the Analysis of the basic tendencies and features of development of the enterprises of a wood complex

the Wood complex (LK) is one of the major directions of activity ­ of the national economy, called to provide with production practically all industries: mechanical engineering, the mining industry, building, agriculture, trade, and also requirements ­ of the population of the country.

the Structure of production LK is presented as follows: lesozagotovitelnaja ­ the industry - 18-15 % from gross national product total amount, lesoobrabatyvajushchaja - 30-35 %, pulp-and-paper - 40 %, furniture - 12 %, timber-chemical - ­ less than 1 percent.

Thus owing to low degree of development of manufactures on deep processing ­ of wood activity LK is not equitable now to economic interests of the state as proprietor of wood fund.

According to Federal agency of a forestry now the area of the earths of wood fund of Russia, covered with wood, constitutes an order of 700 million in hectares, and a general stock of wood resources - about 80 billion in m 3 , it about 20 % of world's reserves [129] (fig. 1).

it is necessary to notice, that at the present stage of managing the potential ­ of use of wood resources is estimated in 10 bln. dollars of gross national product in a year [31]. We will notice, that the presented size is comparable to reception of incomes of coal sale (9,48 bln. dollars) and gas (41,84 bln. dollars) [46].


Drawing 1 - a wood Stock on the world countries in 2015, billion in m

as Key "player" in system commercial use of wood resources ­ timber industry business - presented lesozagotovitelnymi ­ and derevoobrabatyvajushchimi the enterprises acts­.

­ a lot of attention in works both Russian, and ­ foreign scientists is given Research of tendencies and problems of development of the timber industry ­ enterprises­. However, before to start consideration of the preconditions of integration declared in the given paragraph in a wood complex, we will consider communications ­ between all participants of wood relations.

Moreover, lesohozjajstvennoe manufacture is the leader as a part of a wood complex, thanks to biological processes of accumulation of wood and development of the forest stands, laying in its basis [200].

Lesohozjajstvennoe manufacture creates a raw-material base for timber cutting and primary processing of wood, acting as a source of resources (fig. 2).

Drawing 2 - Spheres of a wood complex (LK) 1

In sphere of a forestry and timber cuttings as an initial link ­ of vertical technological chains inside LK, the development vector is connected with increase ­ of efficiency of afforestations and reduction of a cycle of reproduction of wood raw materials.

Against realisation of this purpose essential changes occur ­ resource and technological areas of timber cuttings, and also operating modes ­ lesozagotovitelnyh and derevoobrabatyvajushchih the enterprises [94].

For the characteristic of a wood complex we will use the system approach promoting revealing and an establishment of effective interrelations between participants of wood relations for acceptance of the rational, proved ­ decision concerning expediency and possible ways of integration of their activity.

Feature of such approach consists in representation of a wood complex in the form of the open system constantly co-operating with an environment and ­ consisting from interconnected, making impact against each other of subsystems, functioning in common for achievement of an overall aim [126].

As a part of a wood complex as economic system it is possible to allocate some spheres (subsystems):

1 Working out of the author

- the first sphere - lesohozjajstvennoe manufacture;

- the second sphere - wood and derevoobrabatyvajushchaja the industry;

- the third sphere - pulp-and-paper, furniture, hydrolytic and ­ a forest chemical industry;

- the fourth sphere - the research organisations, wood ­ mechanical engineering, additional vocational training.

Considering drawing 4 to become clearly, that all spheres are connected ­ among themselves not only the "know-how" and processings of wood raw materials, but also work tools, a manpower, information resources and knowledge­.

the Scheme of the Russian timber industry complex is presented in drawing ­ 3.

the System approach gives the chance by competent management on spheres of a wood complex by means of ordering, coordination and achievement ­ of balance of elements inside and out of system to be defined with possibility ­ diversifikatsii as directions of development of own prospects and to develop effective strategy in the given direction.

the Wood complex of the country as the system of the interconnected spheres last years is characterised by calls and the problems, shown that on a share of the enterprises of a complex 1,7 % of release of gross output ­ of the Russian economy are necessary,­ less than 3 % of release of an industrial output, 2,1 % of a currency ­ gain from the Russian export.

dynamics of export, according to Rosstata Falls, Russia in 2015 ­ exported the wood goods on 15,5 % less than in 2014 and constituted 9832 million dollars

Drawing 3 - the Scheme of the Russian timber industry complex [14]

During too time the consolidated income of a wood complex on the internal

the markets, presented by tax revenues from wood, lesozagoto ­
vitelnogo, and derevoobrabatyvajushchego manufactures, in dynamics of last years increases.

Thus, the essential contribution to the consolidated budget ­ the enterprises bring ­ wood carrying out deep processing, manufacture ­ of cellulose, a wood pulp and a paper (drawing 4).

Drawing 4 - Dynamics of tax revenues in a wood complex [129]

However growth is marked not in all spheres of a wood complex. The income ­ lesozagotovitelnyh the enterprises from one cubic metre of the prepared wood ­ constitutes about 70 dollars. The added value on unit of the prepared wood in a wood complex of Russia of 2-5 times more low, than in the developed countries.

Analysts notice, that their financial position of the enterprises of a wood complex remains difficult, and as a whole profitability is at level of 3­ 5 % [55, 71]. This level of profitability of activity of the branch enterprises, will reach basically at the expense of pulp-and-paper manufactures growing in volumes.

we Will notice, that this fact underlines an inconsistent situation in a wood complex and characterises disbalans interests of the enterprises of spheres entering into its structure.

It is reversible to more in-depth study of a condition of each of spheres entering with structure of a wood complex from a position of prospects of development.

we Will consider the first sphere - lesohozjajstvennoe the manufacture which is carrying out ­ reproduction of woods, protection from fires, wreckers and illnesses.

For an estimation of development of spheres of a wood complex many approaches (profitable, resource, comparative, etc.) can be used.

the Logical approach in an estimation of a condition of the Wood complex is ­ the analysis of a vertical technological chain:

- lesohozjajstvennoe manufacture;

-lesozagotovitelnaja the industry;

- derevoobrabatyvajushchaja the industry.

With reference to lesohozjajstvennomu to manufacture more often others are used ­ by criteria of an estimation of efficiency of activity in the field of wood relations [121, 123].

There are numerous opinions on indicators of efficiency ­ of a forestry and criteria of its development. A.I.Pisarenko and V.V. Strahov is given by 36 indicators of steady management of woods [142].

Within the limits of the Helsinki process 6 criteria and 20 ­ indicators for a condition estimation lesopolzovanija were offered­.

Within the limits of the Montreal process necessity ­ of use of 7 criteria and 7èíäèêàòîðîâ for voluntary certification lesopol - zovany has been stated­.

Gorshkova J.O. offers the regional approach to indicators for an estimation of stability of development [38].

Morkovina S.S., Panjavina E.A. is offered by groups of criteria and ­ indicators corresponding to them for the characteristic of a condition and development ­ of enterprise activity and an estimation of efficiency of interaction of imperious and enterprise structures in system of wood relations [111].

There are also other approaches which have found reflexion in works by Runova E.M., Grebenjuk A.L. [158], Bolshakov N. M, Zhideleva V.V. [17], Krivonosov R. V [79], Bazhenov O. P, the Paw of Island S [9] in which authors offer the indicators, allowing to estimate a forestry and organisation condition lesopolzovanija­.

For the condition and development characteristic lesozagotovitelnoj and ­ derevoobrabatyvajushchej the industries use indicators:

- a production efficiency;

- efficiency of use of resources;

- manufacture volume in natural and cost expression;

- tax loading;

- industrial expenses [151].

Despite a polysemy of criteria of an estimation of efficiency of activity ­ of the enterprises of a wood complex, for harmonious development of all spheres observance of a condition of proportionality is necessary.

we Will consider a condition of a forestry of Russia, in a context ­ of proportionality of development and necessity diversifikatsii the basic sphere of a wood complex.

Activity in forestry sphere carry out 30,0 thousand organisations ­ and businessmen under rent contracts of sites of wood fund (fig. 5).

In a total area of operational and protective woods in Russia constitutes 1073,4 million in hectares. It is thus transferred in rent of 20,7 %.

Drawing 5 - Dynamics of the areas of wood fund transferred in rent, million in hectares [129]

In constant (termless) using it is given 2,4 thousand forest plots by a total area of 14,1 million in hectares: for realisation of recreational ­ activity (77 %); wood preparations (18 %), realisation ­ nauchnoissledovatelskoj activity, educational activity (4 %).

In territories of wood fund not transferred in rent lesohozjajstvennoe manufacture carry out 448 - federal official bodies,
685 - regional official bodies and 448 - municipal ­ official bodies, according to LK the Russian Federation.

In the report presented at session of a round table «Working out of new approaches to definition of rates of a payment for wood resources», the head of department ­ of long-term planning and forecasting in a forestry ­ of Federal agency of a forestry it is noticed, that the parity between incomes ­ of the Federal budget and expenses on forestry conducting develops from year to year not in favour of a profitable part (fig. 6).

for lesopilenija) 6:4 and to add to it volume of exported round wood (pilovochnik, plywood raw materials, balances), and also not used waste from ­ lesopilenija and derevoobrabotki the necessary volume of preparation of wood raw materials for enterprises JH1K of the Northwest of Russia will constitute about 100 million in m 3 in a year [14].

the Answer to increasing contradictions of interests in a wood complex ­ is the economic model of an intensive forestry as system ­ of basic elements (mechanisms, tools), regulating process of working out and realisation of the administrative decisions providing steady lesopolzovanie ­ with a condition of the greatest possible exit of commodity wood of set ­ quantity and qualities [113].

About necessity of transition to new ways of the organisation lesopolzovanija the academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, professor N.A.Moiseyev writes, noticing, that in the European part of Russia the big relative density is occupied with woods of protective categories, using with which demands high level lesoupravlenija, that, in turn, and ­ is a basis for transition to intensive model lesopolzovanija in exchange nowadays everywhere realised extensive [109].

According to the author, for modern wood business the problem which has scale character is characteristic and has deep enough sense and consequences. The given problem - decrease in the wood resources which are a raw-material base lesozagotovitelnoj and derevoobrabatyvajushchej of the industry.

the Problem of reduction of wood resources and deterioration of woods ­ has received is consecrated in works of domestic scientists, lesovodov and economists: ­ Kovaleva A.P., etc. [66], Petrova A.P. [140], Shvidenko A.Z. [185], Glushko Of this year, ­ Prohorenko N.B. [34], the Sokolov of Century A, etc. [163] and others. Negative influence ­ of climatic changes on a condition of woods is underlined in Alekseeva V. A's [3] works, Gromyko M. N [42]. SHijatova Of this year [190].

From a position of strategic management problems Kozhuhova N.I. [67] lifted in works, Popovoj S.V. [145], Kolesnikovoj
A.V are actual. [69] about reduction of the area of woods for the reasons of growth of number of fires of dangerous ­ wreckers and illnesses and infringements of the wood legislation.

the Scientific community underlines, that the developed system of preparation of the wood, resulting pererubu admissible withdrawal of wood on ­ ekologoekonomicheskim to reasons, will negatively be reflected in a condition of wood fund in 50 years, and the wood industry will face sharp deficiency of raw materials.

England which as a result of long-term ­ timber cuttings, transfers of the earths of wood fund under needs of agriculture ­ has lost the most part of natural woods can serve One of negative historical examples of such irrational wildlife management­­. By estimations of researchers historically 80 % of territory of the country have been covered by woods. To the beginning of 20 centuries the area of wood fund was reduced to 5 % from territory of England. There are also other data on ­ reduction of the area of wood resources in the world [129].

Despite presence of many objective causes, obezlesenie and degradation ­ of woods is function of two real factors: growth of demand for wood and products of its processing, and absence of an intensification in a forestry. On the one hand, it is possible to reveal positive character of the given problem. Time is a question about decrease in stocks of wood resources it is necessary to speak about high rates of work of the manufacture which are based on use of wood resources (the furniture industry, building).

According to strategy of development of a wood complex till 2030, it is necessary to expect a gain of consumption of pulp-and-paper production to 132 million t., commodity cellulose on 32 million t., a consumer cardboard on 22,9 million t. The increase in consumption of a paper by 2030 in the Russian Federation will constitute totally 2,5 million t. Production.

we Will notice, that a growing demand for the goods from wood and its derivatives, will promote increase of pressure on wood ekosistemy, and to stimulate ­ increase in volumes of timber cutting as in natural, and it is artificial the created woods.

During too time value of wood resources - as ekosistem in immediate prospects ­ will grow, and because of development of "green" economy [148] in which basis principles neistoshchitelnogo uses [171] and protection of natural resources as bases of economic and social life-support are put.

we Will underline, that the decision of a question of increase in consumption of wood ­ lays in a plane of escalating of processes of reproduction of woods, and in some cases in transition to cultivation of wood raw materials on plantations unlike former practice of use of natural afforestations and completion of their leaving at preparation of wood at the expense of natural process lesovozobnovlenija and plantings of wood cultures.

Following logic of our research, we will consider the second sphere of a wood ­ complex - lesozagotovitelnuju the industry. This industry provides ­ preparation and primary processing of wood and other products of wood.

Its industrial potential is defined by the sizes of timber cutting and vyvozki, and proportionality of development taking into account presence and quality of raw materials ­ is the important condition of functioning of all wood complex.

Professor N.A.Burdin notices, that timber industry manufacture in the Russian Federation does not concern the category of the high technology manufactures, thus the majority of the enterprises is equipped by out-of-date technology, and the domestic equipment is characterised by a low performance level and mechanisation of work and mismatches requirements and a level of production, shown to level lesozagotovitelnogo and lesopilnogo manufactures abroad.

In the forecast of development of wood sector of the Russian Federation till 2030, it is underlined, that the twenty years' period of a delay of its development opens unique historical possibility of radical updating and reconstruction of key industries in its structure on essentially new technological basis of the XXI-st century.

It should be reached on the basis of introduction proryvnyh technologies and innovations in leading branches of wood sector. Today technological
backlog of the Russian timber industry sector from world level is characterised by absence of introduction "proryvnyh" innovative projects not only in branches to deep processing, but also in a forestry.

we Will spend an estimation of the developed economic tendencies of development ­ lesozagotovitelnoj branches of a wood complex of the Russian Federation.

In 2016 manufacture growth as on processing of wood and ­ manufacture of products from a tree on 2,8 %, and on manufacture of a paper and paper products on 5,1 % has been noted­.

Following the results of I half-year 2017 the manufacture increase as on processing of wood and manufacture of products from a tree (growth of 2,7 %), and on ­ manufacture of a paper and paper products (1,2 %) is observed­. It is necessary to notice, that the increase in manufacture of a paper and paper products in I half-year 2017 is connected with ­ manufacture increase ­ on all principal views of production of pulp-and-paper manufacture: cellulose wood and cellulose from other fibrous materials ­(growth of 1,3 %); a paper and a cardboard (2,5 %) and others. Sharp growth is observed in ­ manufacture of writing-books of the general (153,6 %), albums and folders with a paper (including blocks) (33,2 %).

In intermediate term prospect moderate dynamics of development ­ of a timber industry complex is expected­.

Manufacture of wood and products from it is defined by the developed ­ internal and external demand for production of the Russian timber industry ­ complex. It is necessary to notice, that production of the Russian manufacture as a whole concedes to foreign analogues in view of the out-of-date, unsafe technologies for environment, high level of moral and physical deterioration of a fixed capital in this connection the quality standards are not maintained, increase re - sursoemkost and power consumption of manufacture.

Table 1 - Manufacture of principal views of production timber industry

a complex, %


the fact


an estimation

2018 the forecast 2019 the forecast 2020 the forecast 2020ã. To

2016ã., %

Forest products raw 104,2 104,0 101,9 101,8 101,5 109,6
Processing of wood and manufacture of products ­ from a tree 102,8 103,0 101,9 101,8 101,5 108,6
Forest products, ­ it is longitudinal sawn or split 103,6 105,4 103,1 102,3 101,4 112,6
Plates drevesnovo­


102,2 100,3 100,2 101,2 101,0 102,8
Plates drevesno­


110,3 112,0 102,6 102,0 101,8 119,4
Plywood kleenaja 103,0 108,7 102,1 102,1 102,1 115,7
Manufacture of a paper and paper products 105,1 104,5 104,5 103,6 103,4 116,9
Cellulose commodity 104,2 102,3 102,2 102,3 102,2 109,3
the Paper and a cardboard 104,1 102,8 101,6 101,7 101,6 108,0

Now the branch condition is characterised by shortage of capacities on production of deep processing as at the operating ­ enterprises reserves of these capacities are practically settled (in 2016 in the Russian Federation use of mid-annual capacities constituted on manufacture of forest products, is longitudinal the sawn or split 56,6 %; saw-timbers - 55,2 %; plywood kleenoj - 87,3 %; plates drevesnostruzhechnyh - 76,8 %; plates ­ wood-fiber - 77,8 %; cellulose wood and cellulose from other fibrous materials - 90,0 %; papers - 91,9 %; a cardboard - 88,6 %) [149].

For disclosing of the reasons of an unsatisfactory condition lesozagotovitelnoj ­ the industries, we will consider the basic economic characteristics of work ­ of the enterprises (tab. 3).

Table 2 - Dynamics of manufacture of principal views of production wood

a complex of the Russian Federation [165]

production Name Rate of growth on the end of year, %
1990 1995/1990 2000/1995 2005/2000 2010/2005 2015/2010 2016/1990
­ wood Preparation ­ 100 49,3 110,6 112,1 94,8 116,9 69,4
Saw-timbers 100 35,3 76,9 119,5 120,9 141,8 58,2
plywood Manufacture 100 58,7 295 92,0 105,1 152,6 274,0
Manufacture DSP 100 39,6 105,8 168,3 139,1 104,3 105,1


100 55,9 124,7 133,2 102,1 126,5 123,8
cellulose Manufacture 100 106 84,7 88,6 125,1 104,8 104,9
paper Manufacture 100 48,9 130,3 140,2 101,7 108,1 98,6
furniture Manufacture 100 206,7 149,2 263,2 185,8 161,0 22,4 times

the Analysis of the indicators characterising work of the organisations by the form of economic activities of "timber cutting", presented to the table, has allowed to make the conclusion.

First, for the given kind of activity constant decrease in number of the organisations which are carrying out industrial activity in given sphere is characteristic. If in 2005 of these enterprises in Russia was about 21 thousand by 201 6 year their number was cut practically by half.

Secondly, decrease in scales of manufacture of wood resources is observed­. If till 2011 growth, on the average on 4 % annually since 2012 decrease in the given indicator takes place took place.

Thirdly, decrease in number occupied in lesozagotovitelnom ­ manufacture takes place­. And, since 2005 to 201 6 this figure it was reduced in 5 times.

In the fourth, relative density of the unprofitable enterprises in lesozagotovitelnoj constitutes branches more than 50 % from total.

Table 3 - the Basic indicators of work of the organisations by the form

economic activities of "Timber cutting" [130]

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Number of the organisations (on the end of year), thousand 15,6 13,6 12,2 11,4 10,6 10,2 8,9
Mid-annual number of workers of the organisations, thousand persons 156,6 144,4 134,3 119,2 107,1 103,4 46,0
Saldirovannyj financial result (profit a minus the loss), million rbl. -5420 -3769 -3818 -8465 -17652 -6591 6632
Profitability of the sold goods, production (works, services), percent -0,9 -0,6 -2,8 -3,6 -0,8 4,2 5,5
Manufacture of wood raw, million


dense m

117,3 122,7 121,8 119,8 123,4 126,7 129,0

Dynamics of financial results testifies not simply to constant unprofitableness of the given kind of activity, and increase in scale of losses. If in 2005 losses constituted 2 billion 800 million roubles by 2016 this figure ­ has raised in 6 times.

Lesosyrevoj hunger at many enterprises LK of the Russian Federation is notable already today, and it is a serious problem - especially for large manufactures [86].

Researchers notice, that in Northwest region of Russia is created powerful enough klaster lesopererabatyvajushchih the enterprises into which ­ enter: group of pulp-and-paper combines (Arkhangelsk, Kotlas, Syktyvkar, Segezhsky, Kondopozhsky, Pitkjarantsky, Svetogorsky, Sjas - sky, Vyborg) with the general consumption of 12-16 million in m 3 balances and technological ­ fire wood in a year; group plitnyh manufactures (DVP, DSP, OSB, MDF) with annual consumption of raw materials about 4 million in m 3 ; group pelletnyh manufactures (wood fuel granules) with volume of manufacture of 1,5 million t in a year and requirement for ­ raw materials about 10 million in m 3 . Thus shortage of wood resources in the future will accrue­.

It is possible to believe, that the key factor of growth in lesozagotovitelnoj the industries is reproduction accelerations lesosyrevoj bases.

Moreover, for stagnation overcoming in wood branch transition ­ to intensive model of conducting the forestry is necessary,­ one of ­ which components ­ is formation of wood plantings with certain characteristics ­ of pedigree structure and sortimentnoj structures. It becomes possible ­ at association lesohozjajstvennogo and lesozagotovitelnogo including at the expense of integration processes. We will notice, that for last years ­ integration processes ­ in a wood complex have received a sustainable development.

Now the considerable part lesozagotovitelnyh the enterprises represents integrated on a principle vertical diversifikatsii holdings. Professor V.K.Ryazanov considers, that in wood sector of a national economy the share of holdings in total of the enterprises constitutes 35 %, in number - 49 %, that a little bit more low, than in the industry in whole (accordingly 39 and 64 %).

Thus for activity lesozagotovitelnyh the enterprises, according to the scientist are characteristic both horizontal (lesozagotovitelnaja) and vertical ­ integration - lesozagotovitelno-derevoobrabatyvajushchaja, (strategy of a combination of timber cuttings and wood processing) or lesozagotovitelno-lesohozjajstvennaja [152].

the Third sphere of a wood complex - is presented by branches with the high ­ added value - derevoobrabatyvajushchej, gidrolizno-chemical, ­ pulp-and-paper and furniture. In this sphere the most developed ­ segments and fast-growing manufactures are concentrated­.

For last 1 0 years of the enterprise carrying out derevoobrabotku and ­ deep processing of wood essentially diversified both assortment of made production, and system of the organisation of manufacture (for example, bio-refajning; technologies on restoration of wood and wood-fiber ­ plates, manufacture of the modified wood).

Actual mid-annual growth of manufacture of a paper and a cardboard for 10 years has constituted 2 %, sheet plates - 8 %, and furniture of 9 % (tab. 4). In 2016 paper and cardboard development, including a newsprint, has increased by 0,8 % [47]. The furniture ­
noe manufacture, since 2015 worries recession: in 2015 ­ the furniture sales volume ­ in Russia was reduced to 9,9 % in comparison with 2014, and in 2016 ­ has decreased on 5,3 %.

it is important to notice, that in 45 subjects of Russia manufacture lesobumazhnoj production constitutes from 10 to 50 % of total amounts of an industrial output in these regions.

Table 4 - Dynamics of manufacture of the enterprises of the pulp-and-paper and furniture industry in structure LK [165]

Manufacture: 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
the Paper and ­ a cardboard, million in m 3 7,6 7,7 7,7 7,7 7,6 7,8 7,8 8,2 8,2 8,3
Sheet plates, million t. 10,2 10,4 8,4 9,9 11,5 12,3 12,1 12,8 13,0 13,3
Furniture, billion river 282 327 299 328 369 424 456 507 494 397

Among the enterprises working in pulp-and-paper branch, ­ the largest and known in the Russian market is the following: Segezhsky ­ and Kondopozhsky TSBK, Pitkjarantsky cellulose factory (Kareliya); ­ Arkhangelsk, Kotlas and Solombalsky TSBK (the Arkhangelsk area); ­ Syktyvkar LPK (Republic Komi); Vyborg TSBZ, Svetogorsky TSBK and Sjassky TSBK (Leningrad region); Suhonsky TSBK (the Vologda area), etc. the holding Largest in Russia making production tselljuloznobumazhnoj ­ of the industry and consolidating leading enterprises in this ­ branch, is Timber industry group «Ylym Palp the Enterprise» (Ilim Pulp Enterprise (IPE) where enter Kotlas TSBK, Brotherly TSBK, the Brotherly ­ timber industry complex, Ñàíêò_Ïåòåðáóðãñêèé kartonno-polygraphic combine,­ a paper-mill "Communard" and 28 lesozagotovitelnyh the enterprises.

the Analysis spent by experts of National wood agency of development and investments, shows, that growth of manufacture of wood composit materials occurs in a geometrical progression. Every year there are new technologies of processing of bad quality raw materials, that
allows to create products with unique properties [95]. The big ­ export potential at the enterprises in a segment of manufacture of cellulose (including viscose­) in the markets of the countries of Asia.

Now demand for the new products of a final demand developed ­ in LK of the world, differs revolutionary shifts and sharp rates of increase that leads to backlog of initial links of timber industry manufacture - cultivation of wood and its preparation from the final links serving ­ demand for finished goods [94].

Regarding the external economic component it is necessary to notice, that ­ the timber industry complex of the Russian Federation is characterised eksportnosyrevoj ­ by an orientation (the given problem is especially actual for frontier ­ regions of the Siberian and Far East Federal districts to ­ which territory ­ essential stocks of wood resources are concentrated, thus the level of development lesopererabatyvajushchih capacities is low enough).

Throughout last years the basic importer of the Russian raw ­ wood and the forest products, passed the minimum processing (­ forest products sawn or split), China was. The share of export ­ deliveries of raw forest products to China has constituted: 56,2 % from all ­ Russian export of given production to 2013; 60,1 % - in 2014; 60,7 % - in 2015; 63,6 % - in 2016; 68,0 % - in I half-year 2017; forest products sawn or split: 38,3 % of all Russian export of specified production in 2013; 40,4 % - in 2014; 45,1 % - in 2015; 54,1 % - in 2016; 59,9 % - in I half-year 2017 Are supposed, that in intermediate term prospect rates of growth of export ­ of raw wood will be high enough in connection with decrease in rates ­ of the export customs duties on given production within the limits of the introduction ­ of the Russian Federation into the WTO. In I half-year 2017 The gain of export deliveries ­ of forest products sawn or split has constituted 11,6 %; plywood - 14,3 %; ­ drevesnostruzhechnyh plates - 22,7 %, wood-fiber plates - 9,8 %; papers, a cardboard ­ and products from them - 4,5 %. At the same time reduction of export ­ of forest products raw on 5,0 %, plywood - on 1,3 %, cellulose - on 2,5 % [149] is marked­.

Table 5 - the Basic problems, risks and tendencies of development of the enterprises of a wood complex [149]

the Basic problems of development of a wood complex the Basic risks of development of a wood ­ complex in intermediate term prospect the Basic tendencies of development
- insufficient capacity ­ of home market lesobumazhnoj production,

- low level lesopolzovanija,­

- low level himiko­

mechanical and chemical ­ processing of prepared ­ wood,

- imperfect structure

manufacture and export ­ lesobumazhnoj production,

- insufficient investment ­ appeal ­ of a timber industry complex of Russia,

- low level of investment ­ and innovative activity ­ of the organisations of a timber industry ­ complex,

- high level physical and an obsolescence of a fixed capital,

- poor quality and ­ competitiveness of Russian ­ production, including on foreign markets.

- deficiency of accessible wood ­ raw materials that is connected with available ­ infrastructural restrictions,

- decrease in rates of the export ­ customs duties on raw wood ­ according to the obligations of the Russian Federation accepted at an accession to WTO.

- limitation of the nomenclature

to production delivered for export, which quality mismatches required standards;

- spent by the countries-exporters

(in particular, China) the policy directed on expansion

own manufacture;

- reorientation of the cores

foreign consumers on

use of production,

delivered from other countries, and also secondary raw materials

- forest plots with economically and transportno accessible wood resources are practically settled. Extensive ­ use of wood resources for a long time, has led to essential reduction of the area of woods and decrease ­ in qualitative structure of wood resources.

- insufficiency of infrastructural maintenance promotes ­ incomplete development settlement lesoseki. The given problem is aggravated with deficiency of operational stocks of wood in zones of an arrangement of many operating timber industry enterprises and ways of transportation [175]. In the developed conditions transition to intensified use ­ of wood resources, realisation of actions for maintenance ­ of availability of wood resources, including search of alternative ­ variants of reproduction lesosyrevoj bases is required­­­.

- imperfection of the wood legislation regarding the organisation ­ lesopolzovanija and an inefficiency of applied ­ tools of state-private partnership in this area provide low investment appeal ­ of a wood complex in long-term prospect and do not promote reproduction lesosyrevoj bases on an intensive basis.

- high level of moral and physical deterioration of the basic production assets, high dependence on foreign manufacturers of wood cars, limit development of branches of a wood complex as a whole.

- presence of a relationship of cause and effect between ­ prirodnoklimaticheskimi and production factors does ­ lesohozjajstvennoe and lesozagotovitelnoe manufactures vysokoriskovymi ­(forest fires, mass distribution of harmful ­ organisms, droughts, frosts, etc.) and reduces privleka -

telnost this kind of economic activities.

- growth of cost of fuel, a rise in prices and ­ traffic rates, growth of rates of a rent in the absence of ­ effective system of support of manufacturers proceeds­­. It is necessary to notice, that for last seven years mid-annual increase of the price for fuel has constituted about 40 %. Tariff regulation not only ­ mismatches requirements of effective development of wood business, but also their self-support as it is available ­ disbalans between brakes ­ is disproportionate a high rise in prices for fuel ­ in comparison with a rise in prices on lesoproduktsiju.

- didzhitalizatsija, the leader to reduction of demand for a printing paper, at displacement of consumption towards natural and ecologically a net production in the developed countries (growth ­ of consumption of packing from a paper and a cardboard);

- stimulation of development of "Green" power and increase in use of biofuel;

- development of technologies opens a wide spectrum of new kinds and scopes of wood materials, a paper and a cardboard, bumazhno-cardboard container and packing, and also fibrous ­ half-finished products from wood raw materials;

- growth of export deliveries will be defined by development ­ of economy of the basic countries-importers of Russian production; ­ the basic part in export deliveries will be constituted by production which has already occupied a certain niche in the international market of wood ­(mainly production of low repartition).

Considering a technological chain (so-called «a cost chain­») timber cuttings - deep processing of wood we notice, that rates ­ of growth of these manufactures correlate in time (fig. 7). The average volume of timber cutting constitutes 180 million cubic metre, and rate of growth does not exceed 10 % a year.

Drawing 7 - Dynamics of rates of growth of manufactures of a wood complex, % [129]

the Schedule allows to draw a conclusion on proportional development of two spheres of a wood complex - lesozagotovitelnoj and derevoobrabatyvajushchej.

Then in a context of strategic management of development in a wood ­ complex, we will notice, that the enterprises lesozagotovitelnyh and derevoobrabatyvajushchih manufactures are profitable, developing steady rates.

While lesohozjajstvennoe manufacture is profitless and vysokozatratnym an activity kind. Difficult display of reforming and modernisation in branches of a wood complex, creates problem knots, and ­ predetermines new possibilities for integration into separate spheres.

the Wood complex as the economy sector, submits to the basic ­ economic laws, characteristic for any economic systems and for any stage of development of productive forces and relations of production. At the same time, at realisation economic and economic activities in a wood complex it is necessary to consider the features caused by technology ­ lesohozjajstvennogo, lesozagotovitelnogo and derevoobrabatyvajushchih manufactures, ­ placing of labour, industrial and wood resources.

Wood production possesses a wide range that predetermines ­ a choice of a considerable quantity of directions of its use with various effect.

For definition of features of a wood complex consider a number of the important discriminating signs.

In our opinion the basic direction of development of a wood complex should be connected with optimisation of its branch structure. To the directions ­ providing achievement of this purpose, interbranch integration concerns.


Working out of the author

Table 6 of Feature and problem places of a wood complex of the Russian Federation

the Sign Especial characteristics Problem places
the raw-material base Characteristic Advantage are - wood resources as a renewed ­ raw-material base. the Long cycle of restoration of a raw-material base. An exhaustion of resource ­ base in the most accessible territories.
Economic appointment ­ of made ­ production Lesozagotovitelnaja ­ the industry concerns branch ­ group And, derevoobrabatyvajushchaja,­ a pulp and paper industry to branch group V Lesozagotovitelnaja and lesohozjajstvennaja ­ activity are made in one territory, and make impact against each other. Qualitative characteristics of wood are non-uniform. The big number of not demanded invaluable wood increases the cost price of timber cuttings.

Derevoobrabatyvajushchaja promysh­

lennost is the basic ­ consumer of the prepared wood.

Character of influence ­ about work Lesozagotovitelnaja ­ the industry is extracting branch.

Derevoobrabatyvajushchaja about­

myshlennost is ­ processing branch.

Deterioration of conditions of operation of wood resources.

Slaborazvitaja a wood infrastructure­. Not developed logistics. ­ The considerable prices for transportation of the prepared wood.

the Technological basis of a complex In a forestry and ­ lesozagotovitelnoj the industries production ­ is based on ­ transportnoperemestitelnyh operations. Production

it is dispersed. In derevoobrabatyvajushchej ­ and tselljulozno­

the paper industry on chemical technology.

Out-of-date industrial base in a forestry and lesozagotovitelnoj ­ the industries. ­ Essential dependence on the import equipment in derevoobrabatyvajushchej ­ and a pulp and paper industry­.
Formation of expenses for ­ manufacture the Forestry and ­ lesozagotovitelnaja the industry are labour-consuming proiz - Problems in legislative base. Low standard expenses in ­ a forestry. Considerable rupture


vodstvami. Derevoobrabatyvajushchaja,­ a pulp and paper industry are ­ material-intensive. in a payment on branches in a complex.
Forms ­ of interbranch ­ interaction Horizontal and vertical integration, cooperation,

complex processing ­ of wood resources and a waste.

High risks of association, low level of profitability lesozagotovitelnoj ­ activity, unprofitableness ­ lesohozjajstvennogo manufactures­.

the carried out research has allowed to reveal features of development ­ of the enterprises of the wood complex, presented on drawing 8.

Drawing 8 - Features of development of the enterprises of a wood complex

In a wood complex camps have developed preconditions to integration, ­ basic of which in our opinion are:

- first, integration into a wood complex can be connected with ­ long-term stagnation in a forestry and necessity of performance of a part

3 Working out of the author
lesohozjajstvennyh works directly lesozagotovitelnymi the enterprises­;

- secondly, the essential disproportions which have developed in last years in development of a technological chain - lesohozjajstvennoe manufacture - ­ timber cutting - derevoobrabotka;

On a number lesozagotovitelnyh all reserves of capacities are developed, there is no ­ hi-tech equipment and modern technologies, the enterprises ­ wood carrying out deep processing in view of presence of the modern ­ high-efficiency equipment have not loaded capacities, ­ backlog lesohozjajstvennogo manufactures regarding innovative technologies lesovyrashchivanija is essential, rates of growth lesovosstanovlenija essentially ­ lag behind rates of growth of timber cutting. On level of used technologies ­ timber industry sector of Russia - one of the most backward in the world - as in timber cutting­.

thirdly, technological, territorial and economic dissociation ­ lesohozjajstvennyh, the procuring and processing enterprises and manufactures;

fourthly, extensive model lesopolzovanija, defining unprofitableness ­ of a forestry and expansion of the wood industry in malonarushen - nye woods;

-fifthly, infrastructural and economic barriers, in the absence of support of base manufactures;

the Considerable part of stocks of wood is located in the remote, ­ remote territories, with not developed or absent transport ­ infrastructure. On one thousand in km 2 woods in Russia it is necessary only 1,2 km of wood roads. Poorly developed industrial and road and transport infrastructure ­ limit possibilities of complex and full development of operational ­ woods.

- sixthly, a low level of development of research and development and industrial innovations ­ at all stages of technologically connected manufactures.

-seventhly, essential dependence from lesosyrevogo a resource, at reduction of volumes of economically accessible wood (biological ­ settlement lesoseka reaches 33,8 million in m 3 economically and transportno it can be accessible no more than 18 million in m 3 wood) [124];

- the v-eighth, growth of the goods of substitutes in branches traditionally using ­ wood and products from a tree (building, power);

- the v-ninth, presence of considerable industrial base and nedozagruz - ka industrial capacities;

- the v-tenth, low level of investment appeal in all spheres of a wood complex.

In the modern conditions of managing characterised by catastrophic ­ decrease of stocks of wood resources, an actual problem search of sources it is not becomes simple their renewal that long enough ­ period of time, and working out of scientific innovative approaches to le - sovyrashchivaniju occupies­.

Development of the enterprises of a wood complex is defined by a condition and level of use of its raw potential, as the raw potential ­ of concrete branch (a complex of homogeneous branches of region or the country as a whole) defines potential possibilities in satisfaction of public requirements for products, the goods, services of a certain direction. The enterprises ­ of a timber industry complex are the basic consumers ­ lesosyrevyh resources.

Developing tendencies in development of a wood complex do not allow to count on serious positive changes in the near future regarding increase lesosyrevoj base, and predetermine necessity of search ­ of alternative ways of maintenance with raw materials.

Researchers of the given problematics underline, that a unique ­ exit from an approaching raw collapse for lesopererabatyvajushchih the enterprises ­ of a wood complex this creation of target timber industry plantations from fast-growing tree species [85].


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A source: TORZHOK IVAN OLEGOVICH. the MECHANISM of STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT of the ENTERPRISES of the WOOD COMPLEX. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Voronezh - 2018. 2018

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