3.1 Purposes and criteria of management

Management in cybernetic sense is understood as process of development and realisation of purposeful information effects on some part of environment named object of management. It is allocated three components - object (an operated subsystem), the subject (an operating subsystem) and environment in which they interact according to drawing 3.1.

Between object and the subject there is a communication channel on which corrective actions are transmitted to one party on object, and in other - the information on a condition of object (feedback). Object and the subject have two-forked communication channels as well with environment which not only acts, as a source of indignations and hindrances, but also it can be changed under their effect. At such approach the management problem is put as definition of necessary effects on object for the purpose of its transition from initial in a desirable condition with allowance for environment influences.

With reference to the further research we will understand as object of management innovative process, in particular its stages of realisation of an innovation and innovation distribution. To innovative process depending on a stage of the life cycle different approaches in management (paragraph 1.1 see) are applied.

Drawing 3.1 - the Scheme with a feedback (management on a deviation)

The subject of management of innovative process are the controls as which the coordination centre of national innovative system can act, regional innovative system, branch, or the innovative enterprises. Control systems of the processes proceeding in social and economic environments, are classified as system at which contour there is an operator (or LPR). It introduces feature by working out of models and algorithms on which basis the control system at the enterprise which is traditionally considered by inclusion in a contour of management of systems of support of decision-making (SPPR), decisions preparing variants for LPR is under construction. Thus, definition of a vector of management is made in mode SPPR for the person making of the decision.

Innovative process proceeds in the non-uniform social and economic environment which makes direct impact on a susceptibility of innovations, on investment possibilities, legal mutual relations etc. environment Influence (revolting effect) on object of management, as a rule, has uncontrollable character and is expressed in casual change of its condition. Thus influence of environment on efficiency of innovative process can be both positive (promoting development), and negative (slowing down development). All these parametres also need to be considered at formation of corrective actions.

The desirable condition of object is set from the outside and is called as setting effect g (t) _ {g1 (f)..., gl (t)}.tselenapravlennoe influence of operating body on innovative process is called as corrective action and is expressed in the form of vector function x (t) _ {x1 (t)..., xm (t)}.sluchajnye the effects formed in external in relation to a control system to environment and appearing influences on innovative process, are called as revolting b (t) _ {b1 (t)..., bk (t)}.

Distribution of innovations to the social and economic environment - the nonequilibrium process aspiring to achievement of balance of demand U ~ (quantity of innovations U ~ which potential buyer N wishes to acquire) and offers U + (quantity of innovations U +, manufactured on the market).

According to the approach considered in paragraph 2.1, can be allocated three basic classes of corrective actions:

• Demand making Uf (for example, realisation of marketing actions);

• Formation of offer U + (for example, a conclusion to the market

Supporting innovation or on other classification:

Modifying or improving innovative product);

• Change of a condition of environment (for example, a conclusion to the market blasting (on other classification: proryvnyh innovations) as parametre change To - presence of other goods with similar idea).

The condition of innovative process is defined by a number of sizes p (t) _ {p1 (t)..., pr (t)}, characterising both corrective actions and environment effects, and change in the object. Not all sizes are measured, therefore the set of controllable target variables characterising a condition of process during each moment of time, we will designate a vector y (t) _ {y1 (t), — yn (t)}.takaja set is not only target variables of object of management, but also source for operating body that forms a feedback and supplies management on closed
To the scheme according to drawing 3.1. Separate co-ordinates of vectors of a condition supervised peremennyhi all velichinmogut to coincide, thus

p ≤

At any moment t the condition 4j is expressed by function of vectors and initial sostojani, namely [169]:

The condition of process of distribution of an innovative product will be understood as a condition of function of sales which can be thus described characteristic points. In spite of the fact that each innovative product has the typical curve of dynamics of sales at its conclusion to the market [61], for a generality and adequate simplicity it is offered to approximate function of sales Q (t) in the form of asymmetrical kolokoloobraznoj a curve f (t) according to drawing 3.2.

Drawing 3.2 - Characteristic points of the measured parametre

Characteristic points can be defined as graphically (for example, construction of tangents and average lines to function f (t)), and analytically (for example, by account of rates of increase).

• Point A - the beginning of sales, f (t} =0;

• Point F - the termination of sales, f (t) =0;

• Point B - the excess point, growth of sales starts to be slowed down, f "(f) =0;

• Plot AB - a concavity zone, f ' (t)> 0, f "(t)> 0;

• Plot BC - a zone of camber,

• Plot DE - a zone of camber,

• CD Plot - a plateau, on which

• Point H divides section BC on two zones: BH - not strong reduction of a gain, HC - strong reduction of a gain. In point H the beam conducted from the beginning of co-ordinates to the schedule f (t), becomes a tangent.

Excess points are frequently used by experts in marketing by working out and planning of marketing campaigns, at forecasting of the future sales [60, 170-172]. However existing approaches have more descriptive character, as shown in [60].

The curve of sales can be divided into three zones conditionally:

1. AH - forward front: the beginning of sales and a market gain.

2. HE - the middle: slowing down of growth rates of sales and stabilisation.

3. EF - back front: the period of decrease in a sales volume and care from the market.

Process of distribution of one innovative product can be in one of sostojanijrassmotrim them more in detail.

• 1 condition [AB]. The innovative product only has entered the market,

Which is yet familiar with it, therefore growth rate prodazhsnachala

It is small enough. Innovations extend for the account: Gradually demand for an innovative product (further - IP) U ~ increases, accordingly, speed of sales f ' (t) IP also grows to point B where the second derivative f "(t) will change a sign.

• 2 condition [BH]. Demand on IP U~начинает to grow more slowly so also speed of sales is slowed down to point H after which average significance of sales IP will start to decrease.

• 3 condition [HC]. Demand on IP U~еще is more slowed down till the moment when speed of change of sales does not become equal to zero f ' (t) = 0.

• 4 condition [CD]. Demand on IP U~не is changed, speed of sales is on the average constant f ' (t} = 0.

• 5 condition [DE]. Demand on IP U~постепенно decreases.

• 6 condition [EF]. Demand on IP U~резко falls, while sales IP will not cease f (t) _0.

Change in time of integrated parametre Q (t) is described by a cumulative s-shaped curve on which it is possible to allocate three zones (A, B, C) in which speed of change of derivatives of this curve according to drawing 3.3 is traced. Hit of current significance Q (t) in each of these zones can be fixed and used at definition of corrective actions.

Drawing 3.3 - Characteristic zones of the measured parametre on a cumulative curve

The management purpose can be formulated as follows - achievement of an extremum of some funktsionala G, defined for a concrete case:

The local purposes of management g (t) can differ with innovative processes depending on the subject of management. Here it is necessary to specify, that according to a principle emerdzhentnosti which indicates occurrence of new properties and, accordingly, the system purposes in comparison with separate elements of system, the local purposes of management of innovative processes in scales of the enterprise, branch, region and the country can differ.

The coordination centre of the regional program innovative developments (FEAST) has the purpose of management not so much reception of the certain economic benefit, mortgaged in them developers in interests of business, how many achievement of concrete indicators of efficiency of innovative development of key industries and region as a whole.

Realisation should supply the FEAST of regional level social, budgetary, ecological and other kinds of effects in various spheres of economy of region [103]. The purpose of management an enterprise FEAST should correspond, first of all, to strategic targets of this enterprise and supplies commercially effective realisation of the chosen innovative projects [77]. According to an object in view criterion function of optimising problems, for example, definitions of time of start of projects in the FEAST will be put.

From the point of view of the theory of systems innovative process as the object of management should be observed. Accordingly, some criteria of management on which change its conditions (observability) is traced should be generated and mechanisms of duly effect on a course of realisation of innovative process in an automatic mode (on some parametres) or in automated - through the coordination centre are defined.

Criteria of management represent indicators of quality of functioning the control systems defined by a set of parametres. Criteria of management and RICE are set by innovative process of level NIS in such documents, as, for example, Strategy of innovative development

The Russian Federation for the period till 2020 (the Order of the Government of the Russian Federation from December, 8th, 2011 № 2227-r), Strategy of national security of the Russian Federation (the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation from December, 31st, 2015 № 683), the decree About long-term state economic policy (the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation from May, 7th, 2012 № 596) [1, 76, 173], etc. In these documents such criteria, for example, as a share of the organisations which are carrying out are resulted
Technological innovations, by 2020 should make not less than 25 %, the share of export of the Russian hi-tech goods in the general world volume of export of the hi-tech goods should make in 2020 2 %, the share of production of hi-tech and high technology branches of economy should be increased in gross national product in 1,3 times, etc.

For working out of criteria of management by innovative processes in the large base Russian enterprises defining a condition of key industries of the Russian economy, the reference point is given, for example, in Methodical materials on working out of programs of innovative development of joint-stock companies with a state participation, the state corporations and the federal state unitary enterprises [174], in the Management of Oslo: Recommendations about the tax and the analysis of data about innovations [175]. The enterprise also should consider the indicators reflecting a course and results of realisation of innovative projects which would satisfy requirements not only for strategic management of business development, but also for design management [77].

The purpose of management of innovation distribution can be defined various criteria of management, for example, a sales volume of an innovative product, a sales volume of a portfolio of innovative products, time of start of innovative products for the market etc. Strictly speaking, the control system should be mnogokriterialnoj.

As the first assumption for definiteness we will accept for parametre, integralno characterising efficiency of innovative activity of the enterprise, Q - a sales volume of a realised portfolio of innovative projects. It is important, that this parametre is actually supervised by each enterprise, therefore he does not demand additional expenditures for measurement.

The second assumption: in the given research we will consider one localised source of innovations - the certain concentrated enterprise or integrated klaster the enterprises (entered earlier, item 2.2.1).

Then the problem of management is formulated by innovation distribution so: to find such vector upravlenijaobespechivajushchy condition fulfilment at restrictions:

Where A (t) - the closed areas of vector space of management;

B (t) - the closed areas of vector space of conditions;

Eu - A possible sales volume of an innovative product;

- Quantity of possible purchases;

N - number of potential buyers.

On the basis vysheskazannyh positions for management of innovative process the management method should be constructed.

Further within the limits of the given research we will consider a certain enterprise (without dependence from a legal pattern of ownership), innovative projects forming and realising a portfolio. The management method process of distribution of innovations at the enterprise is defined at two stages of life cycle of innovative process.

1. Innovative process at the stage of innovation realisation. Problems of management decided within the limits of dissertational work are, but are not limited:

• definition of structure of a portfolio of innovative projects with allowance for restrictions on resources, and also mutual influence and influence of the further distribution of innovations in the social and economic environment;

• definition of optimum sequence (start time)

Innovative projects in a portfolio of innovative projects with allowance for their mutual influence and with allowance for the further distribution of innovations to the social and economic environment.

2. Innovative process at the stage of kommertsializatsii innovations. A problem of management of a trajectory of distribution of innovations with allowance for their mutual influence.


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A source: TSvetkova Hope Andreevna. MODELS And the MANAGEMENT METHOD PROCESS of DISTRIBUTION of INNOVATIONS With allowance for THEIR MUTUAL INFLUENCE In SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Tech.Sci. St.-Petersburg - 2018. 2018

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  7. Dambaeva Ekaterina Zhargalovna. DEVELOPMENT of INNOVATIVE APPROACHES To MANAGEMENT of INVESTMENT ACTIVITY With the purposes of INCREASE of COMPETITIVENESS of ELECTROPOWER BRANCH. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Irkutsk - 2014, 2014
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