detection of coming nearer threat of crisis (negative influence of factors). In the course of monitoring it is necessary to define communication channels between adapters of the external and internal environment on which signals about the unfortunate trends arising in external and internal

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A source: Surovneva Anna Aleksandrovna. FORMATION of ANTI-RECESSIONARY STRATEGY of the NONCOMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. An eagle - 2018. 2018

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