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2.1. Influence of the concept of "life cycle" on processes of strategic management by the enterprises of a wood complex in the conditions of integration

the Market lesoproduktsii is in a stage of the transformation caused ­ by technical and technological progress in branches of a wood complex. ­ Manufacture of variety of traditional kinds lesoproduktsii is reduced, that says ­ that life cycle of these products is in a "maturity" phase.

Volumes of manufacture and consumption of new kinds lesoproduktsii, on the contrary, de­

monstrirujut growth.

Drawing 11 - Change of volume of manufacture and consumption lesoproduktsii

in the world for last 10 years [116]

Growth of demand for manufacture of wood fuel granules for a decade has constituted more than 800 %. Now world consumption of this product has exceeded 26 million tons, and by 2020 consumption at level of 50 million tons [88] is expected.

the Second perspective manufacture is the fibrous weight - ­ a wood fibre.

the Third kind of perspective production by estimations of analysts are plates of average density (MDF) - are used for manufacture of elements of furniture, furniture facades, sexual and stenovyh coverings, and also not bearing coverings.

Thus we will notice, that all aforementioned goods do not demand for the manufacture of high-quality wood raw materials.

New economic conditions, change of the wood legislation ­ force to search for adequate forms, methods and tools of management ­ of the enterprises of a wood complex, using principles and technologies of strategic ­ management which probably to realise with reference to its such ­ major components as production life cycle.

Concept "life cycle" (ZHTS) apply to a wide class of various ­ objects. Researches of life cycles of biological objects ­ - plants and animals, ethnoses, civilisations, social movements, ­ the organisations, scientific directions, technologies, etc. are known­­.

the Greatest development in practice was received by the marketing concept ­ of life cycle of a product (the goods, services) (in the Russian-speaking literature ­ abbreviation ZHTST is more often applied), helping to understand dynamics of sales of a product in the market from the moment of its occurrence before its leaving from the market or carrying out of any commodity innovations [188]. The life cycle concept can be applied not only to the separate goods, but also as a whole to branch, the market, a commodity category [89], demand (ZHTSS) [8], etc.

Among set of works it is necessary to allocate especially: researches in the field of G.Carroll, M.Hannana's organizational ecology and J. Frimena (life cycle of populations of the organisations); the works devoted to application of the concept of life cycle for studying of various aspects of economic activities,­ such authors, as J. Moore, M.Porter, K.Kristensen (­ branch life cycle­), T.Levitt, H.Fox, K.Ebert (product life cycle), G.Probst, L
Helfat, M.Peteraf (life cycle of knowledge and dynamic abilities); T.Ferens, J. Stoner, K.Uorren (life cycle of the employee in the organisation); both directly theoretical and empirical researches in the field of ­ life cycle of the organisation of following authors: I.Adizesa, L.Grejnera, J. ­ Kimberley, D.Miller, P.Frizena, D.Lestera, J. Parnella, A.Karrahera, S.Hanks, ­ etc.

Necessity of the account of the theory of life cycle for a wood complex first of all is caused, according to academician Isaeva A.S.

«. Exclusive duration of life cycle wood ekosistem, measured ­ decades and centuries. During one life cycle wood ekosistem there are tens rotation of the state bodies executive and legislature, change in a state system and ­ sotsialnoekonomicheskom country development» [59].

Owing to this specificity the economy of reproduction of woods essentially differs from economy of reproduction of other renewed resources. From positions lesozagotovitelnoj using wood in the form of its cabin is represented to the industry as a stage of consumption of a wood resource - ripe wood for the purpose of ­ wood reception. At the same time from positions of the owner of wood (its proprietor­) the cabin acts as a final stage lesovyrashchivanija and simultaneously ­ is an initial phase of its renewal. From ways and methods of cabin of wood character vosproizvodstvennogo process, its duration,­ productivity and other parametres in many respects depends­.

Along with that the age of cabin of forest stands measured by decades, limits possibilities of forecasting of demand for production from wood, it acts as the factor defining a sustainable development lesosyrevoj ­ of base of the enterprises of a wood complex in long-term prospect.

Transition to wood preparation on timber industry plantations - ­ innovative and perspective, according to many lesovodov and economists, ­ strategy lesopolzovanija and reproduction of raw materials which allows first of all at the expense of reduction of life cycle of cultivation lesoproduktsii on ­
vysit stability of functioning of the enterprises of a wood complex and ­ accuracy of forecasts of their development [117, 131].

According to Nguen F.Z. and Grigorevoj O. I (2016) timber industry plantations represent a special kind lesopolzovanija, at which ­ wood monocultures of a special purpose (power, ­ balansovo-raw, constructional), with various, but considerably reduced,­ a turn of cabin [117] are grown up­­.

At creation and operation of wood plantations planting ­ of trees, care of them, wood preparation, a preprocessing and delivery ­ of wood to consumers for deep processing then process ­ repeats are carried out­­­.

the Review of world data on creation and use of timber industry plantations has allowed to define their advantages from a management position:

1) Fast growth of trees in timber industry plantations allows to make more wood, demands less earth, the architecture of wood plantations allows to apply mechanisation and chemicalixation to manufacture of a significant amount of wood.

2) Timber industry plantations allow the enterprises to use ­ advanced achievements lesohozjajstvennoj technology and wood genetics and to reduce the period of reception of ripe wood. High efficiency of wood ­ on timber industry plantations is pledge under more favourable prices for raw materials.

3) the Wood prepared in leslpromyshlennyh plantations, very often possesses identical or rather close dimensional characteristics ­ that allows to receive at its processing the best results with the big ­ efficiency.

4) Reorientation of economic activities to timber industry plantations, along with growth of the economic blessings helps to keep natural ­ woods, especially there, where economic security lesopolzovanija in ­ natural woods in doubt.

According to the marketing concept any goods including lesoproduktsija ­ pass life cycle, that is exist the certain period of time of presence in the market.

Practically any of the goods passes consistently the stages ­ of life cycle reflecting its evolution which can be described terms "birth", "growth", «growth delay», "maturity" and "dying". Life cycle it is not simple process, it is process of change certain sushchnostej, systems, things, the phenomena [150].

Thus the founder of the theory of strategic management I.Ansoff notices, that «the basic question consists in definition of duration of life cycle of the goods from origin of demand prior to the beginning of saturation» [4].

With a view of revealing of logic interrelations we had been investigated ­ life cycles of the wood goods at various ways of reproduction ­ lesosyrevoj bases - traditional system lesovosstanovlenija and plantatsionnoe you -

Drawing 12 - Life cycle of products from wood at traditional system of reproduction lesosyrevoj bases

Origin of demand for the wood goods begins at the moment of wood planting. Thus choosing wood breeds, conditions of cultivation of wood it is possible obosnovanno to approach to formation of offers of raw materials in the future market.

During too time as follows from drawing, for occurrence of finished goods from
wood in the market there should pass some decades in which current production will accept necessary qualitative characteristics (density, length of a fibre, a pattern, a structure, etc.).

For the long period of cultivation of wood traditional strategy of management ­ usually lose the efficiency. To raise productivity of management ­ it is possible on the basis of reduction of duration of cultivation of commodity wood ­ as it is shown in drawing 13.

Drawing 13 - Life cycle of products from wood at cultivation and operation of timber industry plantations

Reduction of a stage of creation of the goods of 2 and more times at plantatsionnom ­ wood cultivation, will allow to receive for 60-80 years of a commodity output in 2-3 times more than at traditional system of cultivation of wood (natural ­ and artificial plantings).

Then from a position of strategic management of development of a wood complex on the basis of creation and operation of timber industry plantations it is necessary to state an estimation of productivity of the enterprises of activity taking into account the time factor of reproduction of a raw-material base.

In the comparative analysis productivity of activity of the enterprise ­ carrying out operation of timber industry plantations we will estimate by comparison of incomes and expenses.

operational expenses (payments and taxes () will be the Factors defining weight of profit. It should be considered at decision-making on ­ creation and operation of timber industry plantations.

the enterprise Profit is defined as a difference between ­ production receipt ­(VR) and its cost price (. In a general view functional dependence between profit, a gain, the cost price of production and taxes looks like:

(6)

three factors Listed above are independent variables and are defined by strategy of realisation of activity on creation and operation ­ of timber industry plantations.

the Mechanism of formation of strategy of management on the basis of operation of raw timber industry plantations ­ will be described by the enterprises of a wood complex ­ in the subsequent paragraphs.

On production and as a whole productivity of activity of the enterprise influence it is industrial-technology factors. The first factor is a rotation turn (a cabin cycle) forest stand in a timber industry ­ plantation.

it is accepted to allocate with Researchers of the given problematics minirotatsion - nye timber industry plantations with a turn of cabin of 5-10 years, midirotatsionnye plantations with a turn of cabin of 11-25 years and maksirotatsionnye plantations with a turn ­ of cabin over 26 years [110].

Thus the volume of wood prepared in such timber industry plantations is various, and is defined by such qualitative parametres as trunk height, diameter, density of wood, etc. [206]

Besides qualitative characteristics of wood, the biomass volume depends on a cabin turn that is noted in works [193, 229].

If to accept term of limiting operation of plantations of 60 years ­ it becomes clear, that for this period it is possible to receive six rotation at a turn of cabin of 10 years, 3 rotation at a turn of cabin of 20 years and 2 rotation at a turn of cabin of 30 years.

not less important factor is density of creation of the timber industry plantations, influencing an exit of a biomass [51].

From lesovodstvennoj experts it is known that to create timber industry plantations expediently with density of 5-10-20-40 thousand piece of/hectares [182].

it is obvious, that the decision on a choice of density of creation of timber industry plantations, also is an optimising problem on a maximum of an exit ­ of a biomass with the maximum additional cost (profit).

Density of planting influences an exit and sortimentnyj commodity output structure ­(a biomass in a kind shchepy or sortimenty) [74].

And, at last, the third factor - wood breed in plantatsionnyh plantings­.

From practice of the countries actively creating wood plantations on a biomass, ­ the set of the tree species which are meeting the requirements of timber industry ­ plantations on growth rate is known,­ to density of the wood, an accumulated biomass, etc. [27]

Researchers of the given problematics notice, that for climatic conditions of Russia approach far not all. The most tested and steady are fast-growing a poplar and a willow [80].

annual average gain of poplar plantings really received in industrial scales to France, the USA and Italy fluctuates from 13,5 to 36,4 m of '/hectares, that in 5 - 10 times are exceeded by this indicator for the natural ­ forest stands, registered in materials of Fao for woods of the mentioned countries [180].

Quite good results show also coniferous breeds at intensive ­ cultivation in the conditions of timber industry plantations [196].

the Decision on a choice of type of timber industry plantations is an optimising ­ problem on a maximum of an exit of a wood pulp or sortimentov with ­ the maximum additional cost (profit).

At the first stage we will execute calculation of profit expected at operation of timber industry plantations.

For definition of profit from lesozagotovitelnoj activity on ­ timber industry plantations it is necessary to calculate a gain from sales of forest products ­(wood sortimenty) or a biomass (income), and expenses for ­ activity realisation ­ to include expenses on complex carrying out lesohozjajstvennyh ­ works and works on timber cutting.

For profit definition we will use the formula:

where: 1... m - a set sortimentov round wood, a waste,

Qi - volume of preparation of wood of i th kind,

Pi - a market price of i th kind sortimentov,

Sl/h - expenses lesohozjajstvennye works, expenses for preparation, ­ a preprocessing and transportation of forest products;

Pr - enterprise profit.

In the resulted formula the reduced represents a gain from ­ sales of production of the enterprise. Following logic of our research, the gain from ­ realisation of a biomass of tree species and sortimentov depends on four ­ components:

- a turn of cabin of a timber industry plantation, Or (years);

- density of a timber industry plantation, G (tys/hectares);

- breeds, P.Dlja of the present research n=const;

- a procurement price of wood TS.

the cabin Turn is considered as the discrete variable accepting three values: 10, 20, 30 years. The increase in age of cultivation till 80 years ­ is inexpedient, whereas the gain of a wood biomass with 60 till 80 years in 2,3-2,7 times is less, than its gain for the first 20 years, marks A.R.Rodin [154].

Density of plantings of a timber industry plantation also, without generality restriction, will be considered as the discrete variable accepting one of four values: 3, 5, 8, 10 thousand/hectare

Thus, the income depends on two production factors - density ­ of creation of timber industry plantations and a turn of cabin of a plantation - and ­ can accept one of 3 and # 8729; 4 = 12 values.

we Will consider process of formation of an account part of the budget of the enterprise.

Here it is necessary to allocate two not casual components - the cost price - representing the suffered full expenses of the enterprise at operation ­ of timber industry plantations, and also the taxes and tax collections paid at creation and operation of timber industry plantations on the earths of wood fund ­ and the earths of other categories.

the Integrated groups of expenses, as a part of the cost price the following:

- expenses for an initial bookmark of a plantation, Zakl (rbl.);

- expenses on uhody and the maintenance plantatsionnyh cultures, At (rbl.);

- expenses for cabin, a preprocessing and delivery to buyers or to ­ places of future processing R (rbl.).

the Quantity uhodov is regulated tehprotsessom. ­ In a rotation current, however the quantity uhodov during plantation operation Also ­ does not vary, for example in 60 years there will be not identical to plantations with a turn of cabin 10, 20 and 30 years.

It is known, that plantations require agrotechnical leaving in the following sequence:

1 year after creation (cabin) - 3 times for a season;

2 year after creation (cabin)-2 time for a season;

3 year after creation (cabin)-1 time for a season.

Then, for plantations with a turn of cabin of 10 years the quantity agrotechnical uhodov will constitute 6õ6 = 36 uhodov.

For plantations with a turn of cabin of 20 years the quantity agrotechnical uhodov will constitute 6õ3 = 18 uhodov.

For plantations with a turn of cabin of 30 years the quantity agrotechnical uhodov will constitute 6õ2 = 12 uhodov.

the Quantity of cabins is adhered to the rotation period (at rotation in 10 years and plantation service life in 60 years, the quantity of cabins will constitute - 6, at rotation in 20 years - 3, in thirty years - 2 cabins). We will tabulate the obtained data.

Table 11 Dependence of number of cabins and uhodov from rotation term

Term of rotation, years the Turn of cabin, years Number of cabins for 60

years

Number of the agrotechnical

uhodov

1 - 10 10 6 30
11 - 25 20 3 18
26 and more 30 2 12

Then we understand, that expenses on uhody behind timber industry plantations ­ depend on density of plantings G, i.e.

Ó=Ó () (8)

Expenses for cabin depend on a turn of cabin Or, density of plantings G, i.e.

Š=Š (Or,). (9)

the Given functions also are discrete at the described data and can accept 12 values.

Thus, the cost price is kind function:

With = Zakl + y (and #915;) and #8729; t 1 + R (Or, and #8729; t 2 , (10)

where t 1 , t 2 - quantity uhodov and cabins in a year accordingly.

the Second not casual component influencing weight of profit are ­ taxes which, in turn, depend on the organisation-legal form of managing and region of placing of the enterprise.

we Will explain the told. From the moment of the state registration the enterprise becomes the tax bearer with occurrence of the duties provided ­ by article 23 of the Tax code, including on representation in the tax organ of tax returns (calculations) under each tax (gathering) ­ by which payer ­ are recognised, irrespective of the fact of realisation of enterprise ­ activity (subparagraph 4 of point 1 of article 23 of the Tax code).

the Russian legislation establishes two kinds of tax modes (the Appendix. The choice of any of tax modes (except the obligatory single tax to application on the made income) is voluntary. ­ We will consider features of application of the given modes (tab. 12).

At the activity organisation on creation and operation of timber industry ­ plantations in wood fund payments for using wood fund which carry not the tax status are levied. The manager on their gathering ­ instead of tax organs is the Federal agency of a forestry and its territorial bodies.

In this case, function f, the describing model of efficiency of creation and operation of timber industry plantations by the enterprises of a wood complex, can be presented in a kind:

f (VR, With,) = VR (Or, G,) - (Zakl + At (r + R (Or, and #915;) h) - (Ķ+ČĶĻ), (11) where t 1 , t 2 - quantity uhodov and cabins in a year accordingly, INP - others, including not tax payments (rent).

Effective activity of the enterprises of a wood complex on a raw-material base of timber industry plantations in many respects depends on presence at ­ the possibility enterprise ­ to minimise expenses at the expense of new and innovative ­ technologies and association of separate kinds of activity in uniform process that is possible on the basis of integration of a forestry of timber cutting and derevoobrabotki­.

In case of manufacture integration derevoobrabatyvajushchie and the processing ­ enterprises receive additional, quickly renewed sources ­ of a wood biomass and target sortimentov, lesohozjajstvennoe manufacture ­ solves a problem of the accelerated reproduction of wood resources at preservation ­ natural wood ekosistem. We will notice, that along with maintenance ­ of profitableness and efficiency of wood business, the enterprise do not put a damage to a condition of environment and woods, realising principles rational ­ lesopolzovanija.

From a position of the enterprise making the decision on creation and operation ­ of timber industry plantations for preparation of wood and a wood biomass is important to know industrial and operational expenses. Expenses for creations of timber industry plantations include:

- expenses for preparation of soil,

- expenses for planting of shanks (sejantsev) cultures,

-expenses for carrying out of agrotechnical receptions on care of wood plants.

For definition of a unit of cost on performance lesohozjajstvennyh ­ actions for cultivation of woody plants on wood plantations use ­ is standard-technological cards [141].

In cards ­ performance standards, tariff categories of works and tariff rates, requirement ­ for mechanisms, expenses of work of workers in man-days, requirement for ­ materials and industrial cost prices of a kind of works are resulted structure of works, system of cars, normoobrazujushchie ­ factors­­.

During researches we develop is standard-technological cards on creation of timber industry plantations and expenses counting on 1 hectares taking into account density of planting of wood plants are defined.

From results of the executed calculations labour input of operations on ­ soil preparation under creation of wood plantations constitutes 13.8 foreheads/days on 1 hectares. The full cost price of preparation of soil under timber industry plantations ­ constitutes 63,427 t.r./hectares., including on the first stage of 41696,40 roubles/hectares and on the second stage of 21730,61 roubles/hectares.

In analytical calculations it is shown, that soil preparation is the most expensive industrial phase of works necessary for successful growth ­ of wood plants (the Appendix.

Creation of timber industry plantations assumes a choice of wood ­ breeds, definition of density and a way of planting, system of cars and tools. On ­ the given question in A.R.Rodina's [154] works, Korchagova S. A [75], Shtukina S. S

[194] the information on successful experience of creation of wood plantations both coniferous, and deciduous breeds contains.

Scientists notice, that for highly productive plantations special trees are necessary, and now for a temperate climate there are three applicants. From coniferous (namely they give wood for building) it is a so-called pine ­ braided of the North America where it lives in territory from California to Alaska [29]. From deciduous breeds the greatest attention lesovodov and experts involves a poplar. In northern part of Russia it is family it is presented ­ by a unique kind - an aspen, and all 110 kinds of poplars are known, its woods in ­ Northern hemisphere occupy 75 million in hectares, from them of 90 % it is necessary to Canada, Russia and the USA [52].

Considering that the highest index of profitableness gives cultivation ­ of a poplar [181], this kind of a poplar we will use in the further calculations of a biomass of wood plantations.

Concerning density of plantations of opinion of researchers disperse. The professor of chair of forestry BGTU S.S.Shtukin [196] recommends to create plantations of a pine and a birch on cuttings down with density of planting of 4-6 thousand plants on 1 hectares. On were selhozpolzovaniju density should be above (6-8 thousand plants on hectares). A photophilous poplar Chinese cultivate with density ­ of 1,53,0 thousand plants on 1 hectares.

For forest-steppe region of the optimal at creation of specialised plantations of poplars on phytoweight density of 20 thousand piece of/hectares. At such density about 1 hectares can be received to 30 t at annual and from 30 to 60 t phytoweights at two-year-old rotation, in recalculation on absolute a solid [107].

Thus the question of a choice of optimum density of creation of wood plantations ­ remains opened, that predetermines necessity of calculation of industrial ­ expenses at density of planting of 2 thousand, 5ņūń., 8ņūń. And 10 thousand plants on 1 hectares.

According to the calculations of an expense made by us on performance of a complex of works on creation and care of unit of the area occupied timber industry
plantations will constitute from 356,4 t.r./hectares to 83,3 t.r./hectares, depending on a turn of cabin and density of planting of plants (tab. 13, 14).

In calculations of an expense for a spadework and agrotechnical uhody have been accepted equal for all kinds of plantations. The enterprise income ­ is formed from sale of a biomass and wood sortimentov. For income definition it is necessary to know actually prepared volume and the price for wood ­ production.

Now to the most difficult for the decision a question is price­. As the market of a wood biomass in Russia has not developed yet, biomass cost accepted equal 1,2 t.r. For ton on lesoseke, and also the fact, that taking into account age of wood the price for a biomass essentially varies.

Table 13-full expenses for creation and operation of the wood of 1 hectares

plantations of a poplar depending on density of planting and a cabin turn, t.r.

the Turn of cabin, years Density ­­ of planting, t.sht./g and ­ soil Preparation, t.r./hectares ­ Planting,­ t.r./g and Agro - ­ technical uhody,

t.r./hectares

­ Counting on 60 years Cabin ­ of plantations, t.r./hectares Expenses for cabin taking into account rotation Total full expenses for one rotation Total ­ full expenses for 60 years
Mini - 3,0 63,4 12,5 3,0 78,9 4,0 8,0 82,9 248,7
rotational, 10 5,0 63,4 25,9 3,0 92,3 4,0 8,0 96,3 288,9
years 8,0 63,4 39,4 3,0 105,8 4,0 8,0 109,8 329,4
10,0 63,4 48,4 3,0 114,8 4,0 8,0 118,8 356,4
Midi - 3,0 63,4 12,5 3,0 78,9 4,1 8,2 83 166
rotational, 20 5,0 63,4 25,9 3,0 92,3 4,1 8,2 96,4 192,8
years 8,0 63,4 39,4 3,0 105,8 4,1 8,2 109,9 219,8
10,0 63,4 48,4 3,0 114,8 4,1 8,2 118,9 237,8
Maksi - 3,0 63,4 12,5 3,0 78,9 4,4 8,8 83,3 83,3
rotational, 30 5,0 63,4 25,9 3,0 92,3 4,4 8,8 96,7 96,7
years 8,0 63,4 39,4 3,0 105,8 4,4 8,8 110,2 110,2
10,0 63,4 48,4 3,0 114,8 4,4 8,8 119,2 119,2

According to professor L.I.Rubtsova of change morfometricheskih parametres ­ of a poplar depending on age the following: at age five years the height constitutes - 2,5 m., at age of 10 years - 7,5 metres, 20 years - 17,5 metres, 30 years - 25 metres. Accordingly, diameters age of 10 years constitute 10-12 sm, ­ increasing to 30 years to 50 sm [157].

Then leaning against commodity tables it is possible to approve, that in the first rotation ­ by terms till 10 years all received wood will be small and to be used for manufacture technical shchepy.

At increase in a turn of cabin till 20 years of 60 % of business wood there will be the average size, 8 % of large and 31 % of small wood, an exit pilovochnika 8 %. At a turn of cabin of 30 years an exit of large and average wood of 45 %, small 10 %, from volume of business wood, with exit increase pilovochnika to 11 %.

Table 14-incomes of operation of wood plantations of a poplar of 1 hectares in

dependences on density of planting and a cabin turn, t.r.

the Turn of cabin, years Density of planting, t.sht./hectares Volume of realisation ­­ of small wood,­ m 3 /hectares Volume of realisation ­ of large ­­ wood, m 3 /hectares the Price for small wood,­ t.r./m 3 the Price for large wood,­

t.r./m 3

­­ commodity output Cost,­­ t.r. the Income ­ of the tenant taking into account ­ rotation,­ t.r.
Minirotational,

10 years

3,0 150,0 - 1,2 2,6 180 540,0
5,0 180,0 - 1,2 2,6 216 648,0
8,0 280,0 - 1,2 2,6 336 1008,0
10,0 330,0 - 1,2 2,6 396 1188,0
Midi-rotational,

20 years

3,0 181,0 272,0 1,2 2,6 924,4 1848,8
5,0 205,0 308,0 1,2 2,6 1046,8 2093,6
8,0 233,0 350,0 1,2 2,6 1189,6 2379,2
10,0 204,0 306,0 1,2 2,6 1040,4 2080,8
Maksi-rotational,

30 years

3,0 66,0 650,0 1,2 2,6 1769,2 1769,0
5,0 70,0 680,0 1,2 2,6 1852 1852,0
8,0 55,0 530,0 1,2 2,6 1444 1444,0
10,0 47,0 420,0 1,2 2,6 1148,4 1148,0

According to A.P.Tsareva the exit of a wood biomass from plantations of poplars at the age of 25 years constitutes 632 t./hectares, or 632 m 3 /hectares [183]. According to S.S.Mironenko the exit of a poplar biomass depending on density of planting also is various. The most productive is density of 20 thousand piece of/hectares at ­ a turn of a sponge of not exceeding 10 years. Thereupon for plantations with a turn of cabin ­ of 20-25 years the exit of wood of the average size on one hectare will constitute about 380 m 3 .

it is necessary to notice, that in Russia activity on creation and operation of timber industry plantations in wood sector is assessed with the wood tax. In
dependences on the area of the leased site the enterprise will be obliged ­ to pay the wood tax under the rate 856 rbl. / hectares.

We execute calculations and the balance of incomes and ­ enterprise expenses is established ­ at creation and operation of timber industry plantations (tab. 15).

Analyzing the table, we will notice, that the most profitable is activity ­ on creation and operation of timber industry plantations with a turn of cabin of 20 years and density of creation of 8,0 thousand plants on 1 hectares.

Table 15 - Planned incomes and expenses of the enterprise during 60 years of operation of timber industry plantations, counting on 1 hectares

the Turn of cabin,

years

Density of planting, t.sht./hectares the Income of the tenant ­ taking into account rotation, t.r. Full ­ industrial expenses of arenas­

datora

the Wood tax, t.r. Profit to

the taxation,­ t.r.

Mini - rotational,

10 years

3,0 540,0 248,7 51,36 239,94
5,0 648,0 288,9 51,36 307,74
8,0 1008,0 329,4 51,36 627,24
10,0 1188,0 356,4 51,36 780,24
Midi - rotational,

20 years

3,0 1848,8 166 51,36 1631,44
5,0 2093,6 192,8 51,36 1849,44
8,0 2379,2 219,8 51,36 2108,04
10,0 2080,8 237,8 51,36 1791,64
Maksi - rotational,

30 years

3,0 1769,0 83,3 51,36 1634,34
5,0 1852,0 96,7 51,36 1703,94
8,0 1444,0 110,2 51,36 1282,44
10,0 1148,0 119,2 51,36 977,44

Thereupon it is possible to draw a conclusion on development of a wood complex in a direction ­ of creation and operation of wood plantations as profitable kind of the activity ­ attractive to investors from a position of maximisation of reception of incomes ­ in the short terms of time.

Coming back to a question on influence of life cycle on managerial processes ­ by the enterprises in a wood complex we will notice, that reduction of time ­ of cultivation of wood, at transition to plantatsionnomu to its cultivation creates favorable prospects for development of the most demanded productions in a wood complex, such as wood granules, a biomass and ­ technical shchepa.

I.Ansoff not casually underlined a role of technologies in strategic planning and management, noticing, that in certain branches the technology turns to motive power which can define the strategic future ­ of the enterprise.

Duration of life cycle of production, is reduced, first of all, as a result of progressive innovations in management and introductions of new technologies, the best organisation of manufacture and sale.

Obvious reduction of duration of life cycle of the wood goods at transition from traditional technologies to innovative, puts ­ the new problems first of all connected with maintenance ­ of competitiveness traditional and creation of the innovative goods before ­ enterprise management­­.

Transition to new technologies of reproduction lesosyrevoj bases in ­ a wood complex and as consequence reduction of life cycle of production is possible,­ only in the presence of economic conditions for their realisation. We will consider the preconditions which have developed to the present time for development of manufactures on the basis of timber industry plantations:

1. Growth of world demand for production received from low-grade wood. In the future growth of demand for fuel granules and a biomass is predetermined ­ further ekologizatsiej societies and transition to new modes of production ­ of energy.

2. Presence of theoretical researches in which key principles plantatsionnogo lesorazvedenija are put in pawn. In Russia the wood science and practice has already saved up sufficient experience of the decision of a problem of increase of productivity of plantings, by creation of special highly productive wood plantations ­ by productivity in 2-3 (and can and in 4) time above, than usual traditional ­ wood cultures and natural plantings.

3. Presence nedozagruzhennyh capacities, especially at the timber industry enterprises in the European part of Russia, first of all ­ at the expense of exhaustion lesosyrevoj bases. In lesohozjajstvennoj to the literature from ­
mechaetsja, that for the first time improvement questions lesosyrevoj bases of Russia, the accelerated ­ reception of wood on special plantations have been lifted more 30 years ago [199].

the First practical recommendations about the organisation and technology ­ plantatsionnogo lesovyrashchivanija have been prepared LenNIILHom (the head ­ executor), BelNIILHom and UkrNIILHA. The next years the number of co-authors ­ of the task has increased.

3. Presence of technologies, both manufactures, and operation ­ of timber industry plantations. Successful experience of cultivation and operation ­ of timber industry plantations is available in such countries as New Zealand, Chile, the republic of South Africa, etc. This direction of development of the wood industry is priority in Finland, Sweden, Canada, the USA.

4. Presence of the earths for plantatsionnogo lesorazvedenija. In 2008 the big group of scientists of Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences has prepared and has published the book [2] where ­ data that «are resulted... Now in Russia it is deduced from a turn and it is not used from 30 to 40 million in hectares of arable lands» from 115 million in hectares of an arable land. The earths excluded from economic circulation are exposed to the transformation caused ­ by the natural and anthropogenous reasons.

it is quite obvious, that without specialised rekultivatsii these earths cannot be returned them in an agricultural turn, and in some cases and it is not necessary.

Thus, in a wood complex of Russia there were conditions for development ­ of processing manufactures on a raw-material base of timber industry ­ plantations.

Acceptance of administrative decisions on integration of manufactures is connected, not only with the feasibility report, but also minimisation of the losses ­ connected with influence on the enterprise of environment. For these purposes practice develops rules of strategic management by the integrated structure.

2.2.

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A source: TORZHOK IVAN OLEGOVICH. the MECHANISM of STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT of the ENTERPRISES of the WOOD COMPLEX. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Voronezh - 2018. 2018

More on topic 2.1. Influence of the concept of "life cycle" on processes of strategic management by the enterprises of a wood complex in the conditions of integration:

  1. Theoretical approaches to strategic management of the enterprises of a wood complex
  2. 3.2 Resource approach to formation of the mechanism of strategic management by the enterprises of a wood complex
  3. THEORETICAL BASES of STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT of the ENTERPRISES of the WOOD COMPLEX
  4. WORKING out of the MECHANISM of STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT by the ENTERPRISES of the WOOD COMPLEX
  5. SCIENTIFICALLY-METHODICAL ASPECTS of STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT of the ENTERPRISES of the WOOD COMPLEX
  6. TORZHOK IVAN OLEGOVICH. the MECHANISM of STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT of the ENTERPRISES of the WOOD COMPLEX. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Voronezh - 2018, 2018
  7. 3.1. Foreign experience of support of development of the enterprises of a wood complex: possibilities of adaptation to the Russian conditions
  8. 1.3 Prioritizatsija strategic problems of development of a wood complex
  9. the Approach to a choice of strategy integratsy the enterprises of a wood complex
  10. 3.3 Recommendations about harmonisation of branch and state support of development of the enterprises of a wood complex
  11. the Analysis of the basic tendencies and features of development of the enterprises of a wood complex
  12. Lju Sjuelin. METHODICAL MAINTENANCE of "THROUGH" MANAGEMENT with DEVELOPMENT of BUSINESS PROCESSES of INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS of COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Kursk - 2018, 2018
  13. 1.3 Theoretical aspects of research of strategic management of processes of regional development