specificity of working out of strategy of development sotsialnoyokulturnoj spheres

Development strategy represents result of realisation strategiyocheskogo planning and is, accordingly, a part of strategic management. Strategy represents not only behaviour rules obyoekta managements in an environment, it, first of all, acts kakprojavle - nie fundamental bases of the essence of this object and proves in kayochestve the mechanism of its collective perception and functioning [35].

ApYOriori strategy can include any rules of functioning which regulate activity of object of management in relation to results of its activity and processes, to clients and counterparts, sobstyovennym to interests of object of management and its social obligations, management elements etc. competently developed strategy of development gives the chance to structure the limited resources of object of management in the optimum method, thus considering movement of external and internal [36 environment.

Main functions of strategy of development are:

1) reflexion of the program of a choice of the purposes of development of object of management;

2) a finding of a method of achievement of the desirable purposes business aktivnoyosti;

3) reflexion of directions of development of object of management and a set treyobujushchihsja resources;

4) submission detailed, a comprehensive programme of actions and achievement of the desirable purposes of object of management and fulfilment of its mission;

5) submission of set of necessary actions, which odob -

37 reny chiefs for the decision of tasks in view [37].

All it leads to that all strategy acquire some general characteristics. For example, a basis for acceptance of administrative decisions within the limits of any strategy is adaptation of object of management to changed conditions of an external environment. Further, all long-term projects should be supplied, essential preparatory dejayotelnostju to forthcoming works which provides a theoretical substantiation and a detailed plan of actions. And, besides, it is necessary razrayobotat the specific form of planned activity considering the purposes, terms and required resourses, and managements influencing others plots, its forms and functions.

Let's consider the most widespread kinds of strategy razvi - tija. The first of most often chosen strategy is strategy rosyota which includes the limited growth and the integrated growth. Other authors also allocate one more kind of strategy of growth: "trailblazer" ("pioneer", «an early exit»). The given kind of strategy assumes an enter into a market of essentially new goods or service, and advantage gets, thereby, of "the first course». The new markets appear, usually then, koyogda new technologies open or there were new inquiries at potrebiyotelej, or there were new financial instruments, etc.

The second of most often chosen strategy is strategy of stability which suggests to concentrate and support sushchestyovujushchie business directions. Concrete realisation of this strategy vyyostupajut:

- Strategy of strengthening of an item in the market on the basis of lead in snizheyonii costs, i.e. formation of lower price in comparison with konkuyorentami;

- Differentiation of production, i.e. creation unique from the point of view of the consumer of properties of the goods at the expense of service conditions, uluchyoshennogo design or advanced characteristics of the goods;

- Focusing on a certain market segment, i.e.

concentration of activity of the organisation on one of market segments (region) or on special group of buyers (on age, on a bond yield, in relation to social group) [38].

The third kind of strategy is strategy of reduction which isyopolzuetsja if so there were internal or external factors, that obyoekt managements has appeared in a critical situation. Such strategy ispolzuyojutsja in a case when the regrouping of forces after long peyorioda growth or for efficiency growth when take place recession and kardiyonalnoe change in economy as a whole is required. There are variations of strategy of purposeful reduction of business: "harvesting" which is directed on maximum reception in incomes in the short-term period; "turn" which means failure of inefficient products and services; "otdeleyonie" which assumes closing or sale of unprofitable kinds dejatelnosti; "liquidations" which represents closing of all object of management [39].

According to some authors, specificity of strategy of reduction svjayozana with aggravation of all indicators and reduction of object of management to operated liquidation. An orientation of strategy of reduction it is strict proyotivopolozhna orientations of strategy of growth and stability [40].

Thus, as a main sign of strategic management mozhyono to consider orientation to long-term objectives, and also availability razraboyo
tannoj strategy which, in turn, represents the system

41 strategic decision in the form of a relevant action programme.

As fairly it has been noted in D.M.Bulavinoj's devoted to design management by sphere of culture [41 [42] special work, in these conditions the contents of a role and culture functions in company radically varies, there is a transformation of culture into a resource sotsialnoyoekonomicheskogo developments of regions. With reference to an economic science the given problem was actively developed and developed on obshcheteoreyoticheskom level in a context of a parity private, public and meri - the even blessings. Leaning against model Lindalja-Vikselja modified by A.J.Rubinshtejnom (fig. 3), it is possible to allocate a special zone, harakteriziruju - shchuju a question on working out of technologies of management with reference to culture sphere.

RisunokZ - Updating of model Lindalja-Vikselja of A.J.Rubinshtejna

On the one hand, strategic management of sphere of culture with ekoyonomicheskoj the points of view is connected with a pricing problem on razlichyonye objects from an item of individual, public and state demand. On the other hand, the coordination of interests of the state is necessary,
Companies and persons, that also demands working out of not trivial approaches to strategic management.

In the conditions of structural crisis of world and Russian economy a special urgency process of optimisation of costs obshchestyovennogo acquires economy sectors. There are two cardinally different points zreyonija about that role which plays public sector in similar sotsialnoyoekonomicheskih conditions. The first point of view recognises that costs for financing of public sector are extremely unproductive and snizhayojut efficiency of functioning of all social and economic sisteyomy. There is a classical economic dilemma between efficiency of economic system and observance of a concept of justice.

In social and economic system two continuously act proyotivopolozhnye tendencies: to equality and an inequality, to balance and neravyonovesiju, to equation and imbalance [43]. The state, akyotivno carrying out redistributive processes, blocks the built in self-regulators present in a market mechanism that leads snizheyoniju growth of economic efficiency of system. As economic practice has shown sovremenyonaja, the market itself does not supply production of variety of the blessings necessary for company and the state. In the scientific literature such kinds of the blessings have received the name public, meritornyh, the sponsored blessings.

Production of the given blessings in all countries incurs the state. In the conditions of crisis it is offered to cut down as much as possible the given expenses and to start the further process of privatisation state sobstvennoyosti. This process should be accompanied by active introduction of outsourcing in the state companies when they funktsionala on konyokursnyh conditions should transmit a part of the to a private sector, as will allow optiyomizirovat the State expenditure.

The second point of view recognises that costs public sekyotora in the conditions of crisis can serve as certain drivers of growth for all social and economic system. As the similar driver costs for national defence can to serve, for example. Proceeding from the given point of view, there is a lawful question, whether costs for financing of culture and objects cultural nasleyodija and how much these costs which are incurred by the state, in general opyoravdany in the conditions of crisis can act as drivers of growth. Some politicians and economists consider, that in the conditions of reduction of prices on energy carriers in the world market neproyoduktivnye the State expenditure should be as much as possible reduced. There is a danger, that to unproductive costs can be carried both costs for culture and preservation of objects of a cultural heritage. podyocherkivaja importance and a problem urgency, it is possible to address to works To. Errou where it comes to conclusion, that more than two thirds of budget of the USA rasyohoduetsja on socially useful actions [44].

Within the limits of our research we put before ourselves a problem povyyosit efficiency of the government welfare sphere at national economy mesolevel. Specificity of strategic management here is caused by the features of the blessings generated in given sphere. We will analyse specific character of the blessings made in sotsiyoalno-cultural sphere, namely we will stay on its cultural aspect, and feature of functioning of the branch in more details.

However, before to start the given analysis, it is necessary opreyodelitsja with the general understanding of culture and its economic contents. In the general view the culture can be defined as unity of three osyonovnyh contents:

As special sphere of ability to live of the person, representing soyoboj all set historically created by the person material and
Cultural wealth. Immersing in the given sphere acts as the core isyotochnikom self-reproduction of mankind and the basic tool of process of socialisation;

obektivatsija results of creativity of separate persons, the people and civilisations in their social life, realised at level materialyonyh carriers in objects of a cultural heritage, and at level of values - in rituals, traditions, legends, myths, language etc.;

Set of "the second nature» (F.Bekon) built within the limits of historical activity of the person and expressed in aggregate vnebio - logic forms, mechanisms and the means of activity aimed on adapyotatsiju (adaptation) to an environment [45].

In this connection, we in our further work will start with poyonimanija culture as the environment supplying reproduction of the nation and representing diverse material both non-material blayoga and the values which have been accumulated within the limits of its historical development.

In this significance, each nation has the cultural features acting as macrolevel of formation of economic relations. NaYOshe the understanding acts some kind of development of the approach of D.M.Bulavinoj in which it was offered expanded, integrativnoe understanding of culture as «not only a layer material and cultural wealth, but also a part sotsiyoalnoj the validity, the methods produced by company, activity mechanisms... As is difficult-evolving structure, vzaimodejstyovujushchaja with the most different spheres of human activity - from an education sphere before urban planning, from the organisation of festivals and tuyorizma to industrial design» [46].

At material level it is presented by artefacts (pictures, a sculpture, exhibits of museums and galleries etc.), objects of the cultural
Heritages (architecture, including architecture monuments, landscape zoyonami, national parks etc.). At non-material level - theatre, a cinema, music etc.

P.Dimadzhio by consideration of economy of culture offers otyotalkivatsja from three positions:

- All economic processes have a "not reduced" cultural component;

- The account of the cultural environment at acceptance of economic decisions pozvoyoljaet is better to explain economic processes;

- kognitivnye the phenomena influence economic relations and resheyonija, accepted by economic agents or subjects [47].

It is possible to allocate two approaches to the analysis of interference of culture and economy. The first approach recognises that culture and economic behaviour act vzaimoobuslovlennymi as the phenomena. The culture predosyotavljaet to us a category, allowing to participate in economic action. The second approach recognises that culture defines certain norms and konyoventsii which limit prosecution by economic agents of the egoistical interests.

Leaning against the second approach, it is possible to make a hypothesis that rasyohody on culture positively affect on national sotsialnoyoekonomicheskoj to system through formation of one more of mechanisms on coordination of interests of various managing agents or subjects. The modern approach to research of questions of mutual influence ekonomiyoki and cultures, and also formation of "economic culture» should bayozirovatsja on principles mezhdistsiplinarnosti, integrating in itself ekonomiyochesky and administrative approaches. The approaches formulated by P.DimadYozhio, allow us to say that costs for culture form neyokuju environment in which there is an economic agent. Environment influences on
Formation of certain type of economic behaviour, and ekonomicheyoskoe behaviour influences formation of the cultural environment.

Historical experience constantly shows to economists, that sushcheyostvuet the special kind of the blessings, which production is not entered in standard market mechanisms and cannot do without "guardianship" from the party gosuyodarstva. The blessings generated and saved in sphere of culture concern the similar blessings. The culture economy as a part of an economic science became object of steadfast attention after occurrence of work of V.Baumolja and V.Bouena under the name «Performing arts - economic dilemyoma», come out in 1966 In the work they prove sushchestvovayonie «illnesses of the prices», peculiar culture for some sectors which is characterised by that costs grow more fast, than the prices [48 [49].

Interest of economists to sphere of culture and preservation of objects kulyoturnogo heritages last years has started to increase. Are undertaken poyopytki to analyze it in a context of communications with economic growth and zanjayotostju the population. D.Trosbi notices, that today the culture acts odyonim from components of economic development and it begins op - 49 redeljat the state economic policy more and more.

From D.Norta's items, the culture represents transfer from one generation to other of knowledge, values and other factors influencing on poyovedenie economic agents and subjects. These values are saved and transmitted by means of the so-called "sponsored" blessings. In the work we will adhere to the given definition.

Thus, the culture as object of design management from items of economy of culture appears as is difficult-evolving unity geyoneratsii the specific blessings supplying reproduction ekonomicheyoskih of agents, some kind of «material economic rhetoric»
(D.Makkloski, D.Raskin, A.Klamer, etc.) [50] and functioning environments agenyotov, defining conditions as individual recreation of their human potential, and the general valuable frameworks informal institutsionalyonoj environments of their interaction.

In theory it is accepted to distinguish public, meritornye and the sponsored blessings (tab. 3). Both material, and non-material, it is possible to carry objects of culture to a specific version of the sponsored blessings. A.J.RubinYoshtejn carries performing arts to the sponsored blessings (teatralyonuju, concert activity), activity of museums.

Table 3 - Definitions public, meritornyh and the sponsored blessings

Blessing kind Definition The author opredeyolenija
Public good The blessings having two properties:-impossibility to limit their use;

- Similar restriction will be undesirable.

J. Stiglits [51]
Public good The blessings having two properties:-nesopernichestvom;

- neiskljuchaemostju.

L.I.Yakobson [52]
Meritornoe the blessing The blessings, demand on which from private persons otyostaet from «wished by company» also is stimulated goyosudarstvom. R.A.Masgrejv [53 [54]
Sponsored blayogo The blessings in relation to which the company has a standard interest and which require support from the state. A.JA.rub

- 54


Source: it is made by the author on the basis of [175], [151], [228], [252]

Criterion of their reference to the given kind of the blessings the availability for them «illness of the prices», acts for the first time as the formulated V.Baumolem and V.Bouenom. Thus, consideration of objects of material culture, especially obekyotov a cultural heritage frequently remains outside of studying ekonoyomiki cultures.

In an economic science it is accepted to allocate following kinds of the blessings: chisyotye the private blessings, the public goods, the mixed blessings. Does the blessing obyoshchestvennym availability of two properties: neiskljuchaemost consumption of the given blessings from consumption of one at consumption by others and their non-competitiveness, i.e. absence between economic agents of struggle for the right them oblayodat or to use. Economic practice visually shows nayolichie certain blessings which demand constant support from the party gosuyodarstva and without such support cannot exist. A.J.Rubinshtejn operates with definition the sponsored blessings as which he understands «tovayory and services, concerning production and which consumption the company has a certain standard interest» [55].

The availability in economy of the sponsored blessings puts three problems before researchers: first, it is necessary to be defined precisely, what blessings popadayojut under definition of the sponsored blessings; secondly, it is necessary to understand in motiyovah public guardianship for the similar blessings; thirdly, economic and institutsionalnyh mechanisms of guardianship the estimation of efficiency is necessary for the similar blessings sistemyonaja.

In an economic theory it was generated two approaches to an estimation neobyohodimosti guardianship of those or other blessings. The first approach within the limits of English economic tradition has concentrated the efforts to revealing of failures of the market and production of so-called public goods.

The second approach within the limits of German economic tradition skontsenyotriroval the attention to problems of motivation of guardianship and formiroyovanii public requirements of company. Here we face with proyoblemoj formations of public interests. The German tradition fiksiyoruet availability of public interest which is not set of interests of separate members of company and does not act as requirement of all
Members of company together taken, i.e. it is determined by the nature obeyodinenija individuals [56].

First of all, it is possible to carry products to the sponsored blessings funyodamentalnoj scientific activity, formation service, public health services, creation and preservation of works of art, preservation of objects kulyoturnogo heritages. The key work bringing an attention to the question on necessity of guardianship from the state of sphere of culture, A.J.RuYobinshtejna's work «the Sponsored blessings in culture sphere acts: signs and consequences of" illness of the prices »[57].

Research of economy of culture assumes studying of two it sekyotorov. Allocate cultural and creative sektory. The cultural sector includes:

- Performing arts production of the blessings, predyonaznachennyh for direct consumption (also assumes concerts, theatres etc.);

- The benefits of culture intended for mass distribution (films, books etc.);

- The blessings including objects of a cultural heritage (museums, payomjatniki histories, archeology and t d.).

The creative sector includes research economic osyonov fashions, design, advertising. We in the research will concentrate on the first sector of economy of culture.

For Russia the problem of effective strategic management and sohrayonenija objects of culture represents rather actual problem. It is caused by that in Russia the polyethnic civilisation fastened by Russian cultural language [58] was generated. The modern situation in Rossijyosky Federation and the world is characterised by growth mezhenticheskoj and mezhkonfesyo
sionalnoj intensity. Thereupon there is a necessity of search puyotej formations of a uniform cultural generality. Preservation of objects kultuyory and growth of the State expenditure on culture as a whole will allow to solve this problem. Thus financing of costs for preservation of all objects of the culture which are in territory of the Russian Federation, without dependence from their national identity is necessary. As practice shows hozjajstvenyonaja, it is necessary to improve approaches to strategic management of objects of culture on the basis of state-private partnership.

In the Federal purpose-oriented programme «Culture of Russia (2012-2018)» a task in view of a conclusion of culture on level of active sharing in sotsialnoyoekonomicheskih processes [59]. Are For this purpose necessary formation and institu - tsializatsija mechanisms on effective preservation of objects of culture for maintenance of growth of financing of costs for culture not only for the account goyosudarstvennyh means, but also at the expense of growth of costs of commercial sector.

Market financing of culture probably through development metsenatyostva, charity, development of the market of cultural values and privlecheyonie business to sharing in economically effective projects in sphere kultuyory. It is necessary to consider, that at formation state-private partneryostva in sphere of financing of culture and the objects concerning cultural values, there can be certain risks.

It is possible to carry to such risks: first, financial losses from neefyofektivnogo uses of objects of a cultural heritage; secondly, deforyomatsiju uniform cultural space of the Russian Federation; thirdly, infringement of a principle of equal access to cultural values; fourthly, possible loss of objects of the cultural heritage, arising at situayotsii backlogs of rates of their restoration from rates of their deterioration.

For effective practical realisation of an innovative policy in the field of strategic management of objects of culture it is necessary to pay
Attention to a number of the theoretical moments stipulating specificity funkyotsionirovanija and financing of sphere of culture.

Objects of a cultural heritage, along with traditional for rassmotyorenija museums, theatres and libraries, etc., can be rightfully carried to one of versions of the sponsored blessings. Here, starting with vyyoskazannogo above the assumption of formation of public interests, there is a lawful question on necessity of expenditure of public funds for a problem of their preservation and approval of the given costs from separately taken economic agents.

Today it is actually carried out for the account institutsionalnyh the restrictions entering system defined obremeneny on sobstvenniyokov and users of given objects. At the same time, objects of a cultural heritage are traditionally paid in the past and do not mention again sozdanyonyh the architectural objects which are representing itself as carriers kulturyonogo of a code (for example, a complex Moscow-city or park "Зарядье" etc.), thereby the general contour of a strategic data control objects nahoyoditsja as though out of problems of social and economic development of the country, vypolyonjaja only a problem of preservation of traditions.

The given approach to strategic management of objects of culture includes elements of the design approach both has universal character and forms culture sphere as ekzogennyj the factor of economic development. Thus completion of methods and tools of strategic management of welfare sphere with use of mechanisms of the design approach, and also adaptation of foreign experience at present is required.

It is possible to consider as a unique historical exception Soviet according to plan-management system, with its orientation to a postulate ekonomiyocheskogo basis as bases for formation of a cultural superstructure. In our opinion, it is necessary in developed now geoekonomi - cheskoj situations to bring an attention to the question on more complex approach to design management of objects of culture - as endogennom the factor strategic
The social and economic development which generation cannot be to the full supplied by market mechanisms, but without realisation kotoyoryh effective market institutes and in general the effective institutsioyonalno-economic environment it is built cannot be.

At first sight, preservation of objects of a cultural heritage obuslavyolivaetsja public and cultural problems. If to look at this problem from items of the psihologo-economic approach preservation obyoektov a cultural heritage will promote formation of the natsioyonalno-focused economic agents in strategic perspekyotive.

In A.N.Neverova and A.JU.Markelov's works civilisation formiyoruetsja at the expense of three components: adequate economic socialisation of agents, responsibility and national identity [60]. National identity is formed under the influence of the cultural environment in which it is socialised, and then and there is an economic agent. The problem gosudaryostva consists in saving informal kulturnoyoistoricheskie institutes for transfer of customs, traditions, features and certain behavioural patterns to the subsequent generations of economic agents. At alternation of generations of economic agents for maintenance efyofektivnogo process of their reproduction it is necessary to consider preemstyovennost the generations, basing on preservation of informal base institutes.

At microlevel each economic agent presented indiyovidom (domohozjajstvom), should know a cultural heritage of the family and divide the valuable installations generated in a family. At level reyogiona preservation of monuments of a cultural heritage for formiyorovanija the cultural environment promoting growth positive (patrioyoticheskih) of feelings to region in which the economic agent places is necessary.
At macrolevel objects of a cultural heritage solve a problem on formiroyovaniju national identity of economic agents. At all levels of economic system the culture can simultaneously act and as isyotochnikom, defining preferences of the economic agent, and istochyonikom restrictions of their behaviour.

In the conditions of outflow of the national capital abroad and reductions of internal investments orientation of agents to traditional national cultural values and trust increase to national economy and the state institutes is necessary. From here costs for culture and preservation of objects of a cultural heritage act as a part strategicheyoskoj problems on maintenance of economic safety Russian FedeYOratsii.

Two basic trends modern sotsialnoyoekonomicheskogo developments have changed institutsionalnuju environment, transformiyorovav valuable reference points and norms of behaviour in the Russian company. It is possible to carry universal distribution to them informatsionnoyokommunikatsionnyh both computer technologies and growth of influence of cultures of other countries within the limits of globalisation processes. Reduction of demand for live performing arts, thus employment in the given sector is fixed grew, and labour productivity showed negative dynamics [61].

The given tendencies have led to reduction of demand for national benefits of culture. Last three years decrease in effect of processes of globalisation and increase in demand at benefits of culture of our country is marked. Return of interest to national cultural values should be accompanied by growth of financing of programs on preservation of objects of a cultural heritage and their popularisation, first of all, at youth. MuYOzei, theatres and other objects of culture are incapable to compensate the
Costs at the expense of primary activity. The company should search for various sources of indemnification of a budgeted deficit of the similar organisations.

Budgetary grants or tax concessions can be such sources from the state. From market institutes - sponyosorskaja support and creation of funds of the target capital. From the organisations of culture - leasing of the present areas etc. For those who makes the sponsored blessings, search effektivyonoj structures of the unearned income will be always characteristic, allowing to compensate an arising budgeted deficit. The state problem consists in that in load distribution on indemnification of financing of the sponsored blessings to find an optimum combination between costs of the state, rashoyodami institutes of market sector (sponsors) and incomes of nonbasic activity of the organisations of culture for the purpose of cover of their deficiency of the income. The design of the institutes supplying system effective vzaimodejstyovie given subjects (the states, the organisations of culture, market instiyotutov) under indemnification of deficiencies and the budget, will depend on concrete social and economic conditions and valuable orientations and predpochteyony, public priorities influencing formation.

For maintenance of effective functioning of the organisations kulyotury and preservations of monuments of a cultural heritage it is necessary to decide a number institutsionalnyh the problems connected with modernisation of elements imejuyoshchejsja institutsionalnoj of environment. It is necessary to solve the questions connected with effective financing of activity of the organisations of culture and ohrayony of monuments of a cultural heritage, to build in relation to them optiyomalnuju budgetary and a tax policy, to continue modernisation of the present legislation etc. At mesolevel successfully to decide a part of these problems working out of effective strategy of development sotsialnoyokulturnoj spheres on the basis of introduction of the design approach to management of culture sphere will allow.

Studying protsessovstrategicheskogo managements of objects of culture faces necessity of a theoretical substantiation of level gosuyodarstvennyh costs for financing of the given sphere. As one of kljucheyovyh questions of the theory of public goods the question on acceptance strayotegicheskih decisions on size of costs for financing of the given blessings from the state acts. Volumes of financing of sphere of culture from the state and search of not state sources of funds kulyoturnyh the blessings represents in the conditions of necessity of reduction bjudzhetyonyh costs a serious administrative problem.

On the one hand, always there is a desire first of all sokrayotit level of costs for the given kind of the blessings. It is connected with sformirovavshimyosja stable submission that it will not be reflected in any way on ekonoyomicheskoj to system. Often such item is connected by that the share of costs for culture in structure of the consolidated budget is rather insignificant, and such costs are perceived as unnecessary burden. At such approach proishoyodit a mutation of institute of public support of culture, transformiruyojas in a phenomenon of personal charity at the expense of budgetary funds [62]. Here the sense of a phenomenon of charity, and sphere kultuyory is deformed remains always nedofinansirovannoj.

At development of the scientifically-proved approaches to financing and strategic management of objects of culture it is necessary, before vseyogo, to make an attempt the analysis of mechanisms of acceptance public resheyony about necessity and volumes of financing of objects of culture and all branch as a whole. For development of items about priyonjatii and approval from company of decisions on financing obekyotov cultures from the state act as a methodological basis the approaches presented within the limits of three directions: individualism, holizma and the approach underlying the theory sotsiodinamiki, the formulated A.J.Rubinshtejnom. To a wasp
novnoj methodological dispute consists in a discourse between individuayolizmom and holizmom.

In A.J.Rubinshtejna's researches attempt teoreticheyoskogo substantiations of necessity of the State expenditure on support of a science, formation and culture is undertaken. Within the limits of classification of the blessings it is offered to divide the blessings into the blessings having public utility, and the blessings, oblayodajushchie individual utility. The blessings with public utility are intended for satisfaction of not reduced interests of company. A.J.Rubinshtejna's theory has the big applied significance as gives the chance to us of a substantiation of specifications of financing of culture and pozvoljayoet to generate a number of approaches to rationing of expenses for culture. NormaYOtivy financings of culture establishments should depend on the price on which the state purchases from manufacturers of their benefits of culture sotsiyoalnuju utility [63].

Leaning against theoretical positions of the theory sotsiodinamiki, A.RuYobinshtejn suggests to allocate in financing of culture establishments two parts. The first part of costs of the budget should be equal to costs for the full indemnification of production costs of the social blessings. Data izyoderzhki will include state costs on preservation and razviyotiju cultural potential. The second part of costs is the part of the expenditures on public account directed on financing of the mixed blessings, i.e. costs for cultural service of the population. Here there is a lawful question on an establishment of certain proportions between these two parts. The given question demands additional scientific surveys. Leaning against all aforesaid, we can present a methodological skeleton issleyodovanija, a causing choice of its priority sources finansiroyovanija (tab. 4).

Table 4 - the Methodological skeleton of research of economy of culture and priority sources of its financing

Theoretical skeleton Orientation on inyoteresy Base tendencies Priority istochyoniki financings
Principles metoyodologicheskogo inyodividualizma Financing of benefits of culture with orientation on mediannogo izbiyoratelja Mass culture development, decrease cultural standaryotov, introduction kulyoturnyh stereotypes. Transformation kultuyory in business Financing masyosovoj cultures at the expense of consumers of benefits of culture. FiYOnansirovanie elitaryonoj cultures at the expense of charity
Principles metoyodologicheskogo hoyolizma Financing of benefits of culture with orientation on inyoteresy the states Priority finanyosirovanie that kulyoturnyh the blessings which realise ideologiyocheskuju function. Transformation kultuyory in ideology Exclusive fiyonansirovanie with stoyorony the states
The theory sotsiodiyonamiki Financing of benefits of culture with orientation on komplementarnost individual and social poyotrebnostej Komplementarnoe culture financing, vkljuchajuyoshchee the State expenditure:

On preservation and development of benefits of culture;

On cultural obyosluzhivanie naseleyonija.

Transformation kultuyory in as much as possible accessible blessing without decrease in cultural standards

Financing kulyotury within the limits of gosuyodarstvenno-private partnership. The state bears costs on sohraneyoniju and to development kulyoturnyh the blessings. A private sector costs on cultural obsluzhiyovanie the population

Source: it is made by the author

On the basis of the analysis of various methodological parcels, in T.V.Abankinoj's works generalisation of existing models of management by welfare sphere is offered:

1) «Paternalistsky model» state support kultuyory. The given model, according to T.V.Abankinoj, starts with the theory opekaeyomyh the blessings R.Masgrejva developed in works by U.Baumolja, U.Bouena and A.J.RuYobinshtejna and consists in aspiration to compensate deficiency of incomes, vozniyokajushchih at the culture organisations for the objective reasons (owing to action
So-called «illnesses of the prices»), in which number and «market failures». Thus, deficiency is compensated simultaneously both at the expense of budgetary assigyonovany, and through measures of indirect support, for example, through tax preferentsii [64].

2) «Investment model», based, according to T.V.abanki ache, on essentially other methodological items. The theoretical and ideological base of the given model is formed not by the theory public and me - ritornyh the blessings, and the theory of the human capital (T.Shults, G.Bekker, N.I.Gvozdev, A.I.Dobrynin, etc.) . The approach to the person as to the carrier osoyobogo the factor of production, the investment in which increase level of its yield, within the limits of the given model extends on consumption subyoektom benefits of culture, and also, in our opinion, can be rasproyostranen and on Wednesday of ability to live. In this model, "consumption" (or use) objects of culture acts as the original investment into accumulation by the individual of the human capital. As a whole, dividing T.V.Abankinoj's approach, we attach importance to notice, that in even bolshej degrees, rather than the human capital, culture sphere promotes nakopyoleniju the social capital. In if to consider the given process with poziyotsy theories of the symbolical capital of P.Burde the in itself culture already acts as the general symbolical capital, forming some kind of eksternayolii for all individuals acting in its circle and firms.

Therefore, use of investment model, for today requires, first of all, development of theoretical base strategicheskogoa - naliza, capable to reveal effect of investments into culture not only on urovyone the individual or domohozjajstva (i.e. within the limits of the theory human kapitayola), but also at state level (i.e. through an estimation of yield from investments into culture at public finance level).

3) «Stimulating model», based, according to T.V.abanki ache, on the concept "creative" (and it is possible - postindustrial) ekonoyomiki. According to the given model, the culture is perceived as a resource of new model of economic development, as the acting agent of changes, istochyonik new thinking and creative activity of the person. As marks T.V.Abankina, within the limits of the given model the culture akkumuliyoruet positive effects in different spheres is postulated, that «, allows to transform weaknesses in strong, that transition to a cooperation and cooperation item oryoganizatsy cultures with other subjects allows to improve the urban environment, to develop tourism, to involve investments, thereby to initiate creation of new jobs, the decision of social and economic problems and conflict situations in the modern world» [65].

Within the limits of stimulating model the role of the government objects of culture concentrates round three primary goals:

Creation of conditions for development of the creative industries and professioyonalnoj migrations of art workers in this or that state;

Increase of migratory appeal of territory for «kreayotivnogo a class» at the expense of concentration on it of cultural objects and sozdayonija the favorable comfortable cultural environment;

Maintenance of effective protection of intellectual property and objects of culture.

Within the limits of the third model it is widely used design podyohod kstrategicheskomu to management of objects of the culture, realised through design and program financing.

However, as marks T.V.Abankina, despite various metodoloyogicheskie the bases, all three models at level of their realisation are faster dopolyonjajut one another in what and «the culture phenomenon consists - it represents sinkretichnyj, difficult arranged humanitarian sector of the modern
Economy; only association of the financial instruments aimed at different results, it is possible to "strap" from different sources necessary reyosursy for high-grade development of sphere of culture »[66].

On the basis of the carried out research we can put forward a number of hypotheses. F.Fukujama understands as culture certain inherited eticheyosky skill in which basis the certain idea or the prices - nost [67] can lay. In the first case, from the point of view of a principle methodological indiyovidualizma, the state at decision-making on culture financing will be guided on certain "mediannogo" the consumer of benefits of culture, i.e. to be guided by the consumer which is precisely posereyodine scales of individual interests of set of consumers of the given kind of the blessings. «mediannyj the consumer» benefits of culture will consume only such benefits of culture which are interesting to it. Only such culture which will be from here will develop is better to correspond inyoteresam and ohotnee all to be purchased by such consumer. An example podobyonoj situations culture development in the USA throughout XX century can be.

The American company constructed on principles of individualism, began to present actively demand for a mass culture, i.e. the culture began to turn to business, being guided in the development on a principle, that luchyoshe all is sold, in some cases and are issued for culture. MassoYOvaja the culture is focused, first of all, on passive consumption, vkljuyochajushchee in itself entertainment, derivation and self-deception [68].

The mass culture is a kind of the culture focused on usrednenyonyj taste of consumers of benefits of culture and commercial success. As the basic source of funds of culture will act here potrebiyo
teli benefits of culture. The elite culture will serve in such conditions as object of prestigious consumption, and its basic source finansiroyovanija private charity will act. The elite culture for groups with special requirements becomes the goods of prestigious demand on T.Veblenu. Consumption of elite culture in such conditions is one of accessory signs to group with the high social status. EliYOtarnaja the culture, first of all, is financed vysokoobespeyochennymi by social classes. The elite culture can and simulate obogayoshchenie life experience of the person, and create visibility of familiarising with creativity.

Within the limits of the second methodological platform, for example, in planned socialist system of managing instead of «mediannogo potrebiteyolja» we will be guided on «the standard consumer» benefits of culture. Here the culture problem to generate the citizen of a certain company. The state starts to saturate overworkly culture with ideology, thus the state here is a unique source of funds kulyoturnyh the blessings. From the economic point of view the culture loses variety of economically useful functions or quality of these functions can sniyozhatsja (for example, function of restoration of quality of a labour (rekreayotsionnaja function), dosugovaja function etc.). In such system balance maintenance between standard function and economically polezyonymi culture functions will be important.

In theory sotsiodinamiki A.Rubinshtejna and R.Grinberg are postulated availability of certain public interests not reduced to individual, and also them komplementarnost. In the conditions of methodological individualizyoma at orientation to interests "mediannogo" the consumer of benefits of culture the state will carry out financing of benefits of culture, in kotoyoryh can be not interested itself. The state can be zaintereyosovano in orientation to high cultural standards, instead of to a mass culture. Proceeding from base postulates of the theory sotsiodinamiki, we prihoyo
dim to a conclusion, that orientation to increase of availability of benefits of culture for bolshej population parts, thus being guided on high cultural standards will be the primary goal of the state here. Culture financing at such approach should be guided by development of gosudaryostvenno-private partnership.

G osudarstvo should concentrate the efforts within the limits of two napravyoleny:

Preservations of present benefits of culture;

Creation of conditions for occurrence of new benefits of culture.

The private sector should concentrate efforts to financing usyolug on cultural service of the population. Private sector orientation here is caused by that costs for culture in the certain plan reyoshajut economic problems and positively affect quality cheloyovecheskogo the capital and its recreation in the course of the leisure connected with potrebyoleniem of benefits of culture [69]. Within the limits of the given approach interest will be predyostavljat practice of creation of endaument-funds. The practice essence consists in creation of such fund at the expense of means of commercial sector, predostavyoljajushchego the noncommercial organisation on a gratuitous basis the capital. This capital is transferred in confidential control of the managing director kompayonii. The received income goes on expenses on financing of benefits of culture. From our point of view, at research of processes of strategic management by objects of culture it is necessary to make a start from the methodological platform presented in theory sotsiodinamiki. Leaning on priveyodennyj above a methodological skeleton, we offer following algoyoritm researches of processes of strategic management by objects kulyotury (fig. 4).

Drawing 4 - Algorithm of research of processes of strategic management of welfare sphere, including objects of culture

The carried out analysis of features of strategic management of sotsiyoalno-cultural sphere allows to draw following conclusions:

1. The culture as object of strategic management on a basis proektyonogo a campaign appears as is difficult-evolving unity of generation of the specific blessings supplying reproduction economic agenyotov, some kind of «material economic rhetoric» and environments funkyotsionirovanija the agents, defining conditions, as individual rekreayotsii their human potential, and the general valuable frameworks neforyomalnoj institutsionalnoj environments of their interaction.

2. Features of welfare sphere as object of strategic management with use of the design approach are allocated:

Specificity of the blessings generated in given sphere concerning to "opeyokaemym" to the blessings;

Specificity of financing of the given sphere;

Complexity of an estimation of productivity of functioning of branch.

It is reasonable, that the welfare sphere renders neposredstyovennoe influence on economy in two aspects:

- The culture acts as a source of formation of preferences ekonoyomicheskih agents;

- The culture acts institutsionalnoj as a framework of behaviour of agents. 3. The author puts forward a hypothesis that, considering the importance given sfeyory for social and economic development and specificity of the given branch to increase efficiency of strategic management probably for the account isyopolzovanija mechanisms of the design approach at strategic level of management of welfare sphere and especially on a mesoeconomic level of economic system, and the author's algorithm issledoyovanija is offered.

4. On the basis of various methodological approaches (holizma, indiviyodualizma, sotsiodinamiki) the development model sotsialnoyokulturnoj spheres depending on chosen methodological platforyo is offered the theory
We, describing base tendencies which should be considered strateyogiej developments and priority sources of funds.

Thus, having considered specificity of welfare sphere, we can give offers on adaptation of a technique of working out of strategy of development by such specific object as welfare sphere.

Kinds, the strategy offered for the commercial organisations, estestyovenno, cannot to be applied in not adapted kind to objects of sotsiyoalno-cultural sphere. However, the general principles can be rasprostrayoneny as follows. For a choice of strategy of development we can vosyopolzovatsja updating of a matrix of the Boston consulting group in which instead of growth rates and a market share we will use following parametres:

1) value of the generated blessing for the state and company (on a vertical);

2) a demand among "mediannogo" the consumer (on gorizonyotali).

Hence, we adapt traditional strategy of development sleyodujushchim in the image.

1) growth - an investment of means of a public finance for maksiyomalnogo distributions of the information on the blessings which are with one stoyorony object of a cultural heritage or a high cultural value, and, with other claimed among target audience, i.e. the given strategy priyomenjaetsja, if both parametres above 50 %. The share state finansiroyovanija is more in a variant intensive growth and less in a variant ogranichenyonyj growth. The maximum priority at an estimation of projects of development of the given "sponsored" blessings with other things being equal.

2) stability - a choice of a variant of a combination of self-financing of the blessings for the account mediannogo the consumer and state financing for reception of the maximum effect from the sponsored blessings, the given strategy is applied, if a demand of the given benefit of culture big, and
Value as object of a cultural heritage small (it is less than 50 %). An average priority at an estimation of projects of development of the given "sponsored" blessings.

3) reduction - in the given variant, the blessings generated by sotsialyono-cultural sphere, however, not recognised objects cultural nayosledija, and not polzujushchie demand at "mediannogo" the consumer, pass to financing from the consumer and natural by terminate the existence. A minimum priority at an estimation of projects.

Using the given tool of the strategic analysis, it is possible povyyosit efficiency of the State expenditure on welfare sphere, creating thus conditions for preservation of objects cultural nayosledija which in turn, influence behaviour economic agenyotov. Such mechanism allows the state to support high kulturyonyj level of the population and to create favorable economic conditions for development of relevant behaviour of economic agents.


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A source: Tarnovsky Vladimir Viktorovich. WORKING out of STRATEGY of DEVELOPMENT of WELFARE SPHERE ON THE BASIS OF MECHANISMS of DESIGN MANAGEMENT. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. An eagle - 2018. 2018

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