1.1. Stability of the enterprise in the conditions of dynamical market

ÔÓá¡ßõ«Ó¼áµ¿«¡¡ÙÑ environment of the phenomenon in economy of Russia and the difficulties tested
The majority of the industrial enterprises, action of some objective and subjective factors are a consequence.
Essential significance has availability or absence of the qualified, comprehensive and duly analysis of a management efficiency stability of the enterprise and the precritical estimation precritical and crisis criteria of conditions, ways and methods of their overcoming.
The basic problem of stability of the enterprises lays in an instability plane transformatsionnogo conditions of economy of Russia which tries to find the place in mirohozjajstvennyh relations. In a broad sense the problem of stability of the enterprise is defined by stability of the surrounding economic environment. As the market category it reflects position of the managing subject in market macroeconomic system.
The general character of stability of economy is shown in a number of integrated parametres. Given tab. 1.1 testify, that growth rates of gross national product were changed from falling (1995) to high (a gain of 10 % in 2000) and slowed down. Indicators of accumulation of a fixed capital (high in 2000 and sharp recession in 2002) were especially astable. Process of accumulation of a fixed capital in 2005 was even more astable, especially in the industry, influencing on all enterprises, their enterprise decisions. In production of cars and the equipment of the investment into a fixed capital have fallen in 2005 to 98,4 % to level of 2004 and have made only 0,5 % to a result of all investments in a fixed capital in the country.
Table 1.1
Dynamics of the cores macroeconomic показателей3 (in % to previous year) 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Gross internal product 95,9 110,0 105,1 104,7 107,3 107,2 Gross accumulation 89,2 175,2 116,7 97,4 113,2 113,6 Gross accumulation of a fixed capital of 92,5 118,1 110,2 102,8 112,8 110,8 Investments into a fixed capital 89,9 117,4 110,0 102,8 112,8 110,9 Source: Investments into Russia, 2005. Stat. sb. - M: Rosstat, 2005. With. 12.
In scientific understanding and a substantiation of theoretical approaches to a problem of management of stability of the enterprise it is necessary not only the analysis of various theoretical concepts, but also synthesis of mutually exclusive ideas as the separate enterprise objectively is under the influence of set of inconsistent factors, constantly functions in the unstable general macroeconomic environment and this environment should supply the rather stable position not to drop out of number of subjects of market relations, to supply continuation krugooborota and ownership capital escalating. For the enterprise stability is a problem of preservation of economic viability.
In natural sciences of a problem of stability and instability of systems and processes have deep scientific working out. General scientific ideas contain in philosophy as methodological basis of sciences. The most outstanding mathematicians and mechanics attended to a stability problem: A.M.Ljapunov, Z.La-Sall, I.G.Malkin, A.Puankare, L.Tsezari, Lagranzh, I.E.Zhukovsky, V.V. Rumjantsev, etc.
As initial definition of stability with reference to a condition of balance of dynamic system it is possible to use definition A.M.
Lyapunov. According to its concept, the equilibrium condition will be stable if for any set area of maximum deviations from a condition of balance (area) it is possible to indicate such area d (the including
Balance condition), that the trajectory of any movement which have begun in area yo, never will reach area borders e.
According to J. The caste, a word "stability" means, that something (can be, system) is capable to react of changes in environment (for example, indignations, casual hindrances) and still to save approximately the same behaviour throughout certain (probably infinite) period of time. J. A caste distinguished two categories of concept "stability":
Classical which is used for a designation of research of results of external effects on the fixed systems;
Structural with which help qualitative changes in a movement trajectory emerge at change of structure of the system.
The general scientific contents of concept of stability is anyhow realised in an economic theory, especially in macroeconomic. In an economic theory an initial scientific basis of research of a problem of stability (instability) of the enterprise is the concept of the general macroeconomic balance. Market functioning is characterised by equality of a supply and demand, a perfect competitiveness, stability of macroeconomic communications and processes. As the founder of the theory of the general economic balance consider Swiss economist JI. Valrasa, which in the work «Elements of pure political economy» (1874) has presented mathematical model of achievement of balance of economic system and giving to this system of stability.
«The theory of the general economic balance - top of the abstract approach and a basis of a modern economic theory, represented an economy in the form of set of the isolated rational economic agents, in the certain perfect market conditions optimising the criterion functions. It has concentrated attention to condition studying at which all participants are satisfied by the reached result, and, hence, there are no internal reasons to its change. Abstract character of this theory opened significant possibilities in the field of the formal analysis and in the same
Time did its target of criticism. She was easy for reproaching with a separation from a reality, including in an inattention to problems arising in real economy ».
However economists consider, that the abstract analysis, «as well as creation on its basis of models of ideal and real macroeconomic balance, is important that it can be« a reference point », giving initial parametres for the analysis of causes of infringement of balance - a typical economic situation».
The general economic balance, as well as the reasons, its infringing, define environment of functioning of the separate enterprise and character of problems which are decided by management of stability of the enterprise.
In a theoretical substantiation of management stability of the enterprise the major methodological base is interaction of ideas of determination and synergetrics as one of modern scientific directions. In a basis sinergeticheskogo the approach the sight at systems as opened lays. «For the closed system the rigid determinism is characteristic... At board by such systems it is carried out under the scheme: corrective action - desirable result, is more than efforts, it is more than effect» 7. In sinergeticheskoj concepts stability is considered as the passing moment of a condition of system.
«It is a question of synergetrics - theories of self-organising which with categories of convertibility describing it and irreversibility, stability and instability, ravnovesnosti and neravnovesnosti, a determinism and indeterminizma, linearity and nonlinearity, stability and instability, an order and chaos, dissipativnyh structures, fluctuation and bifurkatsiej expresses, according to many scientists, modern idea of evolutionary development».
In our opinion, sinergeticheskie ideas are applicable to some time intervals of a condition of the Russian economy (1992-1998), especially to August crisis of 1998. By "quieter" times (2000-2006)
Follows, as it is represented, to apply ideas of the cause and effect development having the general orientation on strengthening of stability of economic system as a whole and, accordingly, of set of the enterprises.
Conceptual ideas of an antisustainable development (the theory of "chaos", "self-organising") are resisted by positions about necessity of stable economic growth of Conference of the United Nations concerning environment and ekologizatsii economy which has taken place in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Basic aspect of definition of stability or instability of economic growth according to United Nations documents is the interrelation of development with an ecological component and necessity of the account for definition of factors of a sustainable development of requirements of the present and the future generations. Some scientists consider, that in Russia the antistable type of development was generated. Thus they proceed not from ideas of an openness or closeness of economic system, and from a real estimation of wasteful and decreasing natural resource potential of the country. « Orientation to traditional economic indicators for Russia in immediate prospects can be fraught with negative consequences, - the professor of the Moscow State University of M.V.Lomonosova S.Bobylev considers. - It is received, that is the fastest than growth of these indicators (thereby formally to achieve progress in social and economic development) it is possible to reach, fast extorting from bowels petroleum, gas, extracting ore and coal in the superficial method, cutting down woods, increasing load on the earth, using cheap "dirty" technologies and so forth Unfortunately, in any measure it now and occurs. Many programs in which orientation to the mining operations growth is provided, allowing to increase gross national product, have also negative ecological consequences. Achievement of doubling of gross national product discussed now at preservation of modern ekologo-economic tendencies can lead to irreversible degradation of the natural capital of the country and to the increasing distance from a sustainable development trajectory ».
Concerning stability of development of economy in scientific thought the traditional sight at determinancy, a progressive orientation of evolutionary development of economic system of the country prevails. « The scientific theory of growth should concern critically concepts of "sustainable development" and «stable growth», proclaimed by the western theorists and nekriticheski apprehended by our economists developing the concept of "development economy». These concepts are inexact. The economy always is development economy - either progressing, or regressing just as even asotsialnoe the state is social by the nature.... The economy of any country - «development economy», therefore this concept demands clarification. Actually all countries were and remain developing though progress and recourse in development is observed simultaneously. Necessity of daily satisfaction of mass requirements dictates before economy necessity of functioning and development ».
At level of micro-economics definition of concept of stability basically is removed from the general gnoseological treatments and not always reflects economic sense of a category of stability.
The analysis of numerous treatments of stability of the enterprise carried out more low shows the big range of opinions which, however, does not open economic essence of stability of the enterprise as institutsionalnogo a link transformatsionnoj economy.
The greatest distribution the treatment of stability of the enterprise from the point of view of a sign of balance of system has received, it statsionarnosti. According to E.M.Levitsky, stability of system is the basic qualitative characteristic of its behaviour. Stability is considered usually in relation to a condition of balance of system ". V.I.Kostyuk considers, that the stationary condition of system is stable if at a small deviation from it the system comes back in this condition. If deviations grow
With the course of time, such condition is characterised as unstable. The author allocates also structural stability which assumes preservation of structure and a method of behaviour corresponding to it during certain time.
V.N.Volkova, V.A.Voronkov supplement this definition by the account of influence of external effects on a system condition: «Stability - ability of system to come back in a balance condition after it from this condition has been introduced under the influence of external revolting effects». The similar point of view have R.A.Fathutdinov and O.T.Lebedev.
Buslenko N.P. does not use concept of balance at stability definition, replacing with its ability of system to save demanded properties in the conditions of action of indignations.
From management items considers concept of stability Of this year Beljaev, noticing, that stability is an ability of preservation of qualitative definiteness at change of structure of system and functions of its elements. Stability of system, thus, is connected with its aspiration to a condition of balance which assumes such functioning of elements of system at which the highest efficiency of movement to the development purposes is supplied. In this definition by the author categories of qualitative definiteness and the organisation purposes are entered.
Having analysed resulted above definition, it is possible to notice, that the majority of them includes concept of balance. However the system analysis and use of concepts "system", "balance" do not give the necessary
Approach to revealing of substantial aspect of stability of the enterprise as economic category.
L.I.Lopatnikov notices, that balance - the general concept carried to various situations, characterised by interaction raznonapravlennyh the forces which effect is mutually reset in such a manner that observable properties of system remain invariable.
The similar opinion has B.V.Prykin: «balance is such condition of system, at which sum of external on it external, internal and target forces (parametres) to equally zero». In O.T.Lebedev's work balance is defined as ability of system in absence of external effects to save as much as long in advance set condition. The similar point of view have V.N.Volkova and V.A.Voronkov.
To open the economic contents of stability of the enterprise, it is necessary to change the methodological approach, to strengthen concreteness, concreteness of the system analysis, to reveal properties of the organisation, character ravnovesnosti and enterprise developments as the economic subject.
Any organisation represents complete system as consists of the interconnected elements, parts, components. Thus organisation development, even at quantitative growth, does not change general characteristics of the integrity if not occurs its destructions.
In more subject direction disclosing of economic stability of the enterprise is given, when the enterprise is considered as the organisation.
B.Z.Milner considers, that the industrial-economic organisation is system adapting, samoorganizujushchejsja, spontaneous, and
At the same time meaningly operated. The organisation always functions in the conditions of incompleteness of the information on the problems connected with its activity. R.Johnson defines the enterprise organisation as the system created by the person which dynamically interacts with the environment - consumers, competitors, trade unions, suppliers, the government, other organisations. Also the enterprise organisation can be considered as system of the interconnected parts functioning in common for achievement of some the purposes of all organisation and its separate parts. V.N.Volkova, V.A.Voronkov allocate following signs of self-regulated system: Stochasticity of behaviour, nestatsionarnost separate parametres and processes, unpredictability of behaviour, ability to adapt for changed conditions of environment to change structure at interaction of system with Wednesday, saving thus properties of integrity, ability to form possible variants of behaviour and to choose from them the best. B.L.Kuchin notices, that for developing systems stability of structure, stability loss, destruction of one structure and creation of other stable structure are characteristic.
I.V.Demjanenko at stability definition uses concept of factors of an equilibrium condition and a development category: «In the general understanding« stability »is treated as property of system so to react to changes (influence) of an environment that not only to generate the factors stipulating its equilibrium condition, but also to supply the further development». The author understands As development directed to the future natural consecutive movement, change quantitative and qualitative
Characteristics, material and spiritual objects in time as display of their evolution. For economic system, the author fairly marks, development is shown as dynamics of production factors, resources (assets) which are embodied in financial streams.
With reference to the enterprise the concept "stability" as a whole is treated as «firmness, postojannost, nepodverzhennost to risk of losses and losses», and «stability of the enterprise» - as a financial condition of the enterprise which economic activities supply fulfilment of its obligations to workers in normal conditions, by other organisations, the state, thanks to sufficient incomes and conformity of incomes and costs. This approach schedules a problem of distinctions between the general economic and financial soundness.
In one of the first scientifically-practical guidances under the financial soundness analysis it is noticed, that the general economic stability of the enterprise in the conditions of the market demands, first of all, stable reception of a gain, and sufficient on the sizes to pay with the state, suppliers, creditors, workers. Simultaneously for enterprise development it is necessary, that after fulfilment of all accounts and fulfilment of all obligations it still had the profit, allowing to develop production, to modernise its material and technical base, to improve a social climate etc. In other words, the general economic stability of the enterprise assumes, first of all, such movement of cash flows which supplies constant excess of receipt of means (incomes) over their expenditure (expenses). This approach, unlike treatment of financial soundness assumes not only enterprise carrying out of the obligations, but also availability of means for its development.
We allocate also internal and external stability. Coherence of the enterprise - such condition of is material-material and cost structure of production and realisation of production and such it
Dynamics at which stably high result of functioning of the enterprise is supplied. At the heart of coherence achievement the principle of active reaction to change of internal and external factors lays. External, in relation to the enterprise, stability is defined by stability of the economic environment in which frameworks enterprise activity is carried out. It is reached by a corresponding control system of market economy in scales of all country.
For definition of stability of the enterprise it is expedient to open structural making contents of the given category. Investigating scientific sources, in our opinion, it is possible to allocate following structural making obshcheekonomicheskoj stability of the enterprise:
Socially-psychological stability, that is dependence on the human factor. It defines expediency and the efficiency of any administrative decisions competitive to an item of the enterprise and influences all subsystems supplying functioning of the enterprise;
Organizational-structural stability which represents ability of the enterprise as open system to resist to environment indignations, to supply management and organizational structure of the enterprise so that to correspond both to its purposes, and concrete range of products and services;
The financial soundness, which definition it is given above. It can be considered as a resultant a category. In turn, financial soundness level renders influences and on enterprise possibilities;
Stability in the form of property of the technical subsystems forming a material and technical base of the enterprise to work in a trouble-free mode with the set range of change of key parametres during all life. Stable work of the equipment has positive effect on results is industrial-economic activities also competitiveness of the enterprise;
Technological stability, closely related with stability of engineering. As its object all engineering procedure, instead of separate units acts
Or equipment complexes. Stability of technology represents ability to save the major parametres of course of engineering procedure under the influence of environment indignations. It depends on stability of work of the equipment, possibility of use of interchangeable kinds of resources, flexibility of engineering procedure;
Ecological stability which consists in ability, without dependence from internal and external effects to save the set parametres of interaction with surrounding environment;
The commercial stability of the enterprise assuming it ability to supply the set mode of functioning by neutralisation of negative effects by means of the rational organisation of communications of the enterprise with an environment. Possibilities of regulation of efficiency of these communications depend as on the organisation of interaction with suppliers of raw materials, materials, and from effect of the enterprise on environment. Enterprise activity should supply a choice of an optimum alternative of material support, optimisation of quantity of suppliers and quality of delivered resources, operative regulation of deliveries at infringement of treaty obligations, the organisation of interaction with production consumers at a choice of a rational variant tovarodvizhenija, demand making and sales stimulation;
Information stability. The primary goal, from the point of view of maintenance of stable work of the enterprise, the organisation of the operative tax and a communication of information in corresponding functional services of the enterprise for the subsequent analysis and development of administrative decisions is;
The functional stability of the enterprise connected with strategic plans. She assumes a choice the enterprise or specialisations on certain, more effective kind of activity, or expansion of kinds of activity, satisfaction of more diverse requirements of consumers.
In our opinion, it is necessary to use concept of organizational - economic stability as general expression of stability of the enterprise.
Proceeding from the above-stated classification of kinds of stability, it is possible to make following definition: stability of the enterprise — complex slozhnostrukturirovannoe the concept including socially-psychological, organizational-structural, financial, technical, technological, ecological, commercial, communication, information, economic stability krugooborota and a turn-over of the capital and functional stability, which supply ability of the enterprise so to react to external and internal effects to support its equilibrium condition and the further development.
According to Ertli-Kajakoba, nonlinear systems which the enterprises concern also, can have some kinds of stability and balance conditions. The author allocates: 1) stability in the small. It means, that at small deviations from position of rest or a limiting cycle of system again to it comes back, whereas at the big deviations does not come back; 2) stability in big when at the big deviations the system comes back in position of rest or to a limiting cycle. In small the system, in relation to rest position, can be unstable. At the most insignificant indignation of system its condition does not overstep the bounds of a limiting cycle; 3) stability as a whole. Here exists only asimptoticheskoe rest position (and there is no limiting cycle). At very big deviations the system comes back in rest position; 4) absolute stability. Nonlinear systems are stable, if during their functioning of nonlinearity are changed in certain limits; 5) stability on Lyapunov demands the limited deviation of a variable, if it by the moment t once is on not indignant trajectory (in a limiting cycle), and next time, furthermore most t, - on the indignant trajectory.
In our opinion, E.M.Korotkov's point of view dividing a stable condition of system on stable and kvazistabilnoe is true.
As a stable condition of system understand such condition when its any structural component is not in a transition period, that is all structural components function (carry out ability to live processes) is stable.
Under kvazistabilnom a system condition understand such condition when at least its one structural component is in a transition period, but thus it either does not affect a condition of system at all, or affects so slightly, that, proceeding from the purposes of studying of system, such position can be neglected. In sistemologii there is a position, that difficult systems always are in kvazistabilnom a condition. Socially - economic systems are superdifficult systems and consequently for them the laws connected with action of stable systems do not act. Under transitive the period in the given definitions such time interval when the system or its any significant indicator is changed by qualitative image is understood. The transition period can affect system either is negative, or is positive, that is either will worsen, or will improve its condition.
Criteria of transition periods the author suggests to use following concepts:
Adaptation process (), which shows, how the system adapts to occurring changes () in environment and in itself;
Process destrukturirovanija () which shows how the system reduces the complexity (usually complexity change measure by entropy size);
Process sinergoobrazovanija or sinergichesky process () which shows how the system increases the complexity.
For the description of levels of transients speeds of their change and a parity between speeds are necessary not only absolute values of criteria And, And, D and With, but also. Thus, the mathematical model of a transition period includes following indicators:
From the transferred nomenclature for the characteristic of transients the factor of adaptation KA and factor of synergy Ks will be used. For each level of a transition period of a direction of change of significances of factors will be the. In the general view depending on degree of the changes occurring for the given interval of time, all transition periods can be classified three levels.
The first level (gomeostatichesky) is connected with such changes which are reflected only in behaviour of system, but do not change its structure and element structure:
The changes negatively influencing indicators of a condition of system: KA =1; Ks = 1. If during the studied period the system condition corresponds to these dependences, it is considered, that the system is in reorganisation or critical, the period;
The changes positively influencing indicators of a condition of system: КА=1\Ks> 1. IF during the studied period the system condition corresponds to these dependences, the system is in the converting period.
The second level (innovative) is connected with such changes which are reflected in structure and element structure of system:
The changes negatively influencing indicators of a condition of system: 1. If during the studied period the system condition corresponds to these dependences the system is in komfortizatsionnom the period.
The third level (bifurkatsionnyj) is connected with such changes which are reflected by significant image in structure and element structure of system:
The changes negatively influencing indicators of a condition of system: КА~1 ', KS «1. If during the studied period the system condition corresponds to these dependences the system is in the catastrophic period;
The changes positively influencing indicators of a condition of system: KA> 1; Ks »1. If during the studied period the system condition corresponds to these dependences the system is in kokiridnom the period.
It is natural, that on the offered objective processes subjective factors which are connected with the conditions differing from the accepted can be imposed. For example, the initial system on external changes has got in kokiridnyj the period and any time functioned in it normally, i.e. corresponded to criteria KA> 1; Ks »1, but then that the system has appeared unprepared to such changes, sizes of criteria have acquired significances KAV
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A source: SALTYKOV Vladimir Vladimirovich. MANAGEMENT of STABILITY of the INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE. 2006

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