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the Analysis of innovative activity of high schools, an infrastructure condition kommertsializatsii high school researches and workings out

In a modern context of innovative development universities — leaders and the centres of creation of new technological branches. They actively create technologies and the technological companies.

Thus, it is impossible to forget, that they — the institutes of company in the best way solving a problem of transfer of knowledge in the intellectual capital. Modern university — dynamically developing platform having constant inflow of active youth. Only universities have possibility of formation of personnel potential in new fields of knowledge and the trades answering to inquiries of modern company. On it, rather actual problem we see a contribution costing of modern universities in innovative development of the country

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And its regions [75].

The basic indicators of innovative activity of the educational organisations of higher education are resulted in table 1.

High schools take the second place by quantity among the organisations performing researches and workings out. In 2014 there were 702 high schools, for 2 years the number of high schools has increased in 1,4 times, in 2017 has made 979 high schools that has made 24,9 % from number of all organisations executed researches and workings out in Russia (drawing 5).

The given tendencies indicate development of innovative activity in higher educational establishments. The staff of the educational organisations of the higher education, attending to researches and workings out, in 201 6 year has made 59124 persons on 979 high schools, among all organisations high schools on the given indicator stand on 3 place in economy. For 2014-2016 number

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Table 1 — the Basic indicators of innovative activity of high schools Rossii*

2000 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
The organisations executing researches and workings out 390 517 581 562 673 702 1040 979
The staff taken by researches and workings out 31110 46776 53944 53699 54092 58573 60151 59124
Number of post-graduate students, the person 100212 139908 139542 131226 117790 107083 97847 87180
Issue from postgraduate study, the person 21015 29268 28847 30885 30639 24836 22971 22917
Issue from postgraduate study, the person with dissertation protection 6630 8854 8869 8480 8257 4770 4318 3379
Number doktorantov, the person 3708 4116 4256 4296 4307 3009 1853 825
Issue from doctoral studies, the person 1100 1162 1220 1271 1281 1281 1319 1270
Issue from doctoral studies, the person with dissertation protection 423 316 365 378 314 217 173 143
Internal expenses for researches and workings out, million rbl. 212990 2436564 4664465 5905489 7820677 9069176 10875090 8210528
Monthly average wages of the staff taken by researches and workings out, rbl. 14003 23716 24963 30915 34101 41258 41850 43539
Permanent assets of researches and workings out, million rbl. - - - - 142757 158691 205499 225238

Drawing 5 — Structure of the organisations executing researches and razyorabotki (percent)

The staff taken by researches and workings out in high schools, has grown on 551 persons.

However naznechitelnoe relative significance of growth of the given indicator testifies about difitsite experts in the field of innovative activity. Attracts attention that fact, that number of post-graduate students in higher educational establishments in regular intervals decreases since 2010, significant recession is noted in 2014 — 2016. For two years number of post-graduate students was reduced more than on 20 thousand persons. As, since 2011, the number of manufactured post-graduate students with dissertation protection has decreased. With 2013 for 2016 the quantity of the protected graduates of postgraduate study has decreased for 54 %. Thus, number doktorantov with 2014 for 2016 has decreased practically in 2 times. And only 11,2 % of the given quota have ended doctoral studies with dissertation protection in 2016.

In table 2 the indicators characterising dynamics of trade by technologies with foreign countries, carried out by the higher education organisations in 201 6 year are resulted

Table 2 — Trade in technologies with foreign countries

The organisations of higher education, 2016 *

Export Import
Number soyoglasheny Cost predyometa agreements, million $ Receipt of means for a year, million $ Number soyoglasheny Cost predyometa agreements, million $ Payments of means for a year, million $
107 14,6 6,4 30 1,1 0,9

*Составлено the author on materials źscience Indicators: 2018: the statistical collection╗

Internal expenses of the educational organisations of higher education for researches and workings out for 2016 have made 943815219.6 million roubles from which high schools on means 0,9 % are necessary, namely 8210528 thousand roubles. The basic share of financing of-means of the state. They have made in 2016 643401009.6 million rbl. (68,17 % from all expenses). Internal expenses for researches and workings out of high schools grew on all sources of funds during the period researches (table 3).

Table 3 — Internal expenses of sector of higher education on

Researches and workings out on sources of funds (thousand rbl.)*

Source of funds 2013 2014 2015 2016
State means 40378679.8 50496387.8 87730781.4 643401009.6
Means of enterprise sector 18663427.9 22607546.6 51570251.1 265277238.1
Means of the educational

The higher education organisations

7080091.0 8215233.9 24028351.9 8210528.3
Means of the private noncommercial organisations 448892.7 506189.0 9979551.2 1537132.8
Means of foreign sources 1287763.7 1379902.8 1481162.2 25389310.8

*Составлено the author on materials źscience Indicators: 2018: the statistical collection╗

The large part of internal expenses of sector of higher education on researches and workings out in a cut of priority directions of development of a science, technologies and engineering in 201 6 year is necessary on such spheres, as sciences about a life and information-telecommunication systems (Table 4).

Tables 4 — Internal expenses of high schools for researches and workings out of sector of higher education in priority directions of development of a science, technologies and engineering in 2015 — 2016 (thousand rbl.)*

Priority directions of development of a science, technologies and engineering 2015 2016
Internal expenses for researches and workings out in priority directions of development of a science, technologies and engineering, from them: 61489317.8 60317820.9
Information-telecommunication systems 10076776.7 9245596.5
The industry nanosistem 9560205.1 8941976.3
Sciences about a life 10428171.8 11749956.4
Rational wildlife management 8571151.0 9063493.4
Energoeffektivnost, energosberezhenie, nuclear

Power

7384338.1 6833743.1
Transport and space systems 9372079.1 9797324.6

*Составлено the author on materials źscience Indicators: 2018: the statistical collection╗

The structure and dynamics of internal carrying costs to researches and workings out by kinds of works is presented in table 5 where prevalence of expenses for applied researches for more than ten years' period is visualised.

Table 5 — Internal carrying costs of sector of higher education to researches and workings out by kinds of works (thousand rbl.)*

Directions zayotrat 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Internal teyokushchie expenses for researches and workings out 13144292.5 62268471.4 65103832.7 78939146.3 84495233.0 83579171.0
Basic researches 3841327.6 18092897.7 18292483.8 21840738.8 24839057.2 26537618.5
Applied isyosledovanija 5405410.3 28324950.6 31034270.9 38214808.7 41098469.1 40348147.3
Workings out 3897554.6 15850623.1 15777078.0 18883598.8 18557706.7 16693405.2

*Составлено the author on materials źscience Indicators: 2018: the statistical collection╗

Nearby polovyny the means directed on researches and workings out, high schools spend for applied researches, annually these sums increase, that it is impossible to tell about expenses for workings out.

In modern conditions the primary goal of each Russian university is search of the most effective ways of a transfer of results its research and development in real sector of economy that is directly connected with infrastructure development kommertsializatsii researches and workings out of the educational organisations.

As a result of researches it is revealed, that small innovative predyoprijatija function in 433 high schools of Russia. Since 2010 quantity MIP continuously grew and in 2017 has made 2920 enterprises (PrilozheYOnie). Considerable quantity MIP, namely 860 enterprises, is created in the Central federal district [76]. Lags behind other regions on number mayolyh the innovative enterprises created at high schools, while

Drawing 6 - Territorial structure of the small innovative enterprises, %

That Crimea where 4 enterprises are created. 29,8 % of all created in Russia MIP place in high schools TSFO, 18,5 % — in air defence, on third place SZFO where soyozdano and 10,5 % of all small innovative enterprises work. Creation MIP has a number of positive aspects as for university and innovatora,
And for region and country economy as a whole. In drawing 6 creation MIP on years is shown.

Business incubators in high schools are one of basic elements inyonovatsionnoj infrastructures. They not only execute functions of a proizvodyostvenno-technological platform startapov, but also form reputation vuyoza in global space. Today (Appendix) actively develops in Russia nebolyoshoe quantity of business incubators. They place in territory of 84 high schools, 4 of them journal Forbes has noted among most effektivyonyh the business incubators working at high schools. 24 business incubators are created in the Central federal district that makes 27,6 % from their general number, on 14,9 % — in PFO and SFO (Drawing 7).

One of the important elements of an innovative infrastructure are technoparks. Technoparks accelerate process kommertsializatsii innovations. In technoparks there is a basis for realisation of ideas in the form of finished produkyota which production is carried out on the basis of an industrial platform of technopark. In Russia 76 high school technoparks (Appendix) are created, odyonim from the best the Moscow State University technopark is, it is included into the list of 10 best techno -

Drawing 7 — Territorial structure university business - of incubators, %

51 parks of Russia. The greatest quantity of technoparks is possessed on territoyorii Privolzhsky federal district: 23 functioning technoparks that 30,3 % from the general number of all technoparks created make at high schools. On the second place there is a Central federal district, on it territoyorii 21 technopark (Drawing 8) is possessed.

Drawing 8 — Territorial structure of the technoparks created at high schools, %

The considered elements of an innovative infrastructure of high schools spetsiayolizirujutsja on selection and źfinishing to mind╗ ideas. Essentially inherently the centres of engineering which this designing and test of prototypes tehyonicheskih systems specialise on proyoizvodstvennoj activity, differ from them, preparation of the design documentation. At high schools соşздано50 inzhiniringovyh the centres (Appendix), from which 19 (38 %) — in the Central federal district (Drawing 9). In Far East and Krymyosky federal districts functions on one centre of engineering. In other federal districts distribution of the given element innovatsiyoonnoj infrastructures in regular intervals.

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Drawing 9 — Territorial structure of the university centres of engineering, %

Main objective of the centres of a transfer of technologies (TSTT) is organiyozatsija transition of high school technologies from the internal environment of high school in external. In Russia the centres of a transfer of technologies are badly developed, at high schools are created vseyogo 35 centres (Appendix). Thus, only three of them in Moscow, that sviyodetelstvuet about activity of regional high schools in development of an innovative infrastructure. Majority TSTT of high schools are the important, unique elements of an innovative infrastructure of regions. In Privolzhsky fedeyoralnom district there are 12 centres of a transfer of technologies that makes 34,3 % from number of all centres (Drawing 10). The unique international centre created at high school, is created on the basis of Southwest state university (Kursk).

Results of activity TSTT can be used for usovershenyostvovanija high school educational programs on key disciplines, sostavyoljajushchim a preparation basis innovatorov, and also for perfection meyotodik their teaching towards strengthening of communication of a science and practice, development of innovative thinking in the future managers.

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Drawing 10 — Territorial structure of the university centres of a transfer of technologies, %

Departments of support research and opytnoyokonstruktorskih works are created in a number of high schools of Russia and for today functions on the basis of such universities, as:

— The Altay state university;

— The Kaliningrad state technical university;

— National research Mordovian state university;

— National research Tomsk state univeryositet;

— National research Tomsk polytechnical uniyoversitet;

— National research university "МЭИ";

— St.-Petersburg state electrotechnical univeryositet "LETI" of V.I.Ulyanov (Lenin);

— The Nizhniy Novgorod state technical university of R.E.Alekseeva;

— Southwest state university.

One more element of an innovative infrastructure kommertsializayotsii researches and workings out of high schools are the centres collective polzoyovanija (TSKK), decisive the following number of problems:

1. Fulfilment of research and experimental works;

2. Educational activity in working out areas, posledujushcheyogo manufacturing and operation technical and software;

3. Fulfilment of joint projects within the limits of collective polzoyovanija resources TSKP;

4. Realisation of integrated innovative projects;

5. Perfection of organizational-economic mechanisms of interaction TSKP with the scientific organisations and private users.

To the functions executed TSKP, concern:

1. Inventory of objects of intellectual property and peryospektivnyh is innovative-technological workings out;

2. Realisation of complex marketing researches of the markets of technologies, consumers and resources;

3. An expert estimation and working out of decisions on kommertsializatsii the most perspective projects and workings out;

4. Creation and support of electronic databases nauchnoyoissledovatelskoj and innovative activity of high school;

5. The organisation of works on research and development realisation.

In appendix E the centres of collective use of high schools of Russia are presented. Them while all only 29, that speaks about weak "prizhivaemosti" it is the tool kommertsializatsii at the Russian universities.

Distinction as a part of objects of an innovative infrastructure of high schools in various regions demands their differentiation on a basis kriterialnogo the approach. As criterion the cumulative contribution of high schools to innovative structure of the macroregion, calculated on relative poyokazateljam shares of objects of an innovative infrastructure in their general number within the limits of national innovative systems (Table 6) in this case can act.

Table 6 - Indicators of integration of an innovative infrastructure

High schools in innovative processes of regional economic systems

MIP BI TP TSI TSTT summar mar - nyj a rank
znayochenie Rank znayochenie Rank znayochenie Rank znayochenie Rank znayochenie Rank
TSFO 30 9 28 9 28 8 38 9 23 8 43
SZFO 11 6 13 6 8 4,5 8 4,5 6 5 26
JUFO 6 4 8 5 9 6 8 4,5 9 6 25,5
SKFO 3 2 7 3,5 1 2 4 3 3 3 13,5
UFO 8 5 7 3,5 8 4,5 10 6 3 3 22
SFO 20 8 15 7,5 12 7 14 7,5 20 7 37
PFO 19 7 15 7,5 30 9 14 7,5 34 9 40
DFO 4 3 6 2 4 3 2 1 3 3 12
KFO 0 1 2 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 5

The criterion of differentiation in this case will be presented summaryonym by a rank of a share of region to development of separate objects innovative inyofrastruktury high schools as a part of national innovative system (Drawing 11).

The resulted results of researches allow to draw a conclusion that most kommertsializatsii researches and workings out of high schools will reach a high level of development of an innovative infrastructure in the Central and Privolzhsky federal districts where are created and successfully elements of all components of an innovative infrastructure function. Developed inyofrastruktura a transfer of technologies in real production and kommertsialiyozatsii results of a high school science has supplied formation high innoyovatsionnogo potential of regions TSFO.

In the conditions of integration of Russia into world economic space of one of the important problems innovative development of hi-tech industries and power of Russia with the purposes of maintenance, first of all, national security, and realisation is
Concepts importozameshchenija [77] without what maintenance of conditions for global technological lead in the nearest and intermediate term prospect does not see possible. Necessity to limit

Drawing 11 — Differentiation of macroregions by criterion of integration of an innovative infrastructure of high schools in innovative processes regionalyonyh economic systems

Direct state support, including connected with a difficult economic situation of last years, makes active processes of search of new mechanisms of stimulation of innovative development of high schools. The basic direction of development of innovative and research activity of higher educational establishments is search of effective forms of interaction of business, the power and a high school science, including on purpose kommertsializatsii its results. The differentiation of regions by criterion of integration of an innovative infrastructure of high schools in innovative will allow to carry out processes of regional economic systems balanced to the policy on development of territorial innovative systems and to form strategy of sharing of high schools in innovative processes.

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A source: TIMOHINA Elena Vitalevna. MANAGEMENT of RESEARCH ACTIVITY And INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT of UNIVERSITY. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Kursk - 2018. 2018

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