1.3. Problems of re-structuring of branch complexes and working out of new principles of management.

In the conditions of a transition period with a special sharpness there is a problem of reforming of production, with allowance for its branch division, and, first of all, it concerned the branches, having is strategic the important significance for the state.

"Branch functioning as economy cells is the complete process of economic activities directed on satisfaction of certain requirements of company in the goods and services" 15.

Management of branch complexes assumed a finding of the specific forms caused by their position in economic system - necessity of use of approaches to regulation of activity of natural monopolies. The problem of reforming of branches of production and search of approaches to management of their activity in the conditions of development of market relations has caused rough enough debate. And, opinions and the items taken by scientists and experts on the given problem, have sharply dispersed. One of them supported the widest introduction of market mechanisms in all branches and domestic production spheres, others held the opinion, that introduction of market relations in so global sizes is capable to lead to destruction of all structure of branch.

For example, in the oil and gas industry there would be not simply a branch of transportation networks from extraction and processing, but also its disintegration on separate organizational formations which, furthermore, should be laid down in competitive conditions. And in this case, as opponents of cardinal reforming considered, it hardly could bring a positive effect, the big costs are faster. Therefore they offered to find other decision, including, with allowance for necessities of regulation of activity of natural monopolies.

Exotic offers on election of the most nonconventional way of branch development expressed and at all, that is to save existing branches in their invariable kind and in parallel to develop an alternative infrastructure - by means of inclusion in this sphere of other firms. But it is represented to the most unreal as will objectively require the big investments which available are not present as there are no also possibilities of their finding. Maloperspektivna idea about attraction of investments on creation of a similar infrastructure - in view of duration of payback time and the period of amortisation of main funds. Let alone complexity of realisation of regulation of activity of numerous subjects.

Supporters of moderate reforming aspired to pay attention, first of all, to that fact, that natural monopolies play a significant role in national economy, therefore them transformatsionnye costs could be reflected in stability of all economic system of the country essentially and negatively. But so important they considered also introduction of market relations in branch as it would allow to find new sources of development and to eliminate defects objectively present in them.

Thus it was necessary to realise, that as a result of a monopoly position taken by branches, they do not have interest to change of the organizational structure and activity, to its modernisation on the basis of introduction of innovations. Moreover, specificity of such position moves a management not to reduction of the costs, and, opposite - to inflating of articles of the burden costs, at the same time allowing to supply and increase of personal well-being.

By the way, supporters of cardinal reforms put this problem in the forefront, and on it built the basic recommendations.

Basically, the opinion divided by supporters of moderate reforming, aspiring to find here a reasonable optimum seems to the most sensible. It is caused, as feature of position of natural monopolies, and that in market conditions they usually are not exposed to demonopolization though their activity is subject to regulation by the state. Therefore here it is required to solve questions, in what measure all the same to introduce market mechanisms and how to carry out state regulation.

Volume of inclusion of branch as natural monopoly, in sphere of market relations will depend in many respects on specificity of its industrial activity, from features of the market economy, and also from the developed practice of mutual relations with the state. In difficult conditions of a transition period by which formation of the large industrial complexes is staticized, preservation of branch integrity can appear the most favourable.

Branches as natural monopolies, can have the big banking capitals allowing them without attraction of external investments to solve a problem of the development to carry out large-scale production and realisation of the goods and services. But, on the other hand, here there are ample opportunities of generating of costs which can and should be eliminated by introduction of market relations.

All aforesaid allows to draw a conclusion that will be necessary to find basic other though also the conciliatory proposal - for preservation of unity of branches and simultaneous increase of efficiency of their functioning and development. For coordination of their internal structure and its coordination with interests of social development. And all it becomes possible at the competent approach to re-structuring in them of industrial production, to control system improvement by their activity.

Thus it is required to evaluate not simply competently scales of realisation of necessary changes, but also in a complex to study various aspects of transformations, accurately to formulate the purposes, to reveal numerous factors and criteria for definition of directions of activity, sequence of realisation of actions.

Within the limits of administrative activity in branches in most general view it will be necessary to solve following questions:

- Improvements of managerial processes by own activity - the finance, production of the goods and services, their quality, co-ordination of work of the enterprises and other structural formations;

- And adjustments of communication with an environment - with the financial, resource, consumer markets, with a labour market and with the whole complex of the organisations and the enterprises, including regional and federal government bodies.

The request to preservation of integrity of branches causes of use of the strategic management the purposes and criteria of the development should become which major elements, allowing to co-ordinate planned and reached, to compare various variants of the subsequent decisions, most effectively to carry out the further transformations and to concentrate efforts to those directions which are capable to bring the greatest success.

The purposes of development of branch are usually structured on following groups where criteria of an estimation достижений16 join also:

1. The market purposes as which criteria act: a sales volume and change of proportions, priorities in the "grocery" policy, the predicted size of risk.

2. The industrial purposes, their criteria: production volume, quality indicators.

3. The Financial and economic purposes, here act as criteria: profitability, financial soundness, profit, a gain of the property, etc.

4. The social purposes where as their criteria act: the salary and a standard of living working, their social security.

5. Other purposes which, being connected with the decision of strategic problems, can lead to their significant changes and consequently should be subject to the control from a branch management.

The plan of realisation of necessary actions should be developed for achievement of objects in view, be evaluated possibilities, terms and necessary resources for their realisation. For each of actions it can appear important to define legitimacy of its realisation by means of economic efficiency accounts.

Variety of acts among which the special importance is acquired by the Federal Law "About natural monopolies" has been developed for regulation of activity of branch complexes in our country. It is directed on achievement of balance of interests of consumers and manufacturers (as subjects of natural monopolies) at which availability of the goods realised by them and effective functioning of subjects of natural monopolies is supplied. To a line of business of these subjects who are subject to state regulation, отнесены17:

- Transportation of petroleum and petroleum on the main pipelines;

- Gas transportation on pipelines;

- Services in transfer of the electric and thermal electric power;

- Rail transportation;

- Services of transport terminals, ports, the airports;

- Services popular electric and postal service.

Thus, becomes obvious, that is far not all activity of the enterprises within the limits of branches is subject to regulation and the control, and only systems of transport and communications. In other spheres of production development of a market competitiveness where each branch has the right to find own decisions is provided.

For realisation of control and regulating functions concerning the above-stated kinds of activity in the law creation of special federal enforcement authorities which are allocated with the right to establish similar bodies at territorial level with transfer of a part of the authorities of functions by it is provided. And their activity is financed accordingly from means of the state or local budgets. In the law possibility of liquidation of bodies if there are conditions for competitiveness development on corresponding commodity рынке18 also is provided.

As the basic functions of regulating bodies act: creation and management the register of subjects of natural monopolies on which action of this law extends; definition of methods of regulation concerning each concrete subject; control within the limits of authorities defined for them and entering of offers on improvement of legislative regulation of activity of subjects of natural monopolies - when due hereunder.

Regulation bodies are obliged to carry out the control over any bargains which are carried out by subjects of natural monopolies concerning acquisition by them or sale (leasing) of the property rights to permanent assets or rights of use by permanent assets if their book value exceeds 10 % from cost of their ownership capital. Their investments directed on production (or realisation) the goods in which relation regulation by the given law is not applied also are subject to the control - if they too exceed 10 % from cost of its ownership capital.

Subjects of natural monopolies, according to imposed on them the law of obligations, should grant corresponding supervising body current reports on the activity, projects of plans of capital investments. They have not the right to refuse and the conclusion of agreements with separate consumers on production (realisation) of the goods in which relation regulation of natural monopolies is carried out.

As methods of regulation of activity of subjects of natural monopolies here act:

- The price regulation which is carried out by means of price-fixing and tariffs, or their some marginal level;

- "Consumer" regulation (protection of the rights of citizens) - revealing of a circle of the consumers which are subject to obligatory service, their establishment real or minimum (at impossibility of complete satisfaction) requirements for the goods or the services made by the subject of natural monopoly;

- State security maintenance, and also wildlife management and cultural values.

Thus, the law provides protection of the rights of citizens, as consumers of the goods made by subjects of natural monopolies, and also control maintenance over possible abusings of natural monopolies the position. But in the law ways of increase of efficiency of activity of natural monopolies are not considered.

Thus regulating bodies are allocated with wide enough right to evaluate possibility of display of adverse consequences and to establish it obstacles. They can carry out the preliminary control, as behind expansion of scales of activity by subjects of natural monopoly, including, not subject to this regulation, and behind proposed tendencies to its curling.

Activity of regulating bodies assumes forming on the basis of publicity and high degree of validity of accepted decisions for what rigid requests to the collected information are established - it should be extremely complete and consider requirements of all interested parties.

About all cases of default of the law the enterprise carried to natural monopoly, for regulating body imposes obligations to inform the wide public. It concerns, both questions of overestimate of the prices, and absence of a trustworthy information, and in the law for these cases imposing of fines is provided.

Thus, the selected way of "moderate" reforming of branches and search of approaches to management of their activity assumes introduction here market mechanisms which can extend on all kinds of activity which are not carried to area of regulation of natural monopolies. It will allow to find new sources of their development and to eliminate defects present here.

Thus assumes importance to save integrity of branches that is caused by complexities of a transition period and necessity of use of ownership capitals for financing of large-scale actions in the field of industrial production. But here it is necessary to take into consideration and that fact, that monopolies are not interested completely not in development of market relations as receive benefits from the monopoly position.

To regulate "exclusive" activity begins possible by means of the special law though as practice has shown, the law and realities have the big divergence. It is necessary to notice, that, on the one hand, by working out of the given law for "sample" the American experience has been accepted, that already in itself can raise the doubts in legitimacy of such choice. And with other - at the analysis of principles of construction of the most regulating activity similarity to a control system existing earlier of the industry can accurately be traced.

And during realisation of reforms and the adjustment process has gone already on other way. The reasons for that there could be a set: an advancing of rates of privatisation, a divergence branch and state interests, complexity of the transition period, etc.

For this purpose, what to find most effective forms of management branches (first of all, an oil and gas complex), is necessary to show consideration more, first of all, to own prereform experience of management by national economy branches to eliminate possibility of its negative influence on process of economic transformations; to analyse ways of their recent reforming; and also to study foreign experience and approaches used there to questions of regulation of activity, to find possibility of their adaptation to the Russian conditions.

Conclusions to chapter 1.

Process of reforming of the Russian economy and its transition to market relations, was characterised by the big complexities that has been caused by a transition period, and also crudity of reforms and a conducted state policy. In its result there was a destruction of many economic ties, slump in production, physical and an obsolescence of capacities, investment possibilities have decreased.

To eliminate these defects and to solve the most actual problems of the present - developments of market relations and lifting of the domestic industry, process of integration of production and formation of corporations has helped with a certain measure and FPG. But not prorabotannost corporate governance mechanisms has not allowed to reach here the big successes.

Process of re-structuring of the industries which activity was subject to regulation according to the law "About natural monopolies" could represent special complexity. Here the whole complex of contradictions which consisted was formed: in necessity of introduction for it of market mechanisms and maintenance of integrity of organizational structure and management; increases of efficiency of functioning and development of branches and overcoming of resistance of monopolies to innovations; coordination of state interests and interests of numerous subjects of economy. And it was necessary to allow all these contradictions in a complex.

Practice has shown what to carry out regulation of activity of natural monopolies, it has appeared business difficult enough as between planned reforming and real process of economic transformations the big divergence was formed.

The reasons for that there could be a set: drawing of another's (American) experience at construction of system of state regulation, without its due adaptation to the Russian realities; use of former principles of the management inherent in an epoch of totalitarianism, in aggregate with desire of the nomenclature to save the dominating position in management is strategic the important branches; complexities of the transition period, etc.

The carried out analysis has allowed to come to following conclusions, that at realisation of reforms of industries it was important to include here market relations, but thus aspires to save their integrity; to find new forms of state regulation of activity at which the administrative methods existing at the former form of managing, should be completely eliminated.

And the main thing to find approaches to increase of efficiency of functioning and development of branches of production, co-ordinating them with state interests. The certain help in this question studying of modern foreign experience to some extent can render.

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More on topic 1.3. Problems of re-structuring of branch complexes and working out of new principles of management.:

  1. 3.1. Transformation of principles of management by the vertically-integrated complexes
  2. 3.1.A role of a technique of definition of requirements of bank in re-structuring in working out of the business plan of re-structuring
  4. 1.3. The analysis of theoretical and methodical approaches to working out of problems of assets management of not state pension funds
  5. 2.2. Working out of the business plan of re-structuring of bank
  7. 2.2. The Russian practice of management by re-structuring of the enterprises
  8. Frameworks of interaction of anti-recessionary management and banking system re-structuring
  9. 1.1 environment. A basis of management of enterprise re-structuring
  10. 3.1.3. Management of re-structuring of a property complex of the enterprise
  11. 1.3. Branch features of formation of a working capital
  12. 4.3 Basic branch principles of civil law: a problem of element structure
  13. Principles of strategic planning and programming of development of mining complexes of local significance
  14. working out of the conceptual scheme of the organisation of design management by welfare sphere within the limits of working out strateyogii developments
  15. Methodical recommendations about working out and realisation of strategic programs of development of branch