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the Analysis of foreign experience of formation of strategic alliances and its applicability in the Russian conditions

The end XX and the XXI-st century beginning was characterised by globalisation in the world market that has led to the big changes in various branches. On the market new tendencies such, as expansion and growth of the companies have come.

Many
The companies searched for sources and resources for growth and development, and at this time there were such new concepts, as «merge and absorption of the companies». For a survival in new economic conditions many companies needed to change the structure and to unite with other companies, by joining to larger companies or absorption of smaller companies, or to unite on equal terms in strategic alliances. For today it is very popular form of development of business, and many companies resort to the given step.

Let's stay a little on each of these integration processes. The primary goal of process of merge and absorption is increase of an efficiency of capital that conducts to achievement of the best results through joint activity, to competitiveness increase, increase in a company capital and incomes of proprietors of business.

The idea of merge and absorption consists in receiving the greatest quantity of all benefits from mutual cooperation. It can look as follows - two companies unite the resources and form one company, reduce quantity of workers, by means of it there is an economy of means, and then they increase productivity. At merge and absorption at the companies at lower expenses production exit is received more. The big benefit occurs at the expense of increase in a seller's market and improvement of the credit possibilities, which proprietors receive from association of the companies. Today there is a practice of purchase of the company at the expense of its wide base of clients.

Bargains on merge and absorption can be classified by various principles. The association kind gets out in dependence of potential possibilities, which companies and from conditions in the given market. In table 1.3 principal views and features of integration of the companies on merge and absorption are presented.

Table 1.3 - Kinds of integration of the companies by means of merges and

Absorption

Merge kind / absorption Features
The horizontal Association of the same companies with similar technological structure and attending to the same activity or making / realising a similar product
The vertical Integration raznootraslevyh the companies, but consisting in one system of production when the basic company takes under the control previous production phases more close to a source of a raw material, or the further stages - to the consumer
The conglomeratic Integration of the companies into different branches for want of technological or industrial similarity. The concept of the basic production disappears
The patrimonial The companies which develop unite and make the same product (association of the companies on production of the software and production of a communication facility)

Operations on merge and absorption can be classified to national signs: at association of the companies in territory of one state they are classified as national; association of the companies from the various countries is called as transnational.

Integration of the companies by merges and absorption has following advantages:

- Optimisation of accrued charges;

- Geographical ekspanisija business;

- Fast achievement sinergeticheskogo effect;

- Control reception over non-material resources of the partner;

-Acquisition of circulating assets directly under the reduced price;

- Exit on a new market segment of a certain market segment.

It is possible to carry to the negative moments:

- Big enough expenses on payment of penalties to shareholders and employees of the cancelled companies;

- Complexities at work of the companies in different branches;

- Potential complexities at work with new employees;

- In a reality the bargain can appear not so favourable;

- At merge and absorption of the companies for rubezhnom there is a risk of national and cultural incompatibility.

According to a technique of association of resources, it is possible to classify various forms of a company amalgamation on:

- Corporations is an integration of the companies in which there is an association of resources in all directions of activity of the companies and to the full;

- Corporate alliances are an integration of the companies which primary goal is reception of positive effect of a synergy in any certain sphere of business, in other segments of business of the company work independently. With the purposes of creation and management of corporate alliances often use joint ventures.

Such form of merge as absorption frequently can be a finishing stage of a company amalgamation. The companies choose for themselves kinds of merge not only from mutual benefits, but also from conditions of the market environment and from potential which each company possesses.

Bargains on integration of the companies can be classified on: friendly - when the management of two or several companies comes to the mutual decision on integration for increase in competitive advantages; hostile - when the management of other company does not want the given merge. That merge/absorption has passed successfully, it is necessary to consider following factors:

- To choose the target company for the future relations;

- To define the optimum form of integration;

- To define volume of the prospective capital for association realisation;

- To establish an order of realisation of integration;

- To define an involvement into process speed of employees of an average and the top echelon.

The ultimate goal of integration is not only profit increase, but also maintenance sinergeticheskogo effect throughout long time. We will result some examples of bargains on a company amalgamation/absorption. Area of information technologies:

- Company Hewlett-Packard (HP) has purchased the competitor, company Compaq in 2001 for $33,6 billion Experts and investors have sceptically concerned the bargain, including its error, but the management (HP) considered, that purchase Compaq will allow HP to become the largest manufacturer of computers in the world and to make cheaper production;

- Company Oracle has acquired company PeopleSoft in 2005 for $12,6 billion After merge Oracle has continued to develop and manufacture systems PeopleSoft and JD Edwards, having made their part of the package of appendices. A year later after the bargain the corporation profit has increased;

- Company Microsoft has purchased company Skype in 2011г. For $9 billion Acquisition Skype has allowed Microsoft to be fixed in IP-telephony and visual communication sphere, having received paid subscribers among huge base of users. The company could integrate Skype with the products. This most Microsoft has affected the services simultaneously and for usual users, and for corporate clients;

- Company Facebook has acquired company WhatsApp in 2014 for $22 billion In comparison with the price which Facebook has paid for WhatsApp, profitableness messendzhera is very small. But the given moment for WhatsApp is important only constant growth. To experiment methods of a monetization they will begin already after achievement of billion users.

The oil and gas industry:

- Company Shevron has acquired company Texaco in 2011 for $100 billion By means of this bargain their joint stocks of petroleum have increased to 11,2 billion barrels;

- Company Exxon has conducted merge to company Mobil in 2007 for $250 billion Thanks to it Exxon Mobil has conducted rationalisation of expenses that has led to economy $25 billion

Airlines:

- Delta Airlines has conducted merge with North West Airlines in 2008 for $2,6 billion After merge park has increased to 786 planes;

- United Airlines has conducted merge with Continental Airlines in 2010 bargain Cost there was $3 billion Today United Airlines carry out flights in 370 directions;

- American Airways has conducted merge with US Airways in 2013 for $11 mlrd therefore there was company American Airlines which carries out 6700 flights in 330 directions.

- Motor industry:

- Company Daimler Benz has absorbed Crysler in 1998 g for $37 billion As a result there was company Daimler Crysler;

- Motor-car manufacturer BMW has purchased company Rover in 1994 for $800 million In the issue purchase Rover has managed BMW $3,5 billion Later Rover has been resold to consortium Phoenix for symbolical 10 pounds.

Merge or absorption, can affect not unequivocally the future affairs of the companies, both having given advantages, and having lowered results of the companies. According to data of analysts the negative effect from a company amalgamation can arise because of a wrong estimation of possibilities of the company chosen for merge or branch, an error in financial accounts necessary for merge realisation, incorrect actions at merge or absorption realisation. An incorrect estimation of potential, and also assets and liabilities of the acquired company.

The companies enter the international alliances with the different purposes. The largest American motor-car manufacturer General Motors created alliances
For transformation of the business. He has created extensive aljansovuju a network with suppliers and motor-car manufacturers in the North America, Europe and Asia. One alliances have been created for an exchange of technologies, others have been directed on range updating, the third on production advancements on the foreign markets.

Factors which play the important role in alliances are stable relationships with partners, availability of difficult copied know-how, a wide spectrum of services and, in last turn, a company capital. For successful functioning alliances demand from participants of attraction of constants and reliable sources of financial resources.

Main objectives of the companies at the introduction into alliances is the following: an exit on the international markets; competitiveness increase; decrease in design and technological costs; innovations and introduction of new products on the markets; overcoming of market barriers and regional trading blocks; search of new possibilities for business development. Alliances can be classified to several classification signs (tab. 1.4).

Division to a branch sign gives to us raw, technological, transport, educational, service, etc. To a functional sign distinguish investment, financial, proizpodstvennye, research and development and marketing alliances. By quantity of participants alliances happen bilateral and multilateral; on duration - short-term, intermediate term and long-term; on nauionalnomu to a sign - national and transnational.

Good example aljansovogo interactions are strategic alliances between airlines of the different countries.

Globalisation has forced many countries to accept a free-trade policy and to open the markets for a global competitiveness. There was a keen competition between airlines of the various countries.

Table 1.4 - Classification of alliances

On branches On functions On kol-vu participants On

Durations

On nats.

To sign

The raw

The technological

The transport

(Air freights, etc.)

The educational

The service

The investment

The financial

The industrial

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

The marketing

dvuyo

The foreign

Much

The foreign

The short-term

Intermediate term

The long-term

The national

transnatsioyo

nalnye

Strategic alliances became vital necessity for passenger airlines which gave advantages in routeing networks which one airline could not create independently because of heavy expenses and absence of necessary resources.

Today in the world exists three largest international strategic alliances of airlines: «the Star alliance» - Star Alliance, «the Uniform world» - One World and «the Heavenly command» - Sky Team. 47 large and average air carriers are united in these alliances which supply more than half of world volume of passenger carriages. Aaviakompanii - participants save high degree of financial independence in an alliance, carry out co-ordinated commercial and tariff to the policy within the limits of each alliance and co-ordinate the time-table of flights and optimise routeing networks.

«The star alliance» has appeared the first — Star Alliance in 1997 Its members are following airlines: Adria Airways, Aegean Airlines, Air Canada, Air China, Air India, Air New Zealand, All Nippon Airways, Asiana Airlines, Austrian Airlines, Avianca, Brussels Airlines, Copa Airlines, Croatia Airlines, Egypt Air, Ethiopian Airlines, EVA Air, LOT, Lufthansa, Scandinavian Airlines System, Shenzhen Airlines, Singapore Airlines, South African Airways, Swiss International Air Lines, TAP Portugal, Thai Airways International, Turkish Airlines, United Airlines.

The total turnover of its participants makes 43,3 mlrd dollars, number of staff reaches 210 thousand persons, quantity of planes more than 1300, annual volume of passenger carriages over 173 million persons. All companies participating in an alliance remain independent and co-operate on sale of tickets, definition of tariffs, drawing up of time-tables of flights. This alliance is based on principles of the conclusion of full-scale working agreements of all partners with one another and differs an integration high level. Integration of participants in the field of marketing is very strong, airlines form uniform system of sale of air freights and conduct joint advertising campaigns.

The alliance «the Uniform world» — One World, formed in 1999 in which 13 carriers now consist has appeared the second: American Airlines, British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Finnair, Iberia, Japan Airlines, LATAM Chile, Malaysia Airlines, Qantas Airways, Qatar Airways, Royal Jordanian, S7 Airlines, Sri Lankan Airlines.

The alliance «the Heavenly command» (Sky Team) has been formed in 2000 and now is second-large. Participants of an alliance today are 20 airlines: Aeroflot, Aerolιneas Argentinas, Aeromexico, Air Europa, Air France, Alitalia, China Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Czech Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Garuda Indonesia, Kenya Airways, KLM, Korean Air, Middle East Airlines, Saudia, TAROM, Vietnam Airlines, Xiamen Airlines.

The companies should unite in alliances for a survival and, first of all, for the sake of a cost-saving. The companies consisting in an alliance, can offer passengers the difficult routes which different segments will execute its partners of airline in an alliance. Therefore airlines do not need to purchase additional planes and to keep huge staff to expand the routeing network. Airlines can offer a large quantity of directions by means of the companies - partners in an alliance.

For convenience and reduction of costs of airline in alliances use uniform operational possibilities, use identical systems of booking, have the general staff, in common purchase the equipment. The alliance helps airlines to bypass some rules of national legislations of the different countries. For example, in the different countries, the national airline can have the right to certain routes only, it concerns and air freights when between the USA and France the American and French airlines can fly only. But consisting in an alliance tickets for trip Paris - New York offer also other airlines which participate in an alliance, for example, LOT or Lufthansa, that considerably expands possibilities of airlines from other countries.

1.4

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A source: Petrishchev Peter Vladimirovich. MANAGEMENT of INTEGRATION PROCESSES AT FORMATION of the INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCES. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Vladivostok - 2018. 2018

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