Methodical bases of management of the organisation as the subject of the international strategic alliance

Decision-making on the introduction into the international strategic alliance demands from a management of the organisation of revision and auditing of all aspects of activity, beginning from a choice of the partner in an alliance and finishing perfection of the offered goods and services, and also methods of their advancement to the consumer.

The most effective modern method for this purpose is use of the concept of business models.

According to opinion Katkalo: «the competitiveness of business models, instead of products is last 15 years an absolute problem for scientists - researchers in process of the modern theory of strategic management» [53].

According to researches, the idea of business modelling has appeared for the first time in sphere of information technologies in second half of XX-th century (Gibson &Nolan 1979) [191], 1974; Nolan [230], etc.

In the field of business modelling it is possible to carry works Соoляттэ A [115] to number of initial works, Mortona S [274], Vejlla P, etc. [279]. For example, Scott Morton, being the supporter of the information approach, shows, that the business model is perfectly built in organisation strategy, thus information technologies urged to co-ordinate all elements of business model.

Adherents of the valuable approach (Slivotski A, Morrison D and Slajter S) have other sight at business model [113, 264] in which the basic emphasis is done on the valuable offer representing consumer value for stejkholderov which, on them mneneiju, is a nucleus of successful business model. One of the first Russian research works who considered a value chain as a business model basic element, was O.U.Juldashevoj's article, etc. [132], devoted to research of the building market. In the article the interrelation between features of the organisation, a chain of creation of value and types of business structures of building corporation is shown. Later in the researches O.I.Yudin, etc. [1 31] have noticed that the configuration of a chain of value establishes a set key kompetentsy both company assets the same as also features of construction of mutual relations with business partners. In this case development of new business models is based on formations key kompetentsy the companies and outsourcing processes.

The resource approach which authors are Penrose, Wernelfelt, 1984, Barney, 1991, etc. [143, 177, 241], has given the chance to define importance of abilities, kompetentsy and resources, in success of reception of competitive advantages of the companies.

The resource approach is one of the most significant parts of the theory of strategic management of Malt liquor and, as a matter of fact speaking, became basis for development of the theory of competitive advantages and the concept of a chain of creation
Values [245]. The concept of a chain of creation of value is the most important element of business model of the organisation how establishes structure and organitsiju business, describes logic of creation of value, participants of a chain, and also gives the chance to define profitableness of business and an expense. Researchers Pateli and Giaglis (Pateli, Giaglis) opisjavajut business model, as: «the conceptual tool which contains a set of concepts, objects and their mutual relation for expression of sequence of business actions of the concrete company» [238].

In a kind of it we will consider concepts and relations which allow to grant the simplified submission that is offered to clients as it is made also what are present financial expenses. The made definition can be used for the description of different kinds of activity of any organisations.

The review of the foreign literature gives the chance to confirm existence of two approaches to the contents of concept of business model. One foreign researchers as Galper (Galper) [184], Gebauer and Ginsburg (Gebauer, Ginsburg) [189] defines business - model as a method of business dealing. Other researchers as Gordin (Gordijn) [195] and Ostervalder (Ostervalder) [235], give bolshee attention to various aspects model business - make recommendations on building of a metamodel which describes relations between difficult objects. According to the author, approach Gordina and Ostervaldera reflects the contents of the concept of business model as it contains the concept of different aspects of the organisation in more details.

According to sights Lindera and Kantrella (Linder, Cantrell, 2000), there are many ambiguities and neopredelennostej in the relation understanding of business model which are visible from the various points of view of authors [215]. Expression "business model" can describe different things in the literature, for example, a business part, types of business models (for example, model «it is direct to the customer»), model «is exact in time» (for example, model "auction"), and also certain model of business (for example, company Dell model) or concepts and relations in model and behind its limits.

One of researchers place emphasis on interrelations of the basic subsystems in business model, not taking into consideration its relations with an environment (Mayo, Brown) [223]. Other scientists describe business model as a management how the company will gain money and to receive constant profit long time (Morris) [228]. Some researchers represent business model as certain structure for production of the goods and services in which there are all participants business - of the processes connected by streams of the information (Timmers) [277]. According to Stewart's opinion, one of the basic components of business model [270] should become the purpose of activity of the organisation. The Most significant definitions business - of models are shown in tab. 1.1.

Domestic researchers, scientists and business trainers also attend to consideration of the concept of business model in the in works. According to opinion Kotelnikova V, business model it «... The item in a creation chain stoimosti.metod stable business dealing, and precisely establishes process with which help the firm receives the income, as it is going to define the price for the products and services» (fig. 1.1) [49].

From our point of view, the business model by means of a set of the characteristics uproshchenno reproduces difficult process or object and is krugooborotom strategic actions: a strategic choice, the strategic analysis and strategic realisation (fig. 1.2).

One of the most suitable descriptions of business model, according to the author, Strekalovoj N.D.'s this definition which believes, that «.biznes-model is a conceptual tool for the business system research, reflecting logic of business» [116].

Contrary to the established rules, the Russian scientists pay attention to the big prospects of development of outsourcing in Russia. Owing to outsourcing development there is a formation of networks of creation of value or strategic networks as analogues of chains of values which have a nonlinear configuration. Thereof «market networks become
Very important organizational and administrative structures in modern business »[131].

Table 1.1 - the Basic definitions of business model of the company

The author Definition-model business
Floor Timmers, 1998 [277] It is architecture of products, services and information flows which describes various players, their roles, potential benefit and sources of reception of profit
Lewis 1999 [69] It is a method of reception of profit
Rappa 2000 [250] petod business dealing with which help the company of contains it and generates the income. Business tells model, how the company earns money and where there is a chain of expenses
Linder and Kantrell 2000 [215] It is the basic algorithm of the organisation for added value creation. Business shows model of the commercial organisation, how it receives profit
Petrovich 2001 [242] This description of algorithm «business of systems» for creation of value which is hidden behind organisation processes
Amit and Zott 2001 [141] Business model shows operations, structure and management on creation of cost by means of working out of possibilities new business
SHtaler 2002 [267] It is model of existing or prospective business. The model always is validity simplification. She helps to understand a basis of business or as the future business will look.
Dzhoan Magretta, 2002 [219] The business model tells the logic history explaining who your clients, that they appreciate and as you will earn money, granting them the product
Bouman 2002 [145] The description of roles and mutual relations of the company, its clients, partners and suppliers, and also commodity flows, information and means between these parties and the basic advantages to participants, in particular, but not only for clients
Radzhala and Vesterlund 2005 [249] Methods of creation of value for clients and methods of transformation of possibilities of the market in profit by means of participants, activity and cooperation
Ostervalder 2005 [235] The business model represents the conceptual tool which contains a set of elements and their relations and allows to express business logic of concrete firm. This description of value which the company offers one or several segments of clients and sturktura firms and networks of its partners for creation, advancements and deliveries of this capital for generating of stable streams of incomes
Andersson, 2006 [142] Business models form accurately to define, who is players in business and how to make their relations clear. Relations in business model are formulated from the point of view of an exchange of values between players

Source: it is made by the author

Fig. 1.1 - a business model Place in organisation activity

Fig. 1.2 - Business model as set of strategic actions

Active studying of chains of creation of value (value chain) has generated new set of researches. According to S.B.Avdashevoj, «in comparison with the classical branch or market analysis, the approach to chains of creation of cost (value chain, value chains — tonics, the bus) gives the chance profound studying of aspects of interaction between the organisations, revealings of possibilities and competitiveness failures
The companies within chains, definition of barriers of the companies braking development, and development of the recommendation in the field of a state policy under their decision »[1].

For the characteristic of administrative style of the companies there are some concepts in which basis there is a definition of the similar structures, similar characteristics and similar behaviour. At the heart of definitions of styles there is a division concept, the concept of "a long tail», multilateral platforms, FREE and the concept of open business models.

1. The "division" concept offers three basic forms activity business-: activity with orientation to clients, activity with orientation to innovations, and activity with orientation to an infrastructure. Each forms has the economic, cultural and competitive rules. In one organisation three forms of activity can co-exist, but in an ideal situation they should be dissolved"that there were no conflict situations or undesirable influence [1 18].

The problem of the business focused on the client, consists in search of the consumer and forming with it of relations; the problem of innovative business is a working out of the new goods and services; and the problem of the business focused on an infrastructure is a management of platforms for fulfilment of repeating problems. Each of these kinds of problems can enter with one another the conflict in one company or in the undesirable image to influence against each other as copes absolutely different factors.

2. The concept of "a long tail» which author is Chris Anderson [4], assumes a considerable quantity of the goods or services where each kind of the goods/service is sold seldom enough. The author asserts, that sale of a considerable quantity of the small goods and services is capable to bring more than profit, than sale of the "most popular" kinds.

3. The concept of "multilateral platforms» Thomas Ajzenmanna [175], connects a little different, groups of consumers, which svjazanny definitely. The given platforms very much tsenny for one group,
Only if there is other group of consumers as these groups are among themselves interdependent. The platform can create value which promotes interaction between groups. Appeal of a multilateral platform can increase before while it will not begin involves the increasing number of clients: the given phenomenon is called as network effect. Searchers Google, Yandex which unite searching people and advertisers are an example business models «a multilateral platform».

4. The concept of business model of "free-type" described by Chris Andersen [3], assumes availability a minimum of one kind of a product or service which free of charge long time is offered to consumers. Business models of different styles as use free offers. Other part business - of model or other consumer segment makes financing of consumers which receive free services.

5. The concept of "open business models», at the expense of cooperation with external partners, well has built up a reputation for itself at creation and value preservations. The given process can be conducted "from the outside" - by means of use of another's ideas or "from within" - by granting to partners of the ideas or assets which are not present at the organisation.

Here it is necessary to pay attention of business model of "open innovations» CHesbro, it agree which opinions «for a survival and success in modern global economy, the organisations of the different sizes and patterns of ownership should introduce more actively« external »ideas and approaches, and not just to rely on the resources of internal researches and development». One of the most popular phrases which CHesbro used in the best seller in 2003 - «.daleko not all clever people work on us» [159].

Creation of strategic alliances and exit on the international markets became possible thanks to model of "open innovations». By means of given this model of the organisation began to create joint ventures, left on bolshee number of the markets that has led to their increase

Incomes. Running forward, it is possible to tell, that further the logic of reasonings in the given work will go in a business model context of "open innovations» CHesbro.

Let's consider some templates business - the models which use allows partners at the decision of administrative problems to speak «on one language». The given language can is the universal matrix template of business model of Alexander Ostervaldera (Alexander Ostervalder) and Willow Pine (Iv Pinye) [89] (fig. 1.3).

Ostervalderom and Pine have developed this template, having analysed some tens versions of business models which existed at that time. We will in detail consider the given template as it underlies other models and is universal. Researchers Tretjak O. A and Klimanova D.E. schtiajut, that a template model business is the tool of strategic management for working out new and the analysis of models [119] existing business. According to opinions Ostervaldera and Pine, the business model template consists of nine blocks: key resources; key processes; key partners; target groups of consumers; the valuable offer; advancement channels; technology of client relations; streams of incomes; a composition of costs.

Fig. 1.3 - the Outline of business model Ostervaldera-Pine

Other, not less important characteristic, than business model, the organisations, assuming to enter an alliance, is it aljansosposobnost. This parametre acquires special importance in case of the international cooperation. Speaking about alliances, it is necessary to mention, that is far not each organisation is ready to entry in an alliance. There is a necessity of an estimation of such ability [74]. According to Levchuk L.V., «to find the foreign partner and it is effective with it to interact, the organisation should have certain strategic potential aljansosposobnosti» [65].

The concept aljansosposobnosti was included into a scientific turn-over. Lunkin A.N. treats aljansosposobnost as «conformity and sufficiency of strategic possibilities of the organisation for the effective integrated network interaction in the conditions of strategic partnership (alliance)» [68]. For the characteristic aljansosposobnosti it is offered to use strategic potential aljansosposobnosti, revealing of which intrinsic characteristics based on use kategorialnogo a method two-level triadicheskoj decodings [106]. This method has allowed to open main structural parts of the given phenomenon.

Process of formation of a triad of the categories opening the contents of a category «strategic potential aljansosposobnosti», is based on definition of main components by which process of integration of the educational organisation in an educational alliance is characterised. In the course of initial decoding we will receive kategorialnuju a triad: abilities, resources and the competence (fig. 1.4).

Decoding shows that fact, that the educational organisation should have enough of various resources for strategy realisation. While resources are the static characteristic, dynamic abilities of the educational organisation show its dynamics and are the catalyst, and key the competence mean
Possession staff of professional abilities and knowledge, and also define organizational uniqueness of the educational organisation.

Fig. 1.4

Two-level triadicheskaja definition decoding

«Strategic potential aljansosposobnosti»

All above-stated allows to make author's definition of strategic potential aljansosposobnosti as which we suggest to consider as set of its resources (personnel, material, non-material), dynamic abilities (organizational training, coordination and rekonfiguratsii), and also kompetentsy (information, uchebno-informative, communicative), as gives the chance to allocate as much as possible main characteristics of this economic category.

It is possible to tell, in other words, that the strategic potential aljansosposobnosti is sinergeticheskim a combination of all kinds of resources, including organizational kompetentsy, knowledge, abilities and aspirations of the organisation to solve strategic problems on achievement of the main
The strategic target originally underlying creation of an alliance. The present definition includes elements of the economy basing on knowledge. Thus the theoretical understanding of activity of any organisation considerably extends.

There is a set of versions of business models, their analysis has shown, that the business model outline can be taken for a basis as the majority of blocks entering into it contain practically in all templates. Templates of some business models are described in the Appendix 3.

In the given paragraph, together with in the Appendix 3, the complete list of scientific researches on construction of templates business - of models is presented far not. Nevertheless, it will give the chance to us to consider further versions of business models for the educational organisations and to study their updating on level of perfection of international contacts and works in the international educational market (item 1.4).

The analysis has shown, that at the heart of a template of each business model it is desirable to have nine blocks, reflecting the work of the organisation directed narealizatsiju of the valuable offer. Further it is necessary to notice, that at change of strategy of the organisation the business model can be changed, as process of working out of business model is a part of administrative strategy of business. According to the author, use of one business model in some cases can be insufficiently. During the subsequent reasonings we will prove, that in strategy of management by the educational organisation some business models according to their problems can get on, and all it depends on style and company type.

It is possible to name many concrete advantages of a global strategic alliance, but defects from partner interaction also are present. Merits and demerits aljansovogo interactions are shown in tab. 1.2.

As Vadim Kotelnikov (2010) writes: «In new economy strategic alliances allow business to receive the competitive
Advantages at the expense of access to partner resources, including the markets, technologies, the capital and people. Association with others adds additional resources and the possibilities allowing participants to grow and extend more fast and more effectively. Especially fast growing companies largely rely on the unions for expansion of the technical and operational resources. In process they save time and increase productivity, not creating own, from zero. Thus, they are released to concentrate on innovations and their basic business ».

Table 1.2 - Merits and demerits aljansovogo interactions of partners in the international strategic alliance

Dignities Defects
Access to the new markets Weaker sharing in a management
New possibilities for strengthening of items in the market Control loss over the important questions
Increase in sales Fear of isolation from consumers because of strong influence of the local partner
Reception of new skills and technologies State-political instability in the partner country
Development of new profitable products and services with smaller expenses Necessity of special attention to legal and financial laws for the partner country
Decrease in a share of constant expenses Necessity of disclosing of some

Trade secrets

Minimisation of risks of an exit on the new markets or issue novoh products/services Knowledge of the anti-trust legislation in the partner country
Creation/completion of missing resources Loss of technologies and the knowledge base
Creation/completion of the lacking


Avoidance of import barriers, requests to licensing and other acts which protect the local companies
Creation/completion of the lacking



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A source: Petrishchev Peter Vladimirovich. MANAGEMENT of INTEGRATION PROCESSES AT FORMATION of the INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCES. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Vladivostok - 2018. 2018

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