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3.2 Resource approach to formation of the mechanism of strategic management by the enterprises of a wood complex

For working out and realisation of the strategy providing necessary conditions of effective and dynamical development of the enterprises rules ­ and procedures of their acceptance, management and the planning, consolidated in ­ the uniform mechanism are necessary­­.

we Will consider features of the mechanism from a position of strategic management of development of manufactures on the basis of timber industry plantations, leaning on world practice of strategic management.

Under strategic management V.G.Zolotogorova's economic dictionary [57] suggests to understand - «process of working out of strategy of the enterprise... ­ Concretising plans in the subsequent realisation of strategic directions of development. Strategic management includes monitoring, coordination and ­ the analysis of realisation of strategy of the enterprise, timely updating, modernisation ­ and basic transformation of strategy of the enterprise».

According to the founder of strategic management I.Ansoffa «­ activity, the complex process directed on the decision of problems which can be presented as tracing of tendencies, statement of the purposes, understanding ­ of problems and possibilities, the diagnosis, working out and a choice of alternatives, drawing up ­ of programs and budgets, a direction of realisation and definition of measures on ­ performance is management [4].

the Essence of complex systems of strategic management consists that in firms, on the one hand, exists accurate allocated and organised, so-called "formal" (embodied in special documents), strategic ­ planning, on the other hand, structure of management of corporations, siste ­
we and mechanisms of interaction of its separate links are constructed so that to provide development of long-term strategy for a victory in a competition and ­ to create administrative toolkit for transformation of these strategy into the current industrial-economic plans which are coming under to realisation in practice ».

Strategic management, according to a number of researchers of the given ­ problematics, is directed on development of a long-term policy and strategic targets by a management and maintenance of conditions for a formulation of corresponding ­ strategy and their effective realisation, accompanied by continuous ­ monitoring and the control [138, 160, 208, 209, 230].

Strategic management is the process covering actions ­ of heads of the organisation on working out, realisation and correction of strategy [179].

Thereupon, discriminating line of the formed mechanism of strategic ­ management orientation of its work to long-term prospects ­ which in the future are capable to provide to the enterprise competitive ­ advantages acts­­.

Then the mechanism can be considered as the interconnected system of administrative processes of the long-term objectives directed on achievement and the decision of problems.

From a position of strategic management development important is:

- development and realisation of strategy of development and behaviour in external sphere;

- development and realisation of strategy concerning ­ a product created ­ by the organisation;

- development and realisation of strategy concerning the personnel of the organisation [24].

It predetermines necessity of inclusion for the mechanism of flexible ­ administrative influences, receptions and the algorithms focusing industrial ­ activity on inquiries of consumers, corresponding to requirements sob ­
stvennikov and members of labour collective of the enterprises answering to a call from an environment and allowing to achieve competitive advantages.

Then work of the mechanism of strategic management is directed on development ­ of potential of the organisation (labour, financial, ­ materialnotehnicheskogo) at the expense of maintenance of mutual relations with internal and an environment.

In dynamically varying conditions of the competitive environment before ­ the industrial enterprises there is a problem of an estimation of the most effective strategy ­ providing in short-term and long-term prospect successful development. Moreover, in enterprise development strategy,­ in view of an astable external environment can change­.

Professor V.D.Markova designates strategic management as «. Process of acceptance and realisation of the strategic decisions ­ which central ­ link is the strategic choice», underlines, that strategic management as a matter of fact is management of competitive advantages [101].

In researches of foreign scientists the big attention is given to questions ­ of strategic management and the strategic analysis which is considered ­ as one of tools of diagnostics of an external and internal environment ­ of the enterprise. Most often in works following stages ­ of the strategic analysis are described­:

- the environment and competitiveness analysis, including portfelnyj ­ the analysis of competitiveness of the enterprise in comparison with a situation in the market; model of "Five forces» M.Portera [221], and the corporate SWOT-analysis directed on an estimation both external, and internal factors of environment that allows to identify strong and weaknesses of the enterprise to estimate possibilities and the threats existing in an environment;

- the analysis of industrial activity of the enterprise, including manufacture volume, production share in the branch market, profit, expenses and taxes;

- the analysis of a financial condition and fiscal accounting research.

the Basic positive moment of the foreign approach to the strategic analysis is the interrelation of possibility of realisation of strategy with level of external both internal threats and selection of the indicators reflecting efficiency of management on neutralisation of risks. Thus it is essential to raise ­ efficiency of realisation of strategy probably at a planning stage, by the account of influence of the brave factor.

Importance of the continuous comparative analysis prognoznyh and current tendencies of factors internal and an environment of the enterprise for ­ strategic management, development and realisation of administrative decisions, ­ is underlined and in Romanovoj A.S., Ermolinoj L.V.'s works [49].

Popular prints of Century A in the strategic analysis leans against business model of the company taking into account its life cycle, allocating the basic stages of the strategic analysis:

1. Identification of a stage of life cycle of the organisation;

2. The analysis and revealing of the most important and strategically significant factors ­ of business model at the given stage of life cycle which can become ­ key object of strategic management;

3. The detailed analysis of the internal maintenance of strategic components of business model [96].

Thereupon for an estimation of strategic alternatives of development of the enterprises the mechanism of strategic management of development of manufactures should include set of methods and criteria of the strategic analysis of an acceptability and ­ efficiency of realisation of strategy.

the Most widespread methods in world practice of the strategic ­ analysis are: a situation analysis, portfelnye analysis methods (­ the Matrix of the Boston consultative group (BKG), the Matrix "Poppy-kinzi" Matrix Dzheneral the Electrician, a matrix of separate products of concern Quaker Oats, the Matrix ­ of profitability of business (profitability matrix), developed Marakon
Associates), the SPACE-analysis method, the balanced system of indicators balanced Scorecard (BSC).

Components of the above-stated methods and analysis receptions are expedient for applying in the mechanism of strategic management. Thus the ultimate goal of the strategic analysis in the management mechanism consists in definition of key ­ problems and priorities of the long-term measures (strategy), allowing ­ to raise efficiency of financial and economic activity of the enterprise in ­ timber industry sector of economy.

Result of analytical procedures is optimum strategy ­ expressed by the program of actions and distributions of the resources necessary for ­ achievement of a strategic target in development of the enterprise.

It is necessary to notice, that process of a strategic choice always occurs ­ in the conditions of multi-variant approach of alternatives, this or that kind of the risk which sources are external and internal ­ factors is inherent in each of which­. The risk level depends on that, how much the enterprise can flexibly and ­ operatively answer a market condition, make adequate decisions from positions of maintenance of stability.

a Number of authors, having systematised strategic risks concerning ­ the enterprises, their following kinds result: risks of interaction with counterparts [178]; operative risks (industrial, financial marketing, ­ branch, prirodno-climatic, etc.) [90]; risks of realised strategy.

risk Identification can be considered successful if there is a real ­ possibility to present predicted situations in concrete conditions­.

In practice statistical methods allow to receive the fullest quantitative representation about a risk level and consequently are often enough used in practice [186], however for an estimation riskovosti strategic alternatives perspective is stsenarnyj the analysis, allowing to reduce influence of the factor of uncertainty. Usually consider three
the scenario: optimistic, pessimistic and the most probable, but in need of their number it is possible to increase. In each of scenarios it is fixed corresponding values of the selected factors then efficiency indicators on each strategy pay off.

Stsenarnyj as the way of check of various offers on the future includes the analysis [162]:

- construction of two or three plausible scenarios;

- working out for each of them of adequate strategy;

- an estimation of probability of realisation of scenarios;

- an estimation of resultants of strategy.

In the subsequent use of the traditional comparative analysis for definition of the most effective strategic alternative is possible.

Concerning the mechanism of strategic management its work should provide minimisation of brave events first of all at the expense of ­ multiple analytical estimations and stsenarnyh models of realisation of strategic ­ initiatives.

last years ­ representation about the enterprise, as to the open system ­ which efficiency ­ of functioning is defined, both interaction of its separate ­ structural parts, and completeness of the account of influence of external forces on it becomes the basic vector of strategic management­­­.

In due time to formulate the development purposes, to put problems and problems, to find ways and to organise work of the administrative mechanism a number ­ of authors [32, 76, 159, 166] consider possible with use of the system ­ approach.

Other group of researchers of the given problematics in a basis of the mechanism of strategic management pawn a stage of a formulation of the purposes, a development cycle ­ of strategy and process of its realisation and a control stage (Vihansky Island S [25], Robbinz S.P. [153], Zajtsev L.G.), includes ­ a stage of a formulation of mission in process (mechanism) of strategic ­ management.

as Markova V. D, Koshin V.V. and Nikiforova E.G. the basic components of the mechanism of strategic management the analysis and the control, as processes providing identification consider, a choice and strategy realisation [77, 101, 118].

In the literature methods of use of the balanced system of indicators for strategic management [60, 62, 108] are described, allowing to translate mission and the general strategy of the company in the accurate plan of operative ­ activity of divisions and employees, and to estimate results of their activity from the point of view of realisation of strategy by means of key ­ indicators of efficiency.

Components presented above approaches pertinently to apply at formation of the mechanism of strategic management by the enterprises in a wood complex. Earlier by us it has been established, that priorities of strategic management are concentrated by the enterprises of a wood complex in two planes­:

- maintenance of availability of a raw-material base;

-stimulation rational lesopolzovanija and forestry development­.

Then following logic of our research, we will describe the mechanism of strategic ­ management which to the enterprise of a wood complex is necessary ­ for using at creation and operation of timber industry plantations. This kind of industrial activity provides development of the wood industry in the conditions of formed deficiency economically accessible lesosyrevyh resources and displacement of an ecological load from natural forest stands on ­ artificial afforestations, promotes the accelerated reproduction of wood resources in a forestry (drawing 22).

we Will specify components of the mechanism of strategic management of enterprise development.

the First block of the mechanism of management of strategic development - tselepolaganija­. Its inclusion in the mechanism speaks necessity of a choice and formi -

rovanija the purpose and problems. At this stage strategic problems are ranged ­ by means of described above a technique prioritizatsii strategic problems.

Drawing 26 - the Mechanism of strategic management of the enterprises of a wood ­ complex [10]

the Strategic analysis is one of stages which enterprise passes ­ at statement of long-term objectives and development of the effective strategy, ­ consisting in an estimation of own resources and possibilities, with reference to a condition ­(and to requirements) a market environment. Concerning priorities of development ­ of the enterprise of a wood complex the analysis is carried out:

- macroenvironments, including research economic, sotsiopoliticheskih ­ and technological forecasts, an estimation of a condition of branch, region for ­ definition of long-term possibilities of the enterprise in the conditions of predicted

changes of environment. Toolkit applied during analytical procedures - the PEST-analysis, the comparative analysis, etc. strategically important in the analysis ­ are such indicators as: exit barriers on the market, profitability level in a branch segment, technological changes, level of a competition and ­ risks.

- microenvironments, including research, competitors, counterparts, stejkholderov, etc. Studying of a microenvironment of the organisation it is directed on ­ the analysis of a condition of those components of an environment with which the organisation ­ is in direct interaction. Thus researchers pay attention that the enterprise can make essential impact on ­ character and the maintenance of this interaction, thereby she can actively participate ­ in formation of additional possibilities and in prevention ­ of occurrence of threats to its further existence [10].

On the basis of results of this analysis there is a rational choice ­ of priority strategic problems from their possible set of variants.

As a result of this work necessity of updating ­ of the purpose of the enterprise and even change of some areas of primary activity ­(diversifikatsija), association or allocation of business processes can be revealed­­.

the Second block - strategic planning. Its work is directed on formation of strategy of the enterprise by an establishment of its potential possibilities which can lead to activity development according to tselepolaganiem. With reference to the present research strategy is the comprehensive plan, intended to provide realisation achievement is more whole the enterprise.

At drawing up of forecasts of development and the forecast of structural shifts in ­ branch economy the analysis of a cycle of branch development is necessary. The market ­ and branch analysis ­- the most difficult area of research. Thus the accent should be made on studying of life cycle of production, market segments and branch structure.

Dynamism of environment, institutsionalnye the transformations, the growing ­ number of competitors and change of the purposes of counterparts and stejkholderov ­ predetermine necessity of working out of complex control systems.

In practice of strategic management has developed two types of systems: system ­ of definition of a position (long-term strategic planning, management by a choice of strategic positions), i.e. Directing approach of the organisation ­ in its external environment; system of timely reaction (management with ­ use of ranging of strategic problems, management on strong ­ signals, on weak signals, in the conditions of unexpectedness), answering on fast ­ and unexpected changes in an external environment of the organisation [4].

the Choice of necessary system of definition of a position is caused by complexity and novelty of problems which are defined at a stage tselepolaganija.

For the enterprises of a wood complex management on the basis of a choice ­ of strategic positions expediently in view of presence of dynamical changes in ­ environment and presence of poorly predicted and dangerous risks connected with prirodno-climatic (uncontrollable) factors.

In a general view process of a choice of strategic positions of the enterprise ­ is presented in drawing 27.

These strategic positions are formed in some iterations.

At the first stage by results komparativnogo the analysis strategy most full meeting the requirements of the market, stejkholderov and directed on formation of competitive advantages of the enterprise are formed. ­ Quantity of strategy at this stage beyond all bounds. The second stage represents selection of strategy which possibility of realisation, in practice is confirmed by potential available for the enterprise: industrial, financial, ­ labour, marketing and information.

Drawing 27 - Process of a choice of strategic positions of the enterprise 11

By results of selection the quantity of strategy decreases, thus ­ selected are tested by criterion of the market importance.

11 Working out of the author

The above level of instability of an external environment, the is more difficult management and more efforts it is necessary to spend for transition to such kind of management. Thereupon strategy are estimated in a position of an admissible risk level at their realisation.

Management of risks helps directors to reveal and eliminate risks which the organisation faces, and thus to increase probability of achievement of mission and strategic problems.

According to time frameworks and expected consequences ­ of realisation of brave events discriminate the long-term risks influencing ­ a choice perspective strategy of the enterprise, intermediate term risks ­ defining tactics of behaviour of the enterprise and the short-term risks influencing on realised enterprise at the moment of strategy.

we Will notice, that managers of the enterprise should possess necessary skills for planning of strategy and preventive management of brave factors.

For an estimation of probability of approach of brave event and scales ­ of possible losses along with the known methods described in works by A.N.Petrov, I.Ansoffa concerning the enterprises of a wood complex it is expedient ­ to use the methodical approach developed in the previous section­.

Final iteration in a choice of strategic positions of the enterprise, is connected with an estimation of efficiency of realisation chosen by results of ­ passage of the previous analytical stages of strategy.

the Estimation of efficiency of strategy is necessary for administration what to establish, that strategy realisation corresponds to the enterprise purposes, regarding income reception, decrease in costs and formations of the price for production­.

By results of the analysis the best gets out and with the account tselepolaganija the enterprises, strategy.

In the subsequent at strategy realisation reduction of all resources and the intrafirm communications, all purposes, problems and areas of responsibility ­ of workers in full conformity with the chosen strategy is carried out­. ­ Decomposition of strategic targets and indicators on subordinate levels ­ of management is made,­­ necessary organizational changes are carried out and ­ politicians of each of structural divisions are developed­.

To number of administrative strategic decisions it is possible to carry: ­ enterprise re-structuring; introduction of innovations; an exit on new commodity markets; enterprise merge; change of its organisation-legal form, etc.

At a stage of the strategic control the estimation of results ­ of realisation of strategy and the process control is spent­.

This stage is necessary for detection of problems preventively, not waiting the moment when they will accept critical character.

In the theory of management the control is considered as five step-by-step process an including number of elements:

1) Definition of objects of the control;

2) Identification of the purposes which should be are reached in ­ the designated interval of time;

3) Definition of the reached results of a purpose for ­ a specified period;

4) Comparison of actual results of functioning ­ designated in plans and definition of deviations;

5) Entering of necessary corrective amendments into enterprise activity ­ in case deviation is more than admissible.

In the developed mechanism there is a steady feedback and return influence of each process on the others and on all their set. It is the important feature of system of strategic management.

the Classical approach to questions of strategic management is the rational model based on the careful analysis and detailed study
of the strategic plan. In this case process of strategic management ­ includes three integrated stages: the strategic analysis, a strategic choice and strategy realisation.

For the enterprises of the wood complex which activity differs ­ high levels of difficultly predicted prirodno-climatic risks, introduction of the additional block - risk-management is necessary. Feature of risks in a wood complex consists that their displays often accept character of difficultly predicted and operated act of nature: forest fire, mass reproduction of insects and t.p.

Managerial process by risk in the conditions of uncertainty of an external ­ environment, is based on forecasting of risk and receptions of its decrease. ­ Uncertainty can be considered as a situation condition in which it is impossible to estimate probability of potential result [72]. In a wood complex the uncertainty factor is dominating.

Management of risk assumes revealing of the most dangerous risks, their estimation, operating influence on developed brave situation and ­ working out of ways of decrease in negative consequences of approach of brave ­ events.

Activity on creation and operation of timber industry plantations is subject not only specific prirodno-climatic, but also ­ to social and economic risks because of failures in management. These risks include ­ the imperfect wood legislation and a policy lesoupravlenija, including ­ inefficient mechanisms of attraction of the investments, not developed land legislation ­ and imperfect mechanisms of the resolution of conflicts. It can ­ lead to an encroachment to illegal preparation of wood and deliberate ­ wrongful acts on destruction of wood plantations.

Managerial process by risks includes:

• Recognition I am brave, connected with enterprise activity

• the analysis of probability of occurrence of brave event

• measures of reaction to brave events

• creation of systems for elimination of consequences of realisation of brave events­

• monitoring of efficiency of approaches to management of risks and the control

Professor A.N.Petrov in the textbook «strategic management» ­ underlines, that at the analysis of risks of the enterprise it is expedient to allocate following aspects of the analysis:

- the basic sources of risks;

- an estimation of probability of reception of losses (or nedostizhenija result), the risks connected with separate sources;

- the actions, allowing to lower difficulties of overcoming of arising risks [166].

Prevention of risks should be supplemented with adaptive management ­ which will provide management of timber industry plantations, expecting the future ­ events of risk and supervising consequences of last actions so that it was possible to take corresponding measures for softening of the future damage.

For the enterprises of a wood complex carrying out activity in ­ area creation and operation of timber industry plantations the estimation and management technique is described by brave events above. Its key advantage is presence along with the forecast of profitableness depending on probability of approach of the risk, the scientifically-proved toolkit of a choice of the technological ­ decisions allowing the enterprise to diversify risks. Thus possibilities of effective actions will be defined by presence of resources, ­ flexibility of applied technologies and efficiency of reaction to demand changes on lesoproduktsiju.

the risk Estimation should be based on long-term large-scale networks of the monitoring, capable to reveal the tendency in occurrence of dangers. Management of risks should be concentrated to preventive maintenance by means of application of management methods which can be flexibly adapted to from ­
to varying ecological situations. First of all, for softening ­ of consequences of influence of prirodno-climatic factors it is necessary to use purposeful strategy of increase of stability of timber industry plantations by preventive operative practice and methods of forestry for maintenance of their viability and stability.

Thus, the resource approach to formation of the mechanism of strategic ­ management by the enterprises of a wood complex assumes realisation of following steps: definition of the purposes; prioritizatsija the strategic problems ­ facing to the enterprises, taking into account a condition of an external environment and ­ long-term forecasts of branch development; realisation of analytical procedures ­ on the basis of life cycle of branch and the wood goods; an estimation vnutrennenogo potential of the enterprise from a position of the decision of strategic problems; strategic planning; risk-management; strategy realisation; support of strategic ­ initiatives; the control over strategy realisation, entering of correcting influences; working out of new strategy (if necessary).

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A source: TORZHOK IVAN OLEGOVICH. the MECHANISM of STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT of the ENTERPRISES of the WOOD COMPLEX. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Voronezh - 2018. 2018

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