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the Strategic analysis of activity of the organisation as osnoyova acceptances of the administrative decision on transition to outsourcing

Now, when during the period tsifrovizatsii changes vneshyonej environments occur quickly enough, strategic management dejayotelnostju the organisations becomes a basis for its development konkurentoyosposobnosti.

And a starting point for transition to outsourcing is the strategic substantiation of the outsourcing-project. Strategic targets, koyotorye project outsourcing - is planned to reach as a result of realisation, it is necessary to choose and co-ordinate, besides readiness rukovoyodstva the companies to consider outsourcing in exchange traditional razviyotiju the organisations. It is possible by means of the strategic management directed on an establishment and achievement of the purposes through creation tsennoyosti for the holders, clients, employees and others zainteresovanyonyh the parties.

Strategic planning represents set both short-term (management of expenses), and long-term objectives ispolyozovanija outsourcing (organisation reduction in conformity to trebovaniyojam the market) which are established depending on organizational level on which problems for their achievement (management on the purposes of a portfolio of projects will be solved).

To acquire reliance of results of the made decision on outsourcing of separate functions or business processes, it is necessary strateyogichesky the analysis of activity of the organisation. Its realisation is accurate opredeyolit a choice of strategic targets and will designate them prioritetnost with sosredoyotocheniem efforts to the directions of activity which are producing a profit;
Will define external resources which probably to use for poziyotsionirovanija the companies in the market; benefit and result of use zayorekomendovavshih itself technologies and a know-how for increase konkurentoyosposobnosti the organisations.

Process of the strategic analysis of activity of the organisation vkljuchayoet itself following stages:

• the analysis of the purposes of the organisation;

• the analysis of strategic positioning of the organisation and its competitive environment (the analysis of an external environment and internal reyosursov with definition of possibilities of growth);

• formation of strategic vision of the future organizayotsii;

• acceptance of strategic decisions on outsourcing possibility (formation of a portfolio of projects).

Let's study the given stages in more details.

The analysis of the purposes of the organisation.

The strategic planning system on which management on the basis of strategy bases, assumes, that the future is not known, and the analysis of organizational prospects, possibilities, threats, tendencies is necessary for its "definition" etc. [55]. Strategic planning - the tool on which basis all management predyoprijatiem should be under construction. Its problem consists in that in a sufficient measure to supply innovations and changes in the organisation of the enterprise [56].

Hence, strategic planning, as well as management, are more directed on strengthening of items of the organisation, which obespeyochat its long existence in a changed environment, than on simple studying of possible development of the company. So, according to one of concepts, strategic management has following characteristics:

• the organisation (a strategy formulation, definition of the purposes and a policy of resource allocation);

• purposefulness (concentration on efficiency kompayonii which is defined by means of the contribution of employees to its development and the most rational use of other resources of the organisation);

• integrated approach (set of the purposes and actions which in bolshej degrees correspond to environment conditions);

• cast (each employee of the company is responsible for fulfilment of certain problems in conformity with level of the funkyotsionirovanija within the limits of the organisation).

Strategic management represents process of working out, acceptance and realisation of the strategic decisions basing on strateyogicheskom a choice which is in turn based on comparison of resource potential of the organisation to possibilities and threats vneshneyogo environments.

Thus, strategic management mentions a wide range of the problems which are connected with main objectives of the organisation and being under the influence of an external environment which are it predmeyotom, namely:

• the problems connected with the general purposes of the organisation (tseyoli the organisations are focused on the future and are directed on maintenance of interrelation of the purposes, resources and results);

• the problems connected with any element of the organisation (any element is necessary for achievement of the purposes, but at the moment is absent or is present in insufficient volume);

• the problems connected with uncontrollable external fakto - rami [57].

The decision of the designated problems probably as a result of realisation of the outsourcing-project as a part of a portfolio-projects of the organisation.

Problems of strategic management arise in reyozultate effects of numerous external factors (in order to avoid errors at a choice of strategy and a direction of development of the organisation neobyohodimo to define, what factors make on its impact) [58] more often. The concept "strategy" was formed under the influence of development of schools strategicheyoskogo management, each of which concentrated on it opredeyolyonnyh characteristics (table 2.1).

According to researches, professors of management of Makgillsky university in Montreal, G enri Mintsbergu (Henry Mintzberg) all schools of strategic management can be divided into three groups: preyoskriptivnye (attributing) and diskriptivnye (describing) schools, and also school of a configuration [59].

To preskriptivnym to schools first three schools "strateyogii" (design, planning, positioning) which give naiyobolshee attention to a substantiation of methods of working out of strategy which are capable to supply improvement of competitive position of the company concern. Within the limits of the given schools "strategy" it should be logically explainable, that from an item of considered schools and guarantees success of activity organi - zatsii [60].

The group diskriptivnyh schools includes schools (predprinimayotelstva, kognitivnuju, training, the power, culture, an environment), konyotsentrirujas in bolshej degrees not on strategy as that, and on process of its working out and realisation [61].

The third group includes only school of a configuration which unites ideas of the previous schools and considers the organisation as obyoekt which stable existence is replaced by the periods znachitelyonyh changes, that testifies to necessity of revision of a company strategy during time [62].

Table 2.1

The basic schools of strategic management

The school name Representatives "Strategy" submission
Design school F.Seleznik, A.Chandler, K.Endrjus "Strategy" creation - osyomyslennyj process
Planning school I.Ansoff "Strategy" creation - formal process
School pozitsionirovayonija D.Shendel, K.Hatten, M.Porter "Strategy" creation - analytical process
School predprinimayotelstva J.Shumpeter, A.Koul "Strategy" creation - prediction process
Kognitivnaja school G.Sajmon, S.Makridakis, K.Kesler "Strategy" creation - mental process
Training school C.Lindblom of J. Kuinn,

K.Vejk, K.Prahalad

"Strategy" creation - developing process
Power school A.Makmilan, J. Sarrazin, E.Pettigrju, J.Doz "Strategy" creation - peyoregovornyj process
Culture school E.Pettigrju, J. Barni, F.Rigera "Strategy" creation - collective process
Environment school M.Hannan, J. Friman, D.Pju "Strategy" creation - reyoaktivnyj process
Configuration school G.Mintsberg, D.Miller,

R.Majlz, K.Snou

"Strategy" creation - process trasformatsii

On the basis of the allocated classification of schools strategic meyonedzhmenta Mintsberg defined "strategy" as certain «a principle povedeyonija» [63]. It also indicated that strategy is formed under vozdejstyoviem estimations of external threats and possibilities of the organisation which should be considered in a context of its key factors of success [64].

"Strategy" allows to define enterprise long-term objectives, and also schedules actions and places necessary for the decision postavyo
lennyh problems resources, the professor of history of management GarvardYOskojSHkoly of Business Alfred Chandler (Alfred Chandler, Jr confirmed.) [65]. "Strategy" is the formalized and rational process which can be razyodelyon on concrete steps, each of which is accompanied analiticheyoskoj by work and search of answers to some question as spoke predstaviyotel planning schools, Igor Ansoff [66].

"Strategy" is a generalising model of the actions necessary for achievement of objects in view by coordination and distribution reyosursov to the company [67 [68]. From the point of view of the modern Japanese scientist, Keni - chi Omae (Kenichi Ohmae), strategy should be considered not as result

Standard process of planning, and as a creativity product; t.e.stalkivajas with problems, tendencies, events and situations, soyostavljajushchimi, at first sight, the unit, is necessary to divide them

On elements and then to group so, advantage was maksimal -

nym

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Later researchers, representatives at Harry Hamel's Miyochigansky University (Gary Hamel) and Koimbator Prahalad (Coimbatore Prahalad) asserted School Business, that the successful modern companies can change market conditions in the necessary direction for them, znachitelyono exaggerating thus the real possibilities. The present key to strategy, according to these scientists, skills, tehnoloyogii, assets of the organisations, and also their ability to training [69] are.

In the given work by "strategy" it will be meant generalyonyj a plan of action directed on long-term strengthening konkuyorentnyh of items of the organisation and defining priorities strategicheyo
skih problems, resources and sequence of steps on its achievement strateyogicheskih the purposes.

Formation of strategy of the organisation occurs by means of neyoskolkih stages. The first stage of creation of a company strategy is definitions of vision of its management on process of management activity. ViYOdenie represents an ideal picture of the future, an ambition sobstyovennikov the organisations, and also reflexion of interests of company in neposredyostvennoj activity of the company [70]. Vision of a management of the organisation doyonositsja to its employees through a mission formulation.

Mission is a tool of strategic management. It otobrayozhaet a main purpose - the reason of existence of the organisation, it is most, and also reduces uncertainty of submissions about the company among its proprietors, managements, staff, potential partners etc. [71] It defines a kind and scales of activity of the organisation, detaliyoziruet its status and aspirations. Mission - a basis of the organisation which has no time criteria. Unconditionally, organizational development can require mission change, but, actually, it will mean “closing of former firm and opening on its place new” [72].

Mission indicates a direction of development of the organisation in the present and opens its mission within the limits of company. Mission can vkljuyochat in itself following components: the purposes, problems, organisation strategy, its philosophy, the description of products or services, "know-how" (the characteristic of technological and innovative processes), vnutrenyonee the system, the categories of target consumers competitive preimuyo
shchestva etc. [73]. Reflexion of mission of the company occurs in formulirovayonii strategy on each of organisation levels.

Top-level the organisations strategy is used as the factor of development of the company; on an average, it bears in herself directing force of activity; and on performing - operative and initiative significance. Moreover, in connection with internal structure of organizational system strategy can be the general and be responsible for process of strategic management by the organisation as a whole, and also - private.

Depending on conditions of organizational problems and prinimayoemyh decisions allocate three basic levels of strategy: corporate, business and functional which in turn correspond to three key objects of strategic management on each of levels. Corporate strategy characterises the general direction of activity of the organisation and considers it as integrity. Decisions at this level can starting the president of the company, the general director, board of directors, and also other senior staff, whose responsibilities include definition of mission and the organisation purposes, revealing of key spheres of activity, allocation of resources, a formulation

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Strategy etc. [74].

Corporate strategy are documentary purposes of the company and the systematised judgements about methods of their achievement. OtvetstvenYOnym for working out of the given kind of strategy the general director of corporation (company) is. Usually decisions are looked through and approved by board of directors. The primary goals of working out corporate strateyogii are directed on:

- Construction of some set of business directions (acquisition new or strengthening of existing items in business, clearing of unprofitable kinds of activity), competent management of them;

- Principle use sinergizma business units corresponding among themselves and its transformation into one of competitive advantages;

- Definition of priorities of investment and allocation of resources of the company in the most attractive and perspective direction business-;

- The analysis, the control, association (if it is possible) the basic strayotegicheskih approaches and company actions, both at corporate level, and at level of structural divisions.

Corporate strategy is used for realisation by the organisation of the competitive advantages in the market. It can be presented in the form of three components: portfelnaja, competitive and co-operative strategy.

portfelnaja strategy considers concern and a conglomerate as system biznesov or, in another way, as a business portfolio, that podrazumevayoet achievement of the purpose at the expense of change of the sizes or portfolio structure biznesov: acquisitions or sales by holding of the affiliated companies or separate biznesov, and also realisations of their re-structuring. For realisation portfelnoj strategy can be used following receptions:

• internationalisation - expansion at the expense of creation new or acquisitions of the existing companies in other countries;

• vertical integration - priobreteniekompany -

Suppliers or the companies-consumers in the or an allied industry;

• horizontal integration - acquisition of the companies - of competitors;

• diversifikatsija biznesov - acquisition of the companies or bizyonesov other branches having high yield or low risks;

• a synergy which can form as a result of realisation portfelnoj strategy;

• re-structuring - methods of change of structure of a portfolio: division, allocation, associations, sale separate biznesov or the holding companies, an exit from business.

The competitive company strategy defines actions which should supply to it reception of competitive advantages in the market. It develops of behaviour of sellers (the company plus competitors) and buyers (consumers). In it approaches and future dejstyovija the companies concerning the price policy, opened and secret otnosheyonija with suppliers, strategy in the field of extraction and processing of resources, grocery (assortimentnaja) and advertising strategies, licence and payotentnaja a policy, scientific researches and workings out, investments in proyoizvodstvennoe the equipment etc. [75] are reflected

Competitive strategy answers on a question on methods of addition of value of holding at the expense of reception and use of competitive advantages in each of biznesov, being in structure of its portfolio. It defines internal and external sources with which help the holding can achieve addition of value of group of the companies belonging to it, without change of structure of the business portfolio. Following methods can be for this purpose used:

• a scale effect - expansion of the production based on creation new or joining of other productions as a result reyostrukturizatsii of a business portfolio;

• vertical diversifikatsija - manufacturing of accessories, productions or processings of raw materials on own proyoizvodstve, and also on other productions after re-structuring biz - bore-portfolio;

• segmentation of the market at the expense of satisfaction of requirements poyotrebitelej in each of market segments;

• differentiation of production - production, otliyochajushchejsja on grades, properties, use of advertising, marketing, PR), etc.;

• horizontal diversifikatsija - production from the same raw materials or with use of the same equipment, including at the expense of decrease in constant expenses of the company at increase in total amount of realisation;

• innovations - use of a know-how, licences, patents, the administrative approaches, which novelty allows to lower expenses, to increase quality, to offer the market the goods with new properties or new decisions, to reach the big separation in time from the nearest konyokurentov;

• reception of branch advantages (privileges, discounts, delays of payments, etc.) at the expense of interaction (negotiations, public shares and informal arrangements) with a business environment, social (PR environment, the state bodies etc.;

• creation of barriers to an input on the market of the companies-competitors at the expense of possession licences, patents, a know-how, unique oborudoyovaniem, and also existence of a high capital intensity and labour input of business, establishment lobbying by the state bodies spetsiyoalnyh duties, quotas or other requests limiting access on the market to the companies-competitors [76].

The factors defining competitive strategy, are presented in table 2. 2.

Table 2.2

The factors defining competitive strategy

Market share Growth rate Market segmentation Differentiation of a product
Costs

The price

Effect masshtayoba

Effect of experience the Control for reyosursami

Growth together with rynyokom

Grab of a share of the market Expansion of the market the Market consisting of segments

Complete assortiyo

The cop of the goods demand Stimulation

The best purchase Adherence to the trade mark Prestige

Service Prosecution of competitors

Novelty

Protection by patents

Technical harakteyoristiki

Reliability the Competitive price

Additional funkyotsii

Imitation of products of competitors

Adjustment kind under concrete pokupateyolja

The number of competitive advantages which the company has, also is important. The it more low, the easier to competitors to bypass the company. The branch Companies-leaders aspire to receive bolshee koliyochestvo advantages, to increase barriers of an input to the new companies. EtoYOmu the main objective of outsourcing designated in chapter 1 of research promotes.

Co-operative strategy allows to increase cost of holding at the expense of change of the form or methods of interaction of holding with grupyopoj the companies belonging to it (decentralisation degree, including decision-making on absorption or preservations independent juriyodicheskogo the status at affiliated company; the control and coordination), is coherent between affiliated companies (cooperation), and also defines system of relations between holding and other shareholders of affiliated companies, with suppliers, distributors and dealers (joint ventures, franchajzing etc.), with competitors (associations, alliances, joint ventures etc.).

Business or business strategy represents strategy of division of the organisation which is directed on construction 74

Long-term competitive advantages. Each economic division of the organisation is strategic area of business (SOB) for the organisation since it orientirovanno on certain group of consumers, is the isolated part of the company and conducts competition for a concrete market segment by means of own resources. At the head of each SOB there is a chief who processes the general data on a direction of corporate strategy in concrete strategy of group and individual activity with which help the organisation main objective will be reached.

The primary goals of working out of business strategy are directed on:

- Working out of actions on successful management competition and maintenance of competitive advantage;

- Working out of answer-back measures on change of environmental conditions;

- Association of strategic initiatives key funktsionalyonyh branches;

- Decision-making on current and specific problems komyopanii.

Functional strategy (industrial, financial, marketing etc.) are developed by functional departments and services of the organisation on the basis of corporate and business strategy. The purpose of the given level of strategy is resource allocation of departments and search of the most suitable behaviour of each of functional divisions within the limits of the general strategy of the organisation [77]. At operational administration level it is necessary to create possibility for the decision of tasks in view on more high levels of the organisation. Strategy working out in the companies and responsibility of employees of various level for its formation are displayed usually are represented in the form of hierarchy.

Fig. 2.1. An example of the integrated model "Strategy-" the Tree of the purposes »

On: The primary goals of working out of functional strategy are directed

- Revealing of actions and the approaches directed on increase a game -

kurentosposobnosti and preservation of competitive advantages funktsioyonalnyh divisions;

- Formation of answer-back actions (reaction) to change of environmental conditions;

- Association of strategic initiatives of key divisions and commands;

- Definition of the actions undertaken with the purposes of allocation speyotsificheskih for the company of questions at issue and current problems;

- Revealing of actions and the approaches directed on maintenance of strategy of business and achievement of the functional purposes;

- The analysis, the control, association (if it is possible) is strategic the important actions and the approaches offered by managers of the lowest control link;

- Formation enough narrow and specific approaches (dejstyovy) which purpose is maintenance of functional strategy, strategy of business and fulfilment of problems of a current plan.

Functional strategy depending on a company line of business is subdivided:

1. The grocery company strategy is a set corrected for prinjayotija decisions which the organisation is guided by in the dejatelnoyosti at definition of what kinds of production and technologies it will develop, where also whom to sell the items how dobiyovatsja the superiority over competitors.

2. Operational strategy is a set corrected for acceptance resheyony which the organisation is guided by at management the povseyodnevnoj activity.

3. Administrative strategy is a set corrected for acceptance reyosheny which the organisation is guided by in the activity at definition of relations and procedures in the company.

4. Resource strategy is a set corrected for decision-making which the organisation is guided by in the activity by search and
Resource allocation in business directions and divisions komyopanii.

Operative strategy are concrete strategy define how to operate structural divisions and to supply fulfilment vazhyonyh operative problems. For working out of the given kind strayotegii chiefs of departments of business unit in limits funkyotsionalnoj spheres (decisions are looked through and approved funktsioyonalnymi by chiefs) are responsible.

Strategy of each level should be co-ordinated with one another that employees of the organisation and participants of the projects which are a part of a portfolio-projects, could reach the aims laid down for them by means of interaction. If there are changes of conditions of functioning of the organisation it is necessary to conduct changes at each level of strategy in organizational hierarchy.

The strategy of the organisation building hierarchy of the purposes at each level of management, form, thus, organizational «a tree of the purposes» (fig. 2.1 and 2.2 see). «The tree of the purposes» represents certain system which allocates the main (general) purpose («tree top»), and also subordinates to it podtseli the first, second and subsequent levels («a tree branch») [78].

Fig. 2.2. Hierarchy of the purposes of the organisation

The quantity of levels of the purposes of the organisation depends basically from slozhyonosti achievements of the purpose, its scales from the point of view of the organisation, and also on structure of the considered company. Construction of "a tree of the purposes» treyobuet definitions of the general purposes reflecting an end result dejatelyonosti to which all organizational system [79] aspires. FormulirovYOka the purposes at various levels should to display thus desirable intermediate results of the activity which achievement is a necessary condition of achievement of the general purpose of the organisation. As to a basis for the established purposes definition of the problems which fulfilment will allow the organisation to achieve when due hereunder the planned result is necessary.

Construction system «tree of the purposes» means the organisations poyostanovku the purposes meeting certain requests. On a basis konyotseptsii SMART, described by the American theorist Peter Drukerom (Peter Drucker) in 1954 in work «management Practice», the purposes orgayonizatsii should be concrete, izmerimymi, achievable, realiyostichnymi and defined in time. Later the given system of an estimation tseyolej has been added by two more criteria: the purposes should be evaluated periodically by a management in the course of activity of the organisation and dostigyonutyh results, and also they should be revised and korrektiroyovatsja to correspond to changes of the external and internal environment of activity of the organisation [80].

According to other approach, tseleobrazovanie in the organisation should have following characteristics:

• teleonomija (the objective, natural expediency, koyotoraja it is considered from the point of view of biological properties of any "oryoganizma");

• purposefulness (construction technical and organizatsionyonyh systems which occurs by means of such «building mateyoriala» as a human resource);

• purposefulness (ability of the organisation most vyrabayotyvat the new purposes and to reach them).

The given concept is enough universal. It is necessary to notice also, that in modern conditions it is difficult enough construct «deyorevo the purposes» which would not demand updating during time even if all requests under their formulation are observed. Moreover, poyostroenie «a tree of the purposes» directly it is connected with strategic planirovayoniem which in modern conditions is disputable enough about what modern researcher Michael Rejnor (Michael Raynor writes).

In one of the books - «Strategic paradox» - he asserts, that managers face "paradox", at the moment of planning of the activity and decision-making, proceeding from the assumptions of the future which they cannot predict [81].

The analysis of strategic positioning of the organisation and it konkuyorentnogo environments. That in the conditions of constantly varying environment the organisation could reach the purposes, and also have usyotojchivoe a market position and possibility most full udovletvoyorjat requirements of consumers, realisation of the strategic analysis of its activity is necessary. The strategic analysis is capable to help to make to managers a strategic choice and to realise the new or improved strategy.

Importance of the strategic analysis from the point of view of the organisation soyostoit that it helps to define changes of an environment and otseyonit their influence on each concrete company. The basic aim anayoliza consists in formation and an estimation of key factors, vlijajuyoshchih on the present and the future well-being of business and defining vyyo
Pine forest of strategy and as it has been noted earlier, acceptance is strategic vzveyoshennogo decisions on transition to outsourcing. In the works the professor Wolverhampton which Business of School, the Great Britain, Wood Uorroll (Les - Worrall) says that the strategic analysis gives the organisations teoreyoticheskoe understanding of its environment and helps most reasonably isyopolzovat resources for its satisfaction external and internal potreb - nostej [82].

Research of the organisation by means of the strategic analysis has some problems which concentrate round key proyoblem. One of them is definition of level of competitiveness of the company. Moreover, it is necessary to reveal also, the organisation that there was their reason and with what help vnutyorennih resources probably their decision has faced what problems. The understanding of organizational processes of planning and management which can become a basis for the further development of all organizatsiyoonnoj systems and its interactions with partners, consumers, konkuyorentami, suppliers and so on should become result of the analysis.

The strategic analysis can be divided into some basic stages: the analysis of an external environment of indirect and direct effect, research of the internal environment and a situation analysis, which podrayozumevaet ordering of the information received by means of external and internal researches (fig. 2.3). It is necessary to notice, that the external analysis of the company is usually divided into two stages.

The first stage of the external analysis is the analysis of a macroenvironment which represents an estimation of a condition and development prospects, the major from the point of view of the organisation, subjects and its factors okruyozhajushchej environments. In it usually include branch, the markets, and also other global factors of an environment on which the organisation cannot
To make direct impact. Then in the external analysis issleduyoetsja a direct environment of the organisation that means otsenyoku the external factors having direct effect on funktsioniroyovanie and development of business.

Fig. 2.3. The basic components of the external and internal environment of activity of the organisation [83]

For realisation of the strategic analysis it is necessary to allocate SOB, that will help in bolshej to degree to define principles and size of influence of a concrete kind of activity on the organisation as a whole, and also to realise specificity of concrete business model.

Allocation SOB is better for carrying out by means of segmentation of all organizational activity on the basis of a set of criteria. Geographical division of the market can be carried to criteria (global, reyogionalnyj, local), properties of the goods offered by the company or services, segments of consumers, channels of distribution of production etc. the Analysis of an environment of the organisation, concerning allocated SOB, poyomozhet to produce in the future strategic decisions, on which basis

It will interact with the environment in short-term and dolyogosrochnoj to prospect.

Scopes of models of the strategic analysis external sreyody allow to create a complete picture (tab. 2.3) displaying osnovyonye the characteristics of an environment in which functions organizayotsija.

Table 2.3

Models of the strategic analysis of an environment

Analysis kind Analysis subject The analysis purposes
The analysis of factors of macrolevel of an environment Economy, ecology, poyolitika, culture, tehnoloyogija etc. Tracing of tendencies; razyorabotka possible reactions to development of factors of macroenvironment.
The analysis of factors of microlevel of an environment Consumers, company, shareholders, creditors, goyosudarstvo, trade unions. The analysis of interests zainteresoyovannyh groups and their influence.
The branch analysis Dominating harakteyoristiki and branch motive forces. Appeal estimation otyorasli; a substantiation of the decision on a choice of the base market (SOB).
The competitive

The analysis

Competitors The analysis of a competitive item and advantages; an estimation konkuyorentnyh forces of branch.

The environment analysis allows to evaluate environment parametres oryoganizatsii on the basis of what, managers can accept most kachestyovennye the decisions, concerning short-term and long-term development of the enterprise. Moreover, the external analysis is capable to help with an estimation nayostojashchego positions of the organisation in the competitive environment, and also in opredeyolenii directions of actions for its improvement.

Working out of strategy of activity of any organisation demands anayoliza not only its external, but also the internal environment. At the strategic analysis the internal environment of the organisation and it from a subsystem usually rasyosmatrivajutsja from the point of view of a resource of development of the company [84]. The analysis vnutyo
rennej organisation environments it is usually carried out after realisation isyosledovanija an environment when data about factors of the environment of indirect influence are already collected, interested parties, competitors etc.

The analysis of the internal environment, concerning allocated SOB, will help the organisation to make of the decision and to build internal processes according to its strategy and the purposes. If significant impact is difficult to make on a company macroenvironment or to supervise its processes dynamics of interaction with the internal environment directly depends on the strategy chosen by it.

The internal environment of the organisation is often enough defined koliyochestvom and quality of resources which it has. Besides, obychyono allocate key characteristics of the organisation on which basis construction of competitive advantages of the company is possible. In the conditions of constantly varying environment under the influence of development of new economy and the globalisation, specific assets and the company competence can become stabler basis for it is tsii [85]. Hence, competitiveness creation on a basis vnutyorennih organisation characteristics is capable to create stronger base for its development, than its simple activity on satisfaction potrebyonostej constantly varying environment [86].

Competitiveness represents unique properties of each concrete organisation which allow it to become successful in long-term prospect. The concept of competitiveness is odyonim from key in activity of any organisation. There are two osyonovnyh the approach to competitiveness definition, each of kotoyoryh bases on a substantiation of the given concept either from the point of view of external, or from an item of the internal environment of the organisation. From the point of view of an environment competitiveness is analyzed as ability
The companies to "bypass" the competitors on its some indicators dejayotelnosti for the certain period of time. From an item of the internal environment competitive advantage is considered as set of elements of the organisation which are capable to supply it.

For success under the authority of organisation competition neobhodiyomo to consider both approaches in the course of forming of the konkurentoyosposobnosti. The internal analysis is directed on revealing of those unique properties on which base the organisation can develop in long-term prospect, having supplied success of the activity.

The analysis of a chain of value of the organisation is one of the important tools of the analysis of the internal environment of the organisation. The chain of values is a set of kinds of the activity, introducing the contribution to creation potreyobitelskoj values of a product of the organisation [87]. The given concept was vvedeyono M.Porterom within the limits of the process approach to activity organizayotsii for a designation of the mechanism of creation of the added consumer cost, i.e. in process of product advancement on industrial "liyonii" to the end user, each participant of its production introduces an additional value to it - value [88].

The given kind of the analysis is directed on revealing of the cores and vspomogayotelnyh processes of the organizational activity which set allows the company to reach better results (fig. 2.4). The basic processes thus are meant as all operations, neyoposredstvenno participating in production, and also it prodayozhe and after-sale service. Auxiliary processes, carry obespechitelnyj character of activity of the organisation and include all kinds of activity promoting fulfilment of basic organizayotsionnyh of processes.

VspomogatelYOnye kinds deja - Company infrastructure Profit
Management of human resources
Technological balance
Purchases
Material Service Tovarodvizhenie Marketing Service maintenance and sales
Activity principal views

Fig. 2.4. A chain of values of the organisation

Moreover, this method allows to reveal defects in sushchestvujuyoshchej to a chain of values of the organisation, i.e. promotes removal "lishyonih" or to introduction of new processes, that in turn conducts to luchsheyomu to use of organizational resources and a cost-saving komyopanii. Besides, the analysis of a chain of values of the organisation shows the contribution of each process of the organisation to its end result dejatelnoyosti, that can indicate, what processes demands bolshego attention from managers.

The chain of values of the organisation is important enough analysis stage of internal characteristics of the organisation since allows to compare activity of the investigated company to activity of its competitors. It is necessary to notice also, that any element of a chain of values of the company can be used for construction of its competitive advantage. The basic purpose of the given kind of research is revealing of those processes which are necessary for achievement of results of activity of the organisation, and processes which it can give on autyosorsing.

The analysis of the internal environment of the organisation allows to evaluate it vnutyorennie factors on which basis managers can build konkuyorentnye the advantages supplying long-term development of the company in long-term prospect. Moreover, the internal analysis is capable poyomoch in an estimation of the present position of the organisation in the market and in opredeleyonii priority directions of its improvement.

Table 2.4 structures the basic stages of the strategic analysis of activity of the organisation, connecting them with the basic tools, isyopolzuemymi as a result of research and systematising the cores deyoterminanty advantage of acceptance of the strategic decision of transition on autyosorsing.

Table 2.4

The characteristic of stages of the strategic analysis of activity of the organisation

Stages The analysis of mission and the purposes The environment analysis The analysis vnutyorennej environments The analysis of environment as a whole
Problems Identification of mission and the development purpose Estimation strategiyocheskogo a climate (conditions) Estimation strateyogicheskogo poyotentsiala Estimation strategicheyoskoj items

Estimation konkurentnoyogo advantages

Methods - Model proizvodstvennoyohozjajstvennoj firm systems

- System model strateyogicheskogo upravyolenija

- The analysis of 5 competitive forces

- STEEP - the analysis

- The concept of motive forces

- KljucheYOvye success factors (KFU)

- The analysis of blind zones

- The chain analysis tsennoyostej

- The SWOT-analysis
InstruYO

Cops

Questionnaires, nabljuyodenija, conversations, focus groups, interrogations of clients, control sheets Questionnaires, konyotrolnye lisyoty, interview, supervision
Decisions - Choice of structure and reyodaktsii missions

- Choice (edition) of the purpose of development

Structure choice of "a purpose tree»

- Choice vayorianta structures of an environment (conditions)

- Choice meyotodov

- Choice of an estimation of a climate

- Variant choice strukyotury vnutrenyonej environments (poyotentsiala)

- Choice of methods

- Estimation choice potenyotsiala

- Choice varianyota structures strateyogicheskogo prostranstyova

- Choice of methods

- Choice of an estimation of an item

- Identification of strategy on an item

Formation of strategic vision of the future of the organisation

Correlation of results of the internal analysis of the organisation with its external results to probably means of a situation analysis of its activity. One of modern scientists - Stephen Port (Stephen Porth)
- Sees a SWOT-analysis method (fig. 2.5) the centre situational issledoyovanija the organisations since it is a part of introspection of the company and can give deeper understanding strong and weaknesses of the organisation, and

.. 89

Also its possibilities and threats from external environments.

Possibilities Threats
Strengths Actions, which are necessary for conducting to use

Strengths for realisation vozmozhnoyostej

Actions which use the strong

The parties of the organisation for avoiding of threats

Weaknesses Actions which are necessary for conducting, overcoming the weak

The parties using

Granted vozyomozhnostej

Actions which minimise weaknesses for avoiding of threats

Fig. 2.5. A SWOT-analysis matrix

The professor of Massejsky University, New Zealand, Jasper

Mbachu (Jasper Mbachu) and, the professor of Bonn university, Germany, Michael Frej (Michael Frei) assert in the work, that force and weakness of internal factors of organizational activity indicate on nali - chie/absence of abilities and corresponding kompetentsy the companies to react to external changes which render the direct

90

Influence on its purposes and problems.

Possibilities have positive effect on efforts oryoganizatsii on achievement of its purposes that testifies that they can be used in their strengthening. Threats, on the contrary, have negative effect on efforts of the organisation on achievement of its purposes since they influence its weaknesses. Hence, the best understanding

89Porth, S.J. Strategic Management: A Cross-Functional Approach, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003. 90Mbachu J., Frei M. Diagnosing the strategic health of an organisation from SWOT analysis results: case study of the Australasian cost management profession. Construction Management and Economics Volume 29, Issue 3, 2011.

Environment is capable to help the organisation to reach the purposes for the account of use of possibilities and minimisation of threats.

The given kind of the analysis allows to reveal, how the company item can be improved in the conditions of the market, branch and competition motive forces. In a basis of this analysis indicators strong and weaknesses of a competitive item of the organisation are usually mortgaged. Each organisation develops in reply to environment changes to remain successful in long-term prospect. In conditions byyostro varying characteristics of an environment, on the basis of strategic planning and management the organisation can create a basis for razviyotija the competitiveness.

Acceptance of strategic decisions on outsourcing possibility (formation of a portfolio of projects).

Basing on a strategic choice, strategic management poyomogaet to compare organizational potential with possibilities and ugroyozami its external environment. Formation of a company strategy and its realisation occur by means of the strategic analysis, napravlenyonogo on definition of changes of an environment and an estimation of its influence on oryoganizatsiju. The basic aim the analysis consists in formation and opyoredelenii the key factors influencing the present and the future blagoyopoluchie of business.

First, the environment analysis allows to obtain data about factors which represent danger or open new vozmozhyonosti for the organisation. The management of the company on the basis of the received data is capable to evaluate, whether the firm has internal forces to take advantage of possibilities, and what internal weaknesses can osyolozhnit the future problems connected with external threats.

Secondly, the environment analysis helps to define a direction of organizational strategy and a policy. The analysis of internal «Ó±úá¡¿ºáµ¿¿ environment gives the information on variables which can rassmatrivatyo
sja as strong and weaknesses of the company to evaluate their importance and ustayonovit what of them can become a basis for forming future konyokurentnyh advantages. Moreover, the analysis of an internal situation in orgayonizatsii urged to state an estimation of an existing company strategy, it konyokurentosposobnosti under the prices, durability of a competitive item and strateyogicheskih problems.

So, by means of the analysis of the external and internal analysis organizayotsija it is capable to evaluate own possibilities and resources concerning the developed conditions of an environment that direct impact on forming of its competitive advantages in conditions rynyoka makes. As a result of realisation of the strategic analysis it is formed poniyomanie key characteristics of the organisation which can be polozheyony in a basis of new or advanced strategy of the organisation and vyyostraivanija activity on the basis of outsourcing.

In most cases the control over costs is one of the cores a determinant influencing acceptance of the strategic decision on transition to outsourcing. Actually the majority of kinds autyosorsinga are directed on a cost-saving. In any case predpolagayoetsja, that outsourcing allows the organisation to involve foreign organiyozatsii for management important, but not with activity principal views.

It is obvious, that results of the conducted strategic analysis will help to receive quantitative and quality indicators as benefits, and risks for acceptance of the strategic decision on transition on autsoryosing. Risks force many companies to refuse from autsoryosinga and independently to attend to fulfilment of those or other functions. But thus it is necessary to consider, that in the conditions of a rigid competitiveness the transfer of function can become the ideal decision supplying economy of expenses, improvement of quality and, the main thing, possibility to liberate resources and to concentrate on the basic line of business of the company.

The following concerns number of advantages of outsourcing:

• Economy on scales. The specialised intermediary, koyotoryj incurs fulfilment of certain function, can render such services at once to set of the companies that allows it to reach bolyoshogo a sales volume and to minimise the cost price of the services.

• Diversifikatsija risks. At outsourcing all risks, svjazanyonye with realisation of the given function, lay down on the external organisation. Thus the external company has possibilities to diversify risyoki thanks to great volumes of sales of the services to set of various clients.

• Reduction of a share of capital investments. Capital inyovestitsii also lay down on the external organisation. Thus the share kapiyotalnyh investments will be less at the expense of mass character of sales of the services.

• Focusing of attention on key kompetentsijah. pereyokladyvaja on the foreign organisation fulfilment of not main functions, the company can concentrate on fulfilment of the main things, kljucheyovyh functions and kompetentsy which are a basis of its business. It will allow it to achieve the greatest perfection in this area and poluyochit advantage in the market.

• flexibility Increase. The company which attends autsoryosingom, presumes to react more fast to itself to changes potrebiyotelskogo demand, to lower thanks to competence external organizayotsii duration of a cycle of deliveries and more fast to use the newest tehyonologijami and the innovative products which introduction sometimes demands the big investments.

• Possibility to minimise financial risks (for example, directing financial resources on processes which first of all increase company cost - the partner).

• Increase of investment appeal of the company (as outsourcing introduction is the significant factor in razviyotii relations with foreign investors).

• Use in production of the newest world innovatsiyoonnyh management methods business processes (it is in many respects supplied with a high competitiveness of the international market of services).

The most obvious advantages of outsourcing are mgnoyovennyj access to qualified personnel and simplification vspomogatelyonyh processes.

Outsourcing strengthens competitive advantage of the organisation while efficiency of a complex of not profile processes, peyoredannyh on outsourcing, starts to exceed their efficiency razrozyonennoj works in own management of the organisation. Thus, as a result of realisation of the strategic analysis the organisation will define the important determinants for transition to outsourcing, namely:

• existence of conditions and degree of necessity of conclusion of a transaction;

• requests and criteria of a choice corresponding autsorsera;

• the decision coordination at the higher supervising level and at all other levels of administrative hierarchy;

• preservation of rate of realisation of the project as component of a portfolio of projects;

• an establishment of base parametres and system creation izmereyonija indicators of organizational activity (the projects entering in soyostav of a portfolio of projects);

• operational risk;

• risks of transformations.

Taking into consideration availability of possible risks, and morbidity of a transition period it is necessary to consider application reducing potenyotsialnye risks strategic steps:

• to develop conditions and positions of the contract, which stimuyolirujut autsorsera on the necessary actions and behaviour models, being based on the revealed tendencies and results of the conducted strategic analysis of activity of the organisation;

• to establish sensitive enough and flexible structure korporayotivnogo managements;

• to supply efficient control mutual relations;

• to provide availability of professionals in necessary for organiyozatsii specialised areas with conformity to its requests and specificity funktsionala and-or business process: information, nalogoyovaja, standard and legal (it is especially necessary in a case mezhdunayorodnoj for the organisation of activity of the company).

Transition to outsourcing for the organisation will start to bring the diyovidendy approximately in five years after the cooperation beginning, instead of during the short-term period. Within the first year the organisation will be in time vypolyonit necessary structural transformations. On the expiration of five years of cooperation if it still proceeds, the organisation can feel changes and benefit from transition on autsrsing.

However at following to all stages of the strategic analysis and soyobljudenii the recommendations set forth above, certain risks can arise and after acceptance of the strategic decision on transition on autyosorsing, after a conclusion of a contract:

• Information leakage and loss of competitive advantage. If outsourcing concerns critical aspects of business dealing it will inevitably lead to infringement of a trade secret of the company, than moyogut to take advantage enterprising competitors.

• Dependence on suppliers. Transfer to different suppliers of production of various components of a manufactured product can constrain process of innovations and product perfection because the company in bolshej degrees becomes dependent on suppliers and vozyomozhnostej their productions.

• the Conflict of the purposes and interests. Suppliers and buyers, as a rule, have the various purposes and interests. For example, the supplier hope for long-term and stable cooperation with the client while the client expects, that outsourcing allows it to reach flexible reaction to market demands. As a result the client can otyokazatsja during any moment from services of the given supplier is simple because circumstances were changed. Certainly, this conflict partially kompenyosiruetsja at the expense of a price level on production deliveries, but as a whole it serves as an obstacle in a way to the best understanding between the parties.

• Stranovoj risk. The company should consider a question politiyocheskoj safety, features of business dealing in this or that country (that defines also behaviour of partners).

It is necessary to notice, that if outsourcing realisation occurs in soyootvetstvie to all reached arrangements, requests and soyoglasovana with organizational strategy the given process will be sposobyostvovat to decrease in level of organizational risks.

Speaking about costs on outsourcing, it is necessary to notice, that in the foreground there is not a cost, and value of outsourcing for business. And for the sake of dosyotizhenija bolshej it is not obligatory to value to resort to the cheapest services, remembering, that outsourcing exists not simply for the control izderyozhek, and for increase of value of service for business, decrease in its risks, increase of competitiveness of the organisation, attraction bolshego numbers of consumers.

Outsourcing, in our opinion, is management strategy kompaniyoej, instead of simply kind of partner interaction which assumes
Certain re-structuring of intracorporate processes and external relations of the company, which main advantage - sokrayoshchenie expenses with the subsequent increase of competitiveness orgayonizatsii. Outsourcing, as an increase method konkuyorentosposobnosti the organisations, in those areas of its activity, which okayozyvajut decisive influence on results of activity is essentially important.

One of such areas as it has been shown earlier, is inforyomatsionnaja an infrastructure of management of the organisation, for development and moyodernizatsii which (even for complete use of its functionality) the availability special kompetentsy is required. poyoetomu, according to the author, transition to IT Outsourcing is strategicheyoskim the decision defining shape of the organisation for long term and making significant impact on its business model.

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A source: Repin Nikita Vasilevich. DEVELOPMENT of the INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE of MANAGEMENT by the ORGANIZATION With IT OUTSOURCING USE. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Perm - 2018. 2018

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