2.1. Metaphorical carrying over

As is known, at metaphorical carrying over the name of this or that subject or the phenomenon is transferred on other subject or the phenomenon on the basis of their similarity [Shmelev 2004: 94].

Data of the analysis of lexicographic sources testify that by means of metaphorical carrying over to Russian the individual quantity of names of persons In dictionaries is formed only separate units of the professional lexicon which has appeared as a result of necessity of a nomination specific to certain period of development of economic relations of realities of a life of the Russian company

So, for example, in the early nineties in the speech use a wide circulation are registered has received the name "shuttles" - dealers, snabzhentsy, purchasing consumer goods by the gross on cheap, as a rule, the foreign markets and delivering them on the jobbing and retail domestic market [-2004; -2005]. Formed as a result of metaphorical carrying over on the basis of similarity of actions of these dealers to regular movement of a shuttle (a detail of the weaver's car), the pledged word has begun a number of the neologisms which have arisen after it, for example telnochnitsa "," chelnochpichat .

Other example from the Russian economic life of 90th years - occurrence of the companies, is artificial employees overestimating number at simultaneous decrease in an average of their wages for the purpose of avoidance of payment by the company of the big taxes People, fixed as the workers receiving wages, but actually not working and nothing earning , have received in informal language of business dialogue the name"snowdrops"[-2004; -2006], possibly, on analogies to a plant, a certain part of the life conducting under snow, i.e. Hidden from extraneous eyes

In a business press in similar, but a little wider significance for a designation of similar workers the name dead souls is used. We will result some contexts of use of this professionalism:

Dead souls exist, about it know not everything, but many guess And almost at each enterprise it is possible to find out their traces, traces of those who is listed workers, receives the salary, but actually does not accept any sharing in production, or simply does not work in the given organisation. What for "snowdrops" '} (the Industrialist are necessary to enterprise dead souls. - 2004. - on December, 10th) If among founders of firm there are dead souls, or the company has the account in different banks, trades podaktsiznoj in production or the firm gain essentially differs from average on branch officers will by all means inspect. (The Moscow accountant - 2004 - 7)

Simultaneously with the given professionalism in modern business speech is present also antonymous to it concept "sleepwalker". It has arisen, probably, under the influence of English language (sr: angl moonlighter ' the person working on two works without notice of the basic employer or taxing authority '), also designates the person who is registered as the unemployed and is on welfare on unemployment, however has paid work (definition is resulted on [Mahnitsky 2003.22]).

Others NL the metaphorical character, filling up lexicon of a professional slang of economists while remain known to only limited circle of native speakers. Let's result examples of some slangy neologisms from the Electronic dictionary of Russian business-slenga (httpY/www.nofear spb ru), the grown out carrying over on association at which similar signs are connected not with concept about the certain phenomenon, and with caused those or other circumstances submission about it, associations [Shmelev 2002.


So, possibly, subjective opposition of images of two ruminants has formed a basis for occurrence of the following pair jargons - "elk" ' the manager of an average link ' and "deer" ' the top manager '.

it is necessary to note also use of some well-known names of persons of emotionally-estimated character in special slangy significance, for example ".boets" ' the trader ' (on similarity of the behaviour caused by necessity to struggle up to the end for the sake of achievement of certain result); Star ' the employee of the company, differing irrational behaviour ' (by analogy to excentric behaviour of stars of show business),"animal"' 1. The deranged chief 2. The person successfully building career ' (on association with the rough, not developed or mean person)

As it has already been told, defect of own metaphoric nominations of Russian special lexicon of economic sphere is filled with a literal translation of corresponding English-speaking names of Feature received thus Russian-speaking NL will be considered in the section devoted to tracing in the field of a nomination of persons (sm the head in more details.

In English language the quantity of names of the persons formed by means of metaphorical carrying over, makes an order of 70 lexical units In this number we have included brief NL (bear, sheep, scout, etc.) And phraseological units with significance the persons formed as a result of metaphorical reconsideration of a base component (business angel, company doctor, wild duck, etc.).

the Majority metaphorically rethought English NL also grow out of carrying over on association. Similarity of signs on which basis metaphorical carrying over to area of a nomination of persons investigated by us is carried out, frequently is not obvious for not native speakers familiar with economic terminology and demands the special analysis of dictionary definitions of corresponding names. We will compare, for example, dictionary definitions of terms bears "bears" and bulls "bulls":

bear - someone who thinks that prices of shares, bonds, currencies, or basic goods are going to fall, and who may sell shares, bonds etc they do not actually own, expecting to be able to obtain them more cheaply later, before they are going to deliver them to the buyer [LBED-2004] (cp: Bears "-" the exchange speculators, selling short a rate (price) of securities, currencies, the goods [-2004]);

bull - someone who thinks prices of shares, bonds, currencies, etc are going to rise. and who will therefore keep and buy investments [LBED-2004] (compare The bull "-" the speculator who buys up or saves earlier purchased goods or securities in expectation of a rise in price [-2004].

Apparently from the definitions, the first term designates the exchange player who is selling short, otherwise,"filling up"price just as a bear fills up the contender. The second term, on the contrary, is used for a designation of the player which plays on a rise in price, on association with a bull lifting the contender on horns. Similar in this case, most likely, are a direction of movements of an animal at interaction with the contender and character of actions of the player depending on an expected trend in prices.

we will transfer the basic groups of the lexicon participating in metaphorical formation NL of given sphere: 1) names of animal (insects), for example: bear ' a bear '-> ' the exchange speculator who is selling short ', shark ' a shark ' (= loan shark ' a credit shark ') ' the usurer ',

dollar bull ' a dollar bull '-> ' the speculator who buys up or saves earlier purchased dollars in expectation of growth of their market rate ', wolf ' a wolf ' - ' the skilled and dexterous exchange speculator ', sheep ' a sheep '-> ' not skilled exchange speculator ',

gold-bug ' a gold bug ' - ' 1. The supporter of idea of the gold standard 2. The analyst,

considering gold the most reliable object of investments ',

bird-dog ' a bird-dog '-> ' 1 agent looking for or performing orders on

to delivery of those or other goods 2. The person, aspiring to receive the information about

position of firm and potential incomes ';

pigeon ' a pigeon ' ' the professional player ';

cockroach ' a cockroach '-> ' the person, the interested a small-scale business ',

lame duck ' lame *-> ' 1. The legal body (company) in heavy financial

position, 2. A jobber (stock broker), not capable to carry out of the obligation on

to the concluded bargains ',

ideas hamster ' a hamster of ideas ' ' the person who constantly introduces new ideas, receptions in an economic sphere of activity, the generator of ideas ', fat cat ' a fat cat ' ' the well-founded businessman thinking only about own benefit, "rich person" ',

supercat ' a supercat ' ' the representative of new generation of well-founded businessmen (in particular about those who leads the companies which were in a state ownership till the moment of their privatisation) ',

copy cat ' a cat-imitator ' - ' the person attending to manufacturing of fakes, the simulator ' and nek dr;

names of invented beings, for example.

angel ' an angel ' (= business angel ' business-angelV ' the man of means putting own means in beginning or extending business ', white knight ' the white knight ' ' the person or the company purchasing the shares of other company for the purpose of prevention of its absorption ' (sr black knight ' the black knight ' ' the person or the company, offering to purchase shares of other company on purpose subsequently to receive over it the control ' and grey knight ' the grey knight ' ' the tenderer at purchase of a controlling interest of the company, not opening plans concerning its future ');

ghost ' a ghost, a phantom, spirit '-> ' the person registered as the worker, but actually not working and not receiving wages ', sleeping beauty ' the sleeping beauty '-> ' the legal body - potential object of absorption to which it was not done before offers ';

rainmaker ' the sorcerer causing a rain ' ' 1, person, making for the company significant profit (for example, at the expense of attraction of new clients) 2. The businessman with the communications, lobbying interests of the company ',

Gnomes of Zurich ' the Zurich gnomes ' ' bankers and financiers of the central Europe (in particular about the Swiss bankers), having latent political and economic influence ' and nek. dr;

names of the persons who initially have been not connected with an economic line of business. For example *

rocket scientist ' rocket scientific '-> ' the employee of bank or a brokerage office, taken by operations in the financial markets on the basis of computer programs and other technical methods ',

head-hunter ' the hunter behind heads ' ' the person attending to search

of competent employees, rekruter ',

bottom fisher ' fishing at the bottom ' ' the investor purchasing securities which rate has reached cost "bottom" ',

clown ' the clown '-> ' the client (in sphere of tourist business), often changing the plans and advanced orders ',

gatekeeper ' the watchman, the gatekeeper ' ' the adviser of potential investors ', company doctor ' the doctor of the company ' ' the financial adviser,

specialising on the analysis and the resolution of problems arising at the companies ', scout ' *-> ' the expert-individual defining the perspective purposes for portfolio investments ',

white squire ' white skvajr ' ' the physical person having rather small capital, but capable to help the company to avoid hostile absorption '.

It is known, that metaphorical reconsideration of a word and expression is specific line of many professional slang [Krysin 2003].

the Large part considered in given section HJI, most likely, has arisen in a professional slang of economists. In special dictionaries at these nominations the stylistic dung indicating primary use of given names in situations of informal dialogue is given.

as show above resulted examples, at the heart of the majority of metaphorical reconsiderations HJI in lexicon of economic sphere, also as well as in common-literary lexicon, lays konnotatsija - the estimation of object of the validity legalised in given language which name is the pledged word [Apresjan 1995: 159].

basically metaphoric NL have positive konnotatsiju (business angel16, white squire, company doctor), is more rare - negative (black knight), can serve they and for irony expression (gold-bug, cattle baron, fat cat)

As fairly notices L. In Ivina in spite of the fact that the basic motives of activity of "business angels" are completely not altruistic motives as subsequently they hope to receive certain percent from a company profit, use of a word "angel" supplies unequivocally positive konnotatsiju this term When all hopes of realisation of the project are already almost lost, there is somebody as the angel-saviour granted by the God, and agrees to take all financial side of the project and the basic risks on itself From here and the identification of the capitalist with that pure and pure, that is initially mortgaged in an image of an angel [Ivina 2003:122]

Thus, there is obvious that fact, that stilisticheski the marked sign reflects, in essence, not the subject, and usually - fixed relation to it of the given linguistic community [Ufimtseva 1977:55].

At the same time as it was already marked, in English language some of the resulted names are exposed terminologizatsii In parallel with this process a stylistic dung accompanying them gradually disappear from special dictionaries (sm, for example, terms bear, bull, company doctor,-white knight in last edition LBED [LBED-2004]).

it is necessary to notice also, that the sphere of action of a metaphor in the field of a nomination of persons is not limited to the resulted examples the Wide circulation in English special lexicon of sphere of business have received the compound names formed as a result of joining of metaphorically rethought attributive component to names of persons which are base components for variety of other word-combinations, for example. shch-tp for the big guns ' heavy artillery ') advertiser-> ' the large advertiser ' (sr: regional advertiser ' the regional advertiser ', sponsoring advertiser ' the advertiser - the sponsor '), sleeping (silent) (letters ' sleeping (silent) *) partner ' the nominal partner ' (sr: equal partner ' an orchestra equal in rights '; managing partner ' the partner - the manager '); ghost (mystery, phantom) (letters ' a ghost (secret, a phantom) ' shopper ' the imaginary buyer ' (sr: casual shopper ' casual * cost-conscious shopper ' the buyer sensitively reacting to the price ')

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More on topic 2.1. Metaphorical carrying over:

  1. 2.5. Metaphorical use of names of accidentals
  2. Metaphorical and metonimichesky epithets
  3. 2.2. Metaphorical comparison and an autometaphor
  4. 2.6. Metaphorical use of names of musical frets
  5. 2.1. Metaphorical use of names of musical instruments and their components
  6. 2.7. Metaphorical use of names of singing voices and their registers
  7. 2.8. Metaphorical use of names of the persons connected with musical activity and a trade
  8. 1. 2 concept metaphorical model in modern linguistic researches
  9. 2.9. Metaphorical use of names of the musical terms which are not forming lexical sets
  10. 2.2. Metaphorical use of names of musical forms
  11. 1.4 Phraseological unit as metaphorical means of awakening of a reflexion