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1.3. The ANALYSIS of PROBLEMS of INFORMATION SUPPORT of DECISION-MAKING by HOLDING MANAGEMENT ON SOVREMENNOMETAPE

carried out by us in research the analysis of problems of functioning holdishiiyh structures has revealed DEVELOPMENTS, honour the major role in management of corporate association plays degree of completeness and quality of interaction between its structural units.
Integrity of holding depends on interaction level between participants, as one of the major properties of economic system when elements and system parts serve achievement of the general purposes facing to the company as a whole.
Integrity of system assumes availability in it of the special block of management, straight lines and feedback between it and subsystems. In them there is a program of functioning which defines operating commands and corrects behaviour of system on the basis of feedback. Interacting among themselves, the subject of management receives an in-formation from object and forms operating effect on it [66, p. 59 |.
The assumption of a situation of inefficient interaction leads to that immanent contradictions of holding formations which concern are not overcome:
Work of structural units in own interests, instead of on the corporate purposes;
Own microhabitat of affiliated companies mismatches a macrocosm of holding or the tendency of its development;
Interaction between divisions and the companies is hindered, bad conductivity of channels of communications:
Unsuccessful division (mixture) of roles of management, maintenance and production in which result the essence horizontal and vsr - gikalnyh relations is deformed, negatively influencing quality and productivity deja - telnosti structural units and the company as a whole;
Difficulties with realisation of structural changes.
zujushchsj areas. In the absence of the others of 5 % (entropy) arises risk at decision-making [81, sgr. 254].
Managers of the enterprises are compelled to spend on the average to 30 % of working hours for information search. Now at their order is present the special information on 00 % more than ten years ago. But time which has been taken away doja of decision-making, was reduced in 3 times fill, p. 114]
Complexity management of business group consists that the information. Characterising upravljaek ye the enterprises, is non-uniform, deformed intentionally or casually in this connection it is represented inconvenient to receive the qualitative information on activity of operated companies.
. The criticism concerning a management supply with information is very extended. The basic critical remarks the following [37, p. 205]:
The information acts too late;
The information is overworkly detailed or, on the contrary, is aggregated;
The information large part is paid in the past;
The information contains only data which it is possible to express to-lichestvennymi indicators;
Chiefs of separate divisions receive changeable, and is frequent also the inconsistent information;
Information which would concern future, still it is, obviously not enough, unknown purposes i.e. the question of a supply with information for strategic planning in many cases remains unsolved.
The analysis of a current condition of system of a supply with information carried out by us in object of our dissertational research which purpose consisted in definition of the basic problems, has in many respects confirmed justice of these remarks.
During research questioning of representatives of a holding company and its branches, and also industrial factories of holding (the questionnaire is presented in the Appendix 3) has been conducted.
In drawing 2 direct participants of questioning on an item taken in the company are shown.
Item of the respondent in kompani
AND
The financial Director
20 %
The director for Economy 23*
The general director of 3 %
Main 13 %

The chief executive
13 %
Careless management
28 % to

Fig. 2. An item prini
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Questioning of the respondent in a computer -
The research carried out by us has shown, that chiefs of holding of all levels give great value to development and perfection of existing system of a supply with information, realising its role in decision-making process. The similar phenomenon speaks that fact, that now the information is one of strategic resources in the competition, allowing the company to get significant advantages before other market participants even in the conditions of limitation material and financial resources. Therefore the problem of use of information resources in administrative activity of the company is not so so much tactical, how many strategic. Thus the special sharpness is acquired by problems of use of modern methods and me -
34 l
hanizmov receptions and salvaging of the information necessary for efficient control.
With the purposes of the given dissertational research, before zeego, it is obviously necessary to us to specify the term "information". In the corresponding literature there is a big number of definitions similar and unlike against each other. It means, that the standard definition is not present. The definition choice depends on the research device, otherwise, definition should be constructive, i.e. suitable for use within the limits of the device. In the present dissertational research we use the device of the theory of management. Therefore, in our opinion, it is necessary to understand the message, notification as the information on a state of affairs, data on object the managements transmitted by affiliated companies of holding of a holding company and called to reduce or vovss to remove the uncertainty connected with management by the company, and also allowing to produce corrective action. From definition it is visible, that property of value and quality of the information is underlined.
Value of the information depends on the purpose, which pursues a receptor (the person accepting the information) Exists some methods of quantitative definition of value. All of them are based on submission about the purpose which achievement is promoted by the received information. Than in bolshej a Mercedes the information helps achievement of the purpose, especially valuable it is considered.
If the purpose for certain is achievable and, thus, several ways value definition on reduction of material or time expenses is possible, thanks to the information.
If purpose achievement is not obligatory, but it is probable, the following size [38, p. 56] is used:
V = (P-p) / (l-p) (1),
Where R - probability of achievement of the purpose after information reception (0 Dmmgte "Sisi"
Yours ( the certificate jwwvm chgrgv g^psheem lgvphych cptrttksgatsaoiit bodkty shshtesh about"gga"
Rns. 5. Degree of importance of areas of a supply with information
The estimation of importance of various areas of system of a supply with information shows, that management of expenses and a cash flow are considered as the most important while nefinansovym activity udeljaegsja has less today than attention from a management. Such position mismatches the tendency which is observed in the Russian practice of management, namely [113, p. 69]:
There is a rapprochement of the information for internal and external users. Shareholders and investors wish to understand real processes in the companies. The accounts any more do not satisfy to this request because of efficiency and detailed elaboration degree;
Essentially the role of not financial information increases. Data about production, operational risks, scientific and technical potential, staff. Strategy become a component of the administrative reporting. Stable competitive advantage to the companies became much more difficult for acquiring and saving at the expense of only one financial results and physical assets. Now along with company financial indexations open the increasing volume of not financial information which is necessary for more complete reflexion of results of activity;
3) the increasing emphasis is done on advancing indicators and long-term factors of stable growth. Indicators of scientific and technical development. Investment dejatelnosgi, capital construction, modernisations and reconstruction of main funds, acquisition of assets, organiza - tsionmogo we strike 1 them I allow! To model the future.
During research it was necessary to define critical factors also. Defining requirement for the improved administrative information, and also problems which face in holding at perfection of system of the administrative reporting.
Decisions on optimisation and increase of efficiency of business regarding production by own strength or production/services purchases on the party, and also the profitableness control я&тяются the most significant factors of requirement for the administrative information, behind them follow strategic decisions on razvigiju business, the investment and marketing decisions connected with pricing by made and new production.
Drawing 6 shows relative importance of the decisions supported by system of a supply with information, according to results of the research carried out by us (importance degree is evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5 where 1 - small importance, 5 - the greatest).
Factors kogrsbgozs'i in; pravlsichsi information
I.V, 10*4
BChaHXTV I I Nlihp 2
ABOUT UlnXIL)
OtUeiml Kiaxicn 5
2JV

.1
MO
MRf *
Fig. 6. Factors of requirement for the administrative information
The analysis carried out by us has shown, what experts vyde blowing basic problem areas in information siste? menngh the Russian holdings [102, p. 56]:
The approaches applied at formation of data of the reporting as a whole on holding (the registration policy, use of techniques at account of indicators of activity) are not universal, that does data biznesov on separate items non-comparable, and the reporting as a whole on holding - doubtful. The insufficient attention is given to creation of the uniform directory of terms (glossary), odn and the same terms are designated in structural units of holding on-r; to an ohm;
Absence diversifikatsii forms on level? sonfidentsialnosti, i.e. absence of grouping accounting proceeding from a granting principle to different groups of detailed elaboration) sets of reports, at economic safety hol n discrepancies of given, poluchenpy
Different (on degree eastaniju the risks connected with! adennem image of the company because of 1ых sources and to unjustified expenses of time vysokoonlachpvasmasmyh managers on the coordination of the questions connected with predostanlenivm of the information;
3) in the concept of the administrative reporting the principle of dependence of depth of detailed elaboration of data from periodicity of granting of the information, as a rule, is not mortgaged. Daily, weekly, monthly reports should be whenever possible simplified, as are used for an operational administration by the company. Quarterly and annual reports on the same group of data should be characterised by deeper detailed elaboration of data. These data generally are used for the analysis and regulation of activity of the company on the basis of the information confirmed with data of accounting statements. Delay in granting of the operative information leads to decrease in its urgency. To loss of levers of the control over activity biznesov and holding in
Detailed elaboration of the description of procedures and methods of formation of data in techniques and the instructions used at formation of data of the reporting, is insufficient, that also increases probability of entering into the reporting of errors. The design procedures of some indicators put into practice (for example, account of a share of the assets falling mi of norms giriev, the sums gudvilla), often supply nanosecond of reliability of data. Absence of due study of forms of the reporting and instructions on their filling leads to the significant expenditures of labour connected with work of experts of managing directors of the company and the enterprises in a mode of inquiries and answers that involves suppression of functions of the control and the analysis which are realised in functional divisions of the operating companies often by a residual principle;
Updatings of data after closing of accounting periods are significant. There are no accurate instructions on razneseniju such updatings under an analytical abacus of the account. As a result of it reliability of data about results of activity of the company decreases, there are preconditions for deliberate distortion of the information by separate managers of the company for the purpose of improvement of indicators of motivation;
The company management pays insufficient attention to regulating accounting documents, such, for example, as the explanatory note to annual or quarter reports. In documents such often there is no uniform system (standard) of inclusion of the analytical information, there are explanatories concerning applied me-todov no account, there is essential information on modification of the reporting, otsutsvujut no explanatory on administrative updatings, leave much to be desired logic of construction of documents and observance of a principle of entering of data with allowance for criterion of importance of the information.
On the following diagramme (fig. 7) the basic problems are presented at perfection of systems of a supply with information which face menedzhmery Open Society "ӫի", and their estimation.
Current problems of a supply with information

Honeycombs '
I
^ And
0В ** мхи4 Vjuoksp 5
|| And
Au> pjraocr > Otsshspme wufcx g Otcjictmc
"/
wxvl •
hojajajaae
Fig. 7. I flow shchie supply with information problems in the company
Automation level while is insufficient for information reception poliostju in a mode of real time, but participants of research, as a rule, are satisfied by accuracy and timeliness of the information which they receive. The basic supervision:
Shortage of accurate methodological support was underlined by many respondents as one of the basic barriers to their perfection
V4.
Systems of the administrative information;
The basic problem defined for holding, timeliness of reception of the information from the affiliated and industrial companies is;
The internal administrative information in holding is not integrated, i.e. It is not systematised, it is not unified and it is not formalized.
Intefatsija the administrative information in holding it urged to make transparent supply with information process at all levels of management. Formalisation includes the whole set of the documents regulating mutual relations between controls of the companies of holding, between functional divisions etc. Formalization of relations in construction of system of intracorporate planning and the control is not formalisation for the sake of formalisation. Any rules dolzh -
ny to form that by them: it was possible to use, that they could use conveniently [86. P. 25]. Information ordering urged to organise definitely data since the unsystematized information it is simple data. Unification is necessary for uniform treatment of terms, methods cGopu, aipei iroianii primary data and treatment of the received information within the limits of holding. Depending on the form of the organisation, the giving form the same information can have different sense.
Ordering, formalisation and unification of system of a supply with information of management, first of all, urged to lower negative influence of asymmetry of the information. Strengthening of influence of asymmetry of the information, first of all, is connected with the inefficient monitoring system and is a major factor for strengthening of influence of antagonistic moods in holding. The l it as it has been already noted earlier, does not allow to interact effectively to participants of holding and to take advantage of potential advantages of joint business dealing. Though the term asymmetry of the information is used for the characteristic funktsionirovav'ja the markets, it is represented expedient to show how asymmetry of the information influences efficiency of functioning of holding.
The asymmetric information takes place when one of the basic preconditions marzhnnalistskoj an economic theory about perfection (completeness) of the market information is infringed. Fulfilment of this precondition means: consumers are completely informed on the tastes; to sellers and buyers of resources, the goods and services well-known all their qualitative characteristics; house economy and firms have the complete information on the equilibrium prices for all economic goods. Thanks to possession the rational choice of each economic subject becomes this information possible, i.e. maximisation of individual criterion function (function of utility or profit function) is reached, koto -
Paradise in the conditions of a perfect competitiveness conducts to public welfare maximisation [87, p. 115].
Thus, it is possible to assert, that asymmetry of the information is such situation when some economic subjects have bolshej a share of the market information, than the others.
Asymmetry of the information creates for one participants of market relations abusing possibility neinformirovannostju others. Hindering rational behaviour of economic agents and generating additional trapzaktsionnye costs (information search costs), asymmetry of the information leads to decrease in public welfare and inefficient functioning of the markets, and also frequently becomes the reason of restriction of a competitiveness and occurrence of the exclusive power.
Meanwhile asymmetric information cases often enough meet in economic zhizin: the seller of a product knows about its quality more than the buyer; receiving the medical insurance it is better osve - domlen about a condition of the are healthy, than the employee of the insurance company; ra - botkik has more complete idea about the skills and abilities, than accepting it on service the businessman.
The reasons of occurrence of these and other similar situations follow from economic properties of the information as important resource and production product:
Information production. in kachest - ryh chiefs (first of all, this management howl the companies) act.
The precondition the second: there is an accurate gradation of quality of "goods" - the represented information. For simplicity let them will be two - a choice quality and poor quality.
The precondition the third: the "goods" sentence structure is fixed. l lycib for upociuibi the "goods" number in each fadatsii qualities will be equal, i.e. in "market" 50 % of the high-quality information and 50 % bad quality will "be sold".
The precondition the fourth: the complete information on quality of "goods" "seller" dresses, and "buyers" evaluate quality of the goods statistically, with some share of probability.
According to the adapted theory of "lemons", quality of justices-lencheskogo of the decision accepted by the chief depends on quality of the information represented it. Proceeding from it, the qualitative information will give the chance to make the better administrative decision. Hence, the curve of quality of the administrative decision on the basis of the high-quality information (Df) will lay above, than on the basis of bad quality (D ^.
But a problem that chiefs of a holding company are not granted possible to distinguish the choice quality and poor quality information for some reasons. On level of the central company so aggregated information usually comes what to justify degree of reliability of the report or a plan correctness it is not obviously possible. Such reports answer on a question on the general reason of change or a deviation, but they seldom give the complete answer indicating a real indicator in which relation it is possible and administrative effect from company management is necessary. Therefore, proceeding from the precondition about the equal shares falling to the information of each gradation of quality, the chief will be to expect with an equal share of probability, that to it. Will grant the information either high, or poor quality. If to assume, that the information choice quality is equal Qq, and poor quality is equal QP4. go an average
Quality of the information is equal 0.5Q,-H), 5QN. Accordingly, and the line of average quality of administrative decisions (D () will lay between D, and Dw (fig. 8).
Decisions
I
K.Formirovanie's Fig. of quality of the administrative decision depending on quality of the represented information
However the developed situation will not be stable. Owing to a number of circumstances of analytics will cease to grant the qualitative information. As a result the share of the qualitative information can decrease, for example, to 25 %, and the share of the information of poor quality to increase to 75 %. Accordingly, quality of the administrative decision will be changed and will be equal D2=0,25Qq-fO, 75QN.
As a result of repeated repetition of this process the situation will come nearer to extreme and quality of administrative decisions on the basis of the bad quality information will be corresponding. Inadequacy of these decisions to real conditions of functioning of object of management becomes a consequence of law of acceptance of administrative decisions in conditions asimmetrichnosti to the information.
del. II
Jfe GOVOJ TO '
As already earlier it was marked, levelling of influence of asymmetry of an in-formation in the company occurs by integration of systems of a supply with information of all participants of holding in uniform information mo-. Thus participants of research especially marked, what exactly holdin -
ompannn it is necessary to represent itself as the integrator.
1ется effektivn the l should not npi
Thus, it is possible to assert, that the tax, processing and a communication of information is an integral part of administrative activity. The Sou-shchestvuet direct dependence between volume of the information and quantity of communications se elements since each additional link doubles hindrances and twice reduces value of the message. Obem the information, necessary for management of organisation activity, grows in an arithmetic trade, and the quantity of possible combinations se elements increases in the geometrical. This problem can be decided by change of organizational structure, in particular, reductions of quantity of levels of management. Thus decreases not only number of links of system, but also volume yipa - cheinoj and the misinterpreted information, chislennosp. Participating in work and executors committing error, quantity ezjazej between data. The holding management efficiency in tselsm is as a result increased. And growth obema to the information should not lead to increase in quantity of levels of the company.
The analysis of a problem of functioning of the company carried out by us has revealed, that the major role in management of corporate association is played by degree of completeness and quality of interaction between its structural units. Integrity of holding depends on interaction level between participants, as one of the major cuohciu economic system when elements and system parts serve achievement of the general purposes facing to the company as a whole. Interaction between holding components in peruju turn us is understood as information interaction.
Complexity management of business group consists that the information which is necessary for the control over activity of all enterprises, is frequently non-uniform, and also that. That at times it is impossible to receive the complete information on functioning of all participants of holding during the concrete moment of time. The basic supervision made during questioning of management of holding about revealing of problems, connected with their supply with information:
Shortage of accurate methodological support was underlined by many respondents as one of the basic barriers to perfection of their systems of the administrative information:
The basic problem defined for holding, timeliness of reception of the information from the affiliated and industrial companies is;
The internal administrative information in holding is not integrated, t. With. It is not systematised, it is not unified and it is not formalized.
Ordering, formalisation and unification of system information ozssiechennja management, first of all, urged to lower negative influence of asymmetry of the information. Strengthening of asymmetry of the information, first of all, is connected with the inefficient monitoring system and is a major factor for strengthening zlijanija antagonistic moods in holding. The l it as it has been already noted earlier, does not allow to interact effectively to participants of holding and to take advantage of the potential
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A source: Galiev. Management of cars of holding: information. 2008

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