. Linguistic researches in the field of FET and professional lexicon of sphere business 2.1. Linguistic researches in the field of modern Russian FET

In domestic linguistics interest to problems of formation of system of financial and economic terminology in Russian has arisen in the early nineties simultaneously with the beginning of economic reforms.

in spite of the fact that for this time, according to some authors, there was a relative stabilisation of financial and economic terminology [Kasyanov 2001: 130], one of the most actual directions terminological

to activity at the present stage still have inventory and ordering of terms, and also raznoaspektnyj the analysis of the lexicon belonging to its certain plots. This direction the economy - the market - the right [Kondratyev 2001], the semantic analysis of the separate professionally named names of an economic line of business [Karpuhina 2001] includes researches of terminology of a banking [Bernatsky 1997], customs business [Fedorchenko 2004], terminosfery.

Other direction of researches is devoted drawing and transfer of economic terms on Russian. Various aspect of these phenomena the Reasons and preconditions of drawings in the field of financially - economic terminology have been considered in works [Ryabov 1996, Bernatsky 1997, Sahnevich 1998, Bykova 2000, Dovbysh 2003], and also types of loan words will be considered by us more in detail in the chapter III. While we will notice, that all works devoted to drawing and transfer of economic terms from English language, concern concerning areas of economic activities new to Russia: marketing and advertising, bank and exchange business, and also corporate management.

methodologically the most important researches devoted to formation of a modern sublanguage of economy and it terminosistemy, represent to us M.V.Kitajgorodskoj's works [Kitajgorodsky 1996] and of Timofeevoj [Timofeeva 2001], and also dissertational works known to us: [Monkosha-Bogdan 1994; Nikitin 1995; Kasyanov 2001; Kavlakas 2004; Zaripova 2004]

In the given researches have found reflexion most the important points, formations concerning conditions Russian FET at the present stage and the changes of its device connected with them, and also a parity of methods of a nomination and sphere of functioning of terms.

we will consider illumination of these questions by different authors, in more details staying on what, in their opinion, reflexion the given processes have found in area of a terminological nomination of persons

Most in detail social factors of language changes, the basic methods of a nomination in sphere of modern Russian economic terminology, and also the system organisation and spheres of functioning of economic lexicon are considered in M.V.Kitajgorodskoj's work Modern economic terminology. (Structure the System. Functioning) [Kitajgorodsky 1996]

the Essence of the economic changes which have occurred in the Russian company during the period after reorganisation, is reduced, as marks V.Kitajgorodskaja's M, to replacement"vertical"redistributivnoj economic system on horizontal "market" freely established horizontal ties Generated by commodity-money relations tovarovladeltsev define an essence of economic structure of market type when each person is object of the property and, hence, the subject of the right Thus, the market economy is extremely subject-focused [Kitajgorodsky 1996. 165]. Communicative analogue of change of economic systems is, according to the author, change of genres of business dialogue: replacement of a monologue by dialogue.

At formation of terminology of "horizontal" market economy in Russian many realities of socialist economy, and also some terms of an epoch of reorganisation pass in the category of a historicism while the set of the formed lacunas is filled in with concepts coming back from the past and words, and also new drawings [Kitajgorodsky 1996:168].

To the most "studied" zones in nominative space of economy the author carries names of subjects (counterparts) of the economic activities, breaking up to a number of lexical sets: names of participants of those (parties) or other economic relations, names of new types of economic subjects, names of persons under the social status and names of economic trades

Examples of terminological names of subjects of the economic activities, resulted in the given research, illustrate various methods of a nomination.

a semantic derivation (a widening of a common-literary word) ' the seller, the buyer;

formation of compound names

the dismembered type the legal body, the holder of shares, the participant in the deal, a promisee, the manufacturers' agent, etc.

not dismembered type: the client-tenant, the investor-shareholder, tovarovladelets, vekselenadpisatel, the lender, the lessor, etc.

an affixal derivation: the principal, the guarantor, the insured, the guarantor, the reseller, the co-owner and dr

drawing: the acceptor, the auditor, the broker, the dealer, the distributor, etc.

the Author of research indicates that the role differentiation of participants of economic activities can be made also by means of various nominative means So, for example, the different parties economic situations are usually designated by the words having incoincident making base. The consignee - the consigner, the leaser - the lessor, etc. However such role differentiation in some cases can be expressed and only by means of suffixes, sr: the insurer (the one who insures) - the insured (the one whom insure - the counterpart) Besides, filling of items of the subject and the counterpart probably, on the one hand, an affixal noun, with other - a word-combination - the manufacturer of advertising - the advertiser [Kitajgorodsky 1996:193].

Many problems delivered by M.V.Kitajgorodskoj, have been developed and generalised in a number of the dissertational researches which have appeared in last years devoted to financial and economic terminology.

so, for example, the problem sinonimii in FET, connected with availability in its structure of the big number of doublets and terminological variants, is considered in detail in works E In Bykovoj, G Timofeevoj and E F.Kovlakas [Bykova 2000; Kovlakas 2004; Timofeeva 2001]

the Principal cause of this phenomenon authors see in drawing of terms for a designation of the same concepts at various times and from different languages, and also their formation by means of means of Russian Result of these processes is, in particular, occurrence polyglot by origin NL with identical or similar significance, for example ' an endorser (ital.) - the endorser (it.), the debtor (an armour.) - the debtor, the broker (English) - the broker (it.), the businessman (English) - The businessman and dr (examples from work [Bykova 2000])

Thereupon G.G.Timofeeva in the article devoted to a modern condition of Russian of business dialogue (Contemporary Russian Business Language), marks active replacement from the use of old terms by new drawings from English language (the auditor - the auditor), and also coexistence of several variants of a writing of many new names in economic sphere, for example: the distributor - the distributor - the distributor, the realtor - the realtor and dr [Timofeeva 2001:24-25].

Besides changes in the dictionary structure, many authors of the named works, and also other researches devoted to active processes, occurring in Russian of the end XX - the beginnings XXI vv, mark changes in functioning FET and

professional lexicon of sphere of business dialogue This changes are connected with its exit for limits of the professional use, wide use of terms in the press, on radio and TV, and also in speech of representatives of different social groups speaking [Krysin 1996; Kostomarov 1999, Kasyanov 2001; Kakorina 2003; Meleh 2004]

In In Kasyanov, in particular, in the dissertational research mentioned above pays attention to the general democratisation of terminology because many terms earlier used by experts, became familiar to broad masses of people of different age and a social status [Kasyanov 2001:125],

This supervision is confirmed with the conclusions made as a result of other comparative work [Meleh 2004], having for an object to study scales of penetration of terms of different areas of knowledge in language of mass media and speech an expert of carriers of Russian and English of languages

According to research N of N.Meleh, modern FET in Russian the author also is the basic donor of special terms for common lexicon the Reason of this phenomenon sees that FET serves one of the major spheres of human activity. In English language terms of economy and the finance also are communicatively actual, however concede the first place to terms of information technologies

As authors practically all researches, borrowed of English language HJI (the manager, the broker, the dealer, the auditor, the sponsor, the distributor, the producer, the investor, etc. mark.) Make one of the most numerous groups of the economic terms taking more and more stable place in a nontechnical nomination.

the separate direction of modern works in the field of economic terminology is represented by J.Monkosha-'s Bogdan comparative researches, In V.Kasyanov and A.N.Zaripovoj [Monkosha-Bogdan 1994; Kasyanov 2001, Zaripova 2004]

for our work represents Special interest V.V. dissertation. Kasyanov in which the basic semantic features of Russian financial terminology in comparison with English [Kasyanov 2001]

According to the author are summarised, modern Russian financial terminology is characterised vtorichnostju (formation under the influence of financial terminology of English language), spontaneity of formation, incompleteness

process of ordering of terms and the inconstancy of structure reflecting instability of the financial system in Russia.

Nevertheless, in research some signs of ordering of financial terminology are marked, in particular, the aspiration of terms to unambiguity as in view of the strongly pronounced form of many terms speaking another language they seldom develop additional significances [Kasyanov 2001:20]

Last remark is represented rather disputable, at least, concerning terminological NL as from them, according to the lexicographic sources used by us, two and more significances As examples have significant number it is possible to result recent drawings from English language, such as the dealer, anderrajter, the trader.

in particular, the term the trader, according to last edition of the Big economic dictionary (-2004), has four significances, first three of which concern the same direction of financial and economic activity - to exchange business: 1. The worker of a brokerage office directly participating in exchange trade; 2 any legal and the physical person, having the right to make a bargain at exchange; 3. Type of the exchange speculator which puts up money in speculative operations on rather long the period, promoting perelivu capitals from one market on other ; 4 dealer [BES - 2004].

Secondariness of formation of Russian financial terminology, availability in it of a considerable quantity of drawings of V.V. Kasyanov explains also rather insignificant, in comparison with English language, quantity of semantic derivatives and konnotirovannyh the terms which share, on its data, makes only 2 % of a considered layer of lexicon (semantic tracing-papers in this number do not enter) [Kasyanov 2001].

In other comparative research - And. N. Zaripovoj modern Russian economic terminology is considered in comparison with German and Tatar from the point of view of display in them the general and specific in methods of a nomination [Zaripova 2004].

the Most productive for Russian terminology, it agree to the given research, the analytical method of formation of terms On a share of word-combinations in Russian economic terminology is 62,5 % of terms

are necessary At formation of brief economic terms in Russian preference is given to a suffixal derivation by means of which, by estimates of the author, 75, 7 % of brief terms the Most numerous lexical set of the terms formed by means of suffixes are formed, make terms with significance trades, employment and participants of economic activities [Zaripova 2004:11]

the Most steadfast attention with significance of the person is given to the analysis of terms in the thesis for a doctor's degree I. Monkosha-Bogdan, the commercial terminology of Russian and Polish languages devoted to development in 80-90th years of the XX-th century [Monkosha-Bogdan 1994] In the given research it is resulted classification of names of persons by origin (drawings and primordial terms) and structure (brief and compound)

In work also is noticed, that chronological frameworks of drawing of terms with significance of the person in Russian and Polish languages very wide: one words have been borrowed in the beginning of XVIII century (for example, the broker), others {jobber) - all several years ago their Association in one group under the general name "new" is done on the ground that "old" terms just now begin "revival" process by a new life

Thus as I write. Monkosha-Bogdan, borrowed HJI in system of Russian commercial terminology not only are a part numerous polileksemnyh terms as a dominant (the ship broker, the exchange dealer, the dealer with the licence), but also form base for formation of derivative terms {broker office, the broker commission, a dealer loan [Monkosha-Bogdan 1994:19-21].

Phraseological and sochetavmostnaja activity of terms-anglicisms is marked and in the article With. V.Podchasovoj [podchasova 1994:54]

So, the basic problems considered by authors of researches, devoted modern FET Russian, are connected, first, with its formation under the influence of an English sublanguage of economy, and secondly - with expansion of sphere of functioning of terminological lexicon, including terms with significance of the person.

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