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2.2. Linguistic researches in the field of modern English FET

Anglo-American researches in the field of FET and lexicon of sphere of business dialogue closely related with the decision of two practical problems ' teaching of business English language as foreign and drawing up of special dictionaries

the First group of researches is presented, in particular, by works D.

Houhgton [Houghton 1980], J. Gallais-Hamonno [Gallais-Hamonno 1980], J. Mullholland [Mulholland 1991], P. Rogerson-Revell [Rogerson-Revell 1999], S. Donna [Donna 2000], etc. In them zhanrovo-stylistic features of business English language, and also principles of selection of lexicon of sphere of business for the purpose of its submission as a material for teaching depending on the purposes and problems of a concrete grade level

However principles of the organisation English FET are considered, the analysis of system relations in this area appear out of sight of researchers-methodologists the Reason of it as mark I.A.Sternin and to. FlenkenshteJn, that fact, that is. Teaching practice the system organisation of microsystems, hierarchy of units as all it is not a subject of practical training to language (tsit does not interest. On [potaluj 2004:27])

Among last works of a lexicographic orientation it is possible to allocate research S Dent [Dent 2003] One of heads of its book "The Language Report" is devoted innovations in lexicon of modern English language of business dialogue. The basic feature of modern English economic terminology the author sees that it serves for a nomination of rather uncertain or trivial concepts and of language of business dialogue is used not for expression, and is faster for thought concealment (or its absence). Business speak, ad-speak, and management speak are often seen as doing just that: wrapping up the unsavoury or simply uninteresting in terminology which sounds good but which may in fact say little [Dent 2003:47]

Nevertheless, the author of research does not keep not noticed attempt to apply the creative approach to creation of the new terms which have arisen in the end of XX - the XXI-st century beginning, in particular, in the field of a nomination of persons Among the examples collected by it following neologisms with significance of the person (the author carries last two examples to the category of" new business idioms ) are resulted.

e-lancer (it is obvious, from freelancer, freelance -"frilanser"' the person working not on hiring ') - an employee who works from home and communicates by fax, e-mail and mobile phone;

ideas hamster ( the hamster of ideas is literally): someone who runs energetically on the inspiration treadmill, as hamster does on its wheel;

road warrior (AmE) (it is literally, the road soldier), a person who travels frequently as part of their job and does much job while travelling,

mtrapreneur (apparently, from a prefix intra - ' inside, inside ' and fr entrepreneur - the businessman) an entrepreneur operating within an organisation and developing its capabilities or resources;

torpedo ("torpedo" is literally-) ' an incompetent employee who leaves a company to work for a competitor, sometimes after encouragement;

plug-and-play (it is literally: Include (in a network) and put in action , it was initially used for a designation ready hardware, hardware (hardware) companies Microsoft) an employee who needs little or no training and so can hit the ground running pent 2003:47-50].

the neologisms which have arisen, according to the author are separately considered, in oral professional dialogue in the corporate environment Among them it is possible to allocate following examples HJI:

boomerang worker ^bukvalno: the worker-boomerang ): a worker who returns to his or her previous company on a contact or casual basis;

jlexecutive (it is probable, flexible - flexible (schedule) + executive the-manager): an executive or other high-level employee who has flexible hours and can choose to work at any location

open-collar worker (it is literally: Open collar , probably, by analogy with white-collar/blue collar/pink collar worker): a person who works from home [Dent 2003: 50]

In the theoretical relation in Anglo-American linguistics considered terminology, as a whole, concerns to maloizuchennym to layers of lexicon of English language.

in domestic linguistics, on the contrary, last years growth of interest to studying of structure and laws of development English-speaking FET was scheduled, result of that were works And. V.Burmistrovoj [Burmistrova 2001], T. In Drozdovoj [Drozdova 2003], the Island In Dovbysh [Dovbysh 2003], JI. V.Ivinoj [Ivina 2003], M. N Morgunovoj [Morgunova 2003], E J.Mahnitskoj [Mahnitsky 2003], S.J.Infimovskoj [Infimovsky 2005], and dr and also already mentioned comparative research of Century In Kasyanov [Kasyanov 2001]

Addressing to results of some researches from this list, we will consider, as well as in a case with Russian FET, the most typical features of this area of terminological lexicon in English language, and also that place which is taken away in it interesting us HJI.

Features of formation, functioning, and also lexico-semantic properties of English economic terminology are in detail considered in one of the earliest works - R.S.Tsagolovoj's thesis for a doctor's degree [TSagolova 1985], and also in much later researches T. V.Drozdovoj [Drozdova 2003] and In In Kasyanov [Kasyanov 2001]

According to R.S.Tsagolovoj the economic lexicon represents set of the is functional-caused sets of categories, lexemes and leksiko - semantic variants - classes, categories, numbers, groups, microsystems. Complexes raznourovnevyh the sets, a part considered terminosistemy, are characterised by the difficult hierarchical organisation caused both linguistic, and the extralinguistic reasons [TSagolova 1985:13-18].

To the basic structural-semantic features of English terminology of financial activity in comparison with Russian, allocated in work In In Kasyanov, concern:

stability of structure (absence of sharp changes terminosistemy, gradual increase in a terms framework);

sistemnost (as result of streamlining of terminology: all terms take place in system in aggregate filling in practically all conceptual cells),

prevalence of multicomponent terms;

a minimum quantity of impregnations speaking another language (no more than 5 %);

availability kvazisinonimov (absence of complete synonyms, t. To each term has the shade of significance);

motivation of the large part of terms;

availability of emotionally-expressional lexicon on terminological periphery (where lexical units have no all completeness of signs nuclear)) terms, however aspire to terminologizatsii and consequently can be considered as terminoidy) [Kasyanov 2001; 12].

Results of the analysis of terminological lexicon on the basis of classifications of various type (functional, is formal-substantial, chasterechnoj), and also paradigmatic and syntagmatic communications of terminological units are presented to monographies T. In Drozdovoj. In functional aspect all economic terms are subdivided by the author into three groups: general scientific, interscientific and chastnootraslevye [Drozdova 2003].

chastnootraslevyh economic terms the L monography is devoted Research. In Ivinoj in which are investigated lingvo-kognitivnye bases of the analysis branch terminosistem [Ivina 2003] On an example of such important area of economy as venture business, the author from items kognitivnoj linguistics are analysed the basic laws of a nomination of objects, subjects and processes of new branch of knowledge and a line of business of the person. Working out of original universal "passport" terminosistemy, including extralinguistic parametres (time and a place of occurrence of the first terms, the occurrence reasons terminosistemy, prevalence of terminology), and also linguistic characteristics of the terminological case (formation model terminosistemy, structural, semantic and system parametres, the basic methods terminoobrazovanija, and also an emotionality and ekspressivnost terms) became a result of the carried out research.

One more important direction of researches in the field of FET and lexicon of sphere of business - an establishment of features of the paradigmatic organisation of lexicon with allowance for its differentiations on the terminological and professional layers, connected, in particular, with a debatable question on availability at the term konnotatsii.

So, in In Kasyanov financial terminology those the terms deprived konnotatsii and having necessary terminological

signs and financial lexicon, t.e all layer of financial units differentiates concepts, including konnotativnye.

Separate type of lexical units, from the point of view of the given author, a having dictionary dung razg makes"terminoidy"., zharg. However aspiring to become terms in view of absence of terms-equivalents. The author carries to that also considerable quantity NL, for example - bear "bear" - the speculator who is selling short, lamb the speculator at the exchange, playing blindly), raider the buyer of a controlling interest, scalper amer. The small exchange speculator , rocket scientist the financier-fan who is making profit of a difference the prices for the shares, currency and t.d in the various markets [Kasyanov 2001,4-8]

Other authors, for example, L. V.Ivina, consider availability at terms konnotatsii not simply possible, but one of the most typical lines of some chastnootraslevyh economic * more than half of terms of actually venture financing have accurately expressed positive or negative konnotatsiju [Ivina 2003:166]

is the Most detailed methods and means of formation of special lexicon of sphere of business in modern English language with allowance for its differentiations on terminological and professional layers are considered in work in M. N. Morgunovoj the Basic criteria of such differentiation are, according to the author, availability of figurativeness, emotionally-expressional konnotatsy, a deviation from norm of the professional use, is functional-style limitation [Morgunova 2003]

Names of persons in FET English language did not become till now a theme of special research, however the urgency of concepts designated by them is marked as in the researches devoted to all English-speaking economic terminology and lexicon of sphere of business, and to its certain plots.

so, T. V.Drozdova as a special layer of economic lexicon considers key terms which are understood as units of a nomination used for a designation of the basic concepts and categories of economy. Subjects of economic activities, in particular, concern that (persons and other associations) business, company, worker, producer, consumer, buyer, seller, distributor, economist, government, customs etc. [Drozdova 2003:129].

Subgroups of names of persons are allocated and in M. research N, Morgunovoj by consideration practically all leksiko-lexical sets of lexicon of sphere of business, for example

in group of names of concepts of bankovsko-financial sphere the subgroup of names of persons - participants of the financial market (acceptor ' the acceptor ', banker ' the banker ' and dr),

in names of concepts of sphere of management - names of the persons participating in production of the company (adviser ' the adviser \administrator ' the manager operating At,

in names of concepts of marketing activity - names of persons - of participants of process of "purchase and sale" (sales agent ' the commercial agent ' travelling agent ' the direct-sales representative ', bidder ' uchastniktorgov '),

in names of concepts of foreign trade activities - names of the persons participating in foreign trade activities (cambist ' kambist, the expert in currency transactions ', foreign exchange dealer ' the dealer is allocated, Trading in a foreign exchange ") [Morgunova 2003:11-19]

Important role NL play and as a part of separate subsystems FET. In particular, in terminosisteme venture financing, according to L research. V.Ivinoj, takes a special place kontsept subjects of investment , including names of persons and the structures engaging means for investment. As examples following terms are resulted.

active investor ' the active investor ' - the investor who actively participates in management of the company, encouraging managers options for shares or different ways ;

corporate investor * the investor ' - officially issued investor (banks, investment funds, corporations, financial groups and t. d ; black knight ' the black knight ' - the company or the person offering the financial help of other company subsequently to receive over it the control ; business angels ' business angels ' - the men of means putting own means in beginning or extending business [Ivina 2003:197-198],

Kontsept subjects of investment though it is presented rather by a small amount of lexical units (only 92 terms), is, according to the author, one of five base kontseptov, forming the original base

terminosistemy venture financing for which service 90,78 % of all terminology of venture financing [Ivina 2003: 159]

Besides, on the basis of the examples resulted in work in M N are necessary. Morgunovoj for an illustration of stratification of special lexicon, it is possible to draw a conclusion that NL meet as among actually economic terms (acceptor, financer ' the financier ', recruit ' recently employed '), and among professionalism (inewcomer ' the beginner \casual ' the temporary or day worker ") and professional jargons {fat ' skint ' poor ', topeutap ' deadbeat ' the defaulter ') (examples from work: [Morgunova 2003,6-15])

Thus, the problematics of the researches devoted to various plots FET of English language, covers a wide spectrum of the questions connected with its structural, semantic and system characteristics, the basic methods of a nomination (terminoobrazovanija), and also stratification of the given layer of special lexicon on actually terminological and professional. All considered problems as has shown the analysis of linguistic researches in this area, directly concern also a wide layer English-speaking NL, belonging to to the terms designating the basic concepts of an economic line of business

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A source: TRUFANOVA Natalia Olegovna. THE PROBLEM OF THE NOMINATION OF PERSONS IN FINANCIALLY-EKONOMICHESKOJTERMINOLOGII (ON THE MATERIAL OF RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH OF LANGUAGES). 2006

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