Theoretical approaches to strategic management of the enterprises of a wood complex

Development of the enterprises, branches and complexes of a national economy in the conditions of ­ the dynamical environment, an increasing competition, globalisation ­ predetermines necessity of application of strategic approaches to management.

the Strategic approach to management of the enterprises, branches and ­ complexes allows to allocate with obshchesistemnyh positions the main problems ­ of development and to offer alternative ways of their decision.

Researchers of the present stage of development of a national economy consider ­ various strategy of its further development, however they approve, that while the most preferable concept for Russia is not formulated.

the Basic obstacle for this purpose is that very often process of definition of priorities of development of domestic economy is aggravated ­ with personal interests of the subjects who are carry out those or other actions. Such state of affairs negatively affects activity of separate ­ subjects of managing. At the same time it is necessary to notice, that the question of working out of strategy of integration of the domestic enterprises is actual ­ now.

the Uniform approach to understanding and definition of essence of strategy in ­ the economic literature is not present.

Domestic researchers of processes of strategic management under economic strategy of the enterprise (firm) suggest to understand dynamic ­ system vzaimouvjazannyh rules and receptions with which help ­ effective formation and maintenance in long prospect ­ of competitive advantages of firm on internal and foreign markets individual ­ and public benefits is provided­­­.

A.Chandler, the founder of modern history of the business, made ­ considerable impact on development of strategic management, considers, that ­ strategy should «define enterprise long-term objectives, and also plan
actions and place necessary for the decision of tasks in view resources». The made definition represents a classical sight at essence of strategy, however, it is not the first since in the late fifties already were other publications [215].

Along with this definition A.Chandler has formulated also the important ­ distinctions between "strategy" and "tactics" and between «a strategy formulation» and «strategy realisation» [208]. Strategy to which it paid special ­ attention, concerned degree growth diversifikatsii the manufactures, ­ observed at that time in large business of the USA.

the Known American expert in I.Ansoff's strategic management defines strategy as the set corrected for decision-making ­ by which the organisation is guided in the activity [205]. Thus the author allocates discriminating lines of strategy:

First, process of development of strategy is dynamical and directed on ­ an establishment of the general directions providing growth and development of activity;

Secondly, the strategy role consists in concentration of efforts on ­ certain sites and possibilities;

Thirdly, necessity for strategy disappears at achievement ­ of the aims laid down in it;

Fourthly, feedback presence is pledge of fast reaction ­ to alternatives of development of activity;

the Generalized definition of strategy gives G.Mintsberg, considering it as unity «5л: the plan, model, positioning, prospect and advancement [222].

Interest is represented by K.Andrews's work «the Concept of corporate ­ strategy» in which the author has made the definition which has become subsequently by the classical: «corporate strategy is a model of decision-making with which help the company defines strategic targets and problems, develops a policy and plans of achievement of these purposes, defines economic activities spheres, target organizational structure, and also essence economic and somebody ­
mercheskoj benefit which will be received by the shareholders occupied, consumers and local community» [203].

Michael E.Porter considers, that strategy consists in position creation, in refusal of some kinds of activity and the coordination of the chosen directions of activity [147]:

- creation unique and an advantage-ground including a number of directions of activity;

- refusal of some kinds of activity (strategy is defined by decisions ­ that the company to carry out should not);

- the coordination of the chosen directions of activity.

the Considerable contribution to the theory of development of strategic management was brought by the consulting group Mc Kincey which has presented a matrix «business screen», based on an estimation of long-term appeal of branch and "force" ­ of a competition of the enterprise.

Michael Porter has allocated three basic strategy which have ­ universal character and can be applied to any of the above-named ­ competitive forces. It has carried to such universal strategy: leadership strategy in decrease in costs; differentiation strategy; strategy of focusing (concentration).

the Concept of life cycle of branch and the enterprise is taken for a basis by ­ working out of strategy of management by development by consulting firm Arthur D.Little.

the Considerable scientific contribution to working out of the concept of the strategic analysis and management was brought by the Boston consultative group (BKG), having offered ­ developed matrix BKG. Within the limits of the given approach ­ existence of a skilled curve in branch at which strategy of development of each separate business to be reduced to the simplified alternative is supposed­: expansion - maintenance ­ - activity reduction (movement on stages of life cycle of the goods ­».

Other experts have developed the initial concept, and matrix BKG has been modernised on the basis of two criteria:

- the sizes of competitive advantages which define ­ competition structure ­ in branch;

- number of ways of realisation of competitive advantages.

In modified matrix BKG all kinds of activity share on four ­ groups and for everyone the strategy defining interrelation between norm of profitableness of investments and shares of the market is offered.

When strategic planning in the sixties began to enter into practice, its main object became diversifikatsija to activity of the enterprises.

As in connection with instability of technologies, changes in competition conditions, delay of rates of growth, occurrence ­ sotsialnopoliticheskih restrictions the quantity of problems of strategic character etc. increased, all became more obvious, that by simple addition of new ­ kinds of activity it is impossible to solve all arisen problems. Therefore in the seventies the attention of developers of strategy was switched with diversifikatsii to ­ a manipulation the whole set of branches, activity kinds on which ­ the enterprise [211 specialises,­ 214, 225].

Terms «strategic management» and «strategic planning» in our country have appeared in 70th in translation books of the western experts. In practice in our country the term «long-term perspective planning/management» was used.

the Graphic model of strategic operation of business presented ­ in drawing 9, visually shows consecutive four stages of the strategic analysis, working out of strategy, planning, regulation and the control, presented in the economic literature.

Drawing 9 - Model of strategic management of development of the enterprise [7]

In our country concept of strategy long time associated with ­ the concrete long-term plan of achievement of the purpose, and process of development of strategy has been focused exclusively on needs of drawing up of the long-term plan.

During too time the concept of "strategy" from a management position as «the chosen direction of development of the organisation, concerning spheres, means and the form of activity,­ system of mutual relations in the organisation, and also positions in ­ the environment, leading to achievement of the purposes», resulted by Dudinym M. N [48] are excluded by a determinism in behaviour of the organisation and will be used by us as the basic definition of essence of strategy.

Generalizing consideration of concept of "strategy", we will specify their basic kinds presented in the foreign and Russian literature.

Certainly, a variety of the strategy applied in strategic ­ management, complicates their classification.

Researchers of the given problematics to number of classification ­ signs of strategy carry the following: decision-making level; the base ­ concept of achievement of competitive advantages; a life cycle stage otras - whether 42

; relative force of a branch position of the organisation; degree of "aggression" ­ of behaviour of the organisation in competitive struggle.

the strategy Choice assumes studying of alternative directions ­ of development of the organisation, their estimation and a choice of the best strategic alternative of realisation. It is thus used the special toolkit including quantitative methods of forecasting, working out of scenarios of the future development,­ portfelnyj the analysis.

the Most widespread, verified by practice and strategy of development of business widely shined in the literature usually are called as basic.

One of the first we will note the strategy described in work by I.Ansoffa: ­ perfection of activity, commodity expansion (working out of new products­), development of the market and diversifikatsii [204].

Table 7 visually shows various strategy of development of the enterprises,­ presented in the domestic and foreign literature. The most significant ­ organizational strategy can be divided on two groups: ­ development strategy ­(reference) and functioning strategy.

Table 7 - Classification of strategy of development of the enterprises 4



Kinds of strategy Subspecies of strategy
Reference strategy Strategy kontsen­

trirovannogo growth

Strategy of strengthening of a position in the market;

Strategy of development of the market;

Strategy of development of a product.

Strategy ­ of the integrated growth Strategy of return vertical integration; Strategy forward going vertical integration­.
Strategy ­ diversifikatsionnogo growth Strategy aligned diversifikatsii, ­ strategy horizontal diversifikatsii; strategy konglomerativnoj diversifikatsii.
reduction Strategy ­ liquidation Strategy, "harvesting" strategy, reduction strategy, strategy of reduction ­ of expenses.
Competitive ­ strategy ­ leadership Strategy in low costs, differentiation and focusing Strategy defensive and offensive Strategy of branches
Strategy Strategy stabil - economy Strategy on resources;

4 Working out of the author

functioning ­ nosti economy Strategy on counterparts;

Strategy of strong management.

survival Strategy ­ - Strategy of maintenance of a technological level ­ of manufacture;

Anti-recessionary strategy;

Strategy of a redesign business - of processes;

­ Economic strategy Strategy of the first type Strategy of minimisation of production costs Strategy of expansion of a share of the market;
Strategy of the second type maximisation Strategy (artificial overestimate­) production costs;

Strategy of imitating programming of research and development;

Strategy of a manipulation by a portfolio of capital investments.

­ Functional strategy Industrial strategy
Financial strategy
Marketing strategy
Strategy of management by the personnel
Innovative strategy

O.S.Vihransky and A.I.Naumov is allocated with reference strategy of development of the enterprise and their types (subspecies) concretising actions of the enterprise and a direction of achievement of a purpose of strategy. The same point of view ­ is divided also by the professor Paracinchona, Century N, thus allocating combination strategy, for the large and financially steady organisations operating in several ­ branches [137].

Other point of view on strategy is supported by M.Porter, allocating three basic variants of such strategy: leaderships in low costs, differentiation ­ and the focusing, directed on growth of competitiveness of the organisation­. Here also it is possible to carry Lukjanovu N.A. considering, that «competition strategy should be directed on maintenance of advantages over ­ competitors in long-term prospect» [97].

E.L.Basovsky characterising strategy of the first type, marks their ­ orientation on increase of financial stability of the enterprise, reception ­ of long-term profit, competitiveness increase in long-term prospect ­[13].

According to other classification allocate strategy: differentiation,­ that is creation of the goods or the service, possessing perfect novelty
within the limits of this company; perfect leadership in expenses, that is absorption of the market by means of the offer of the goods with the underestimated cost at the expense of ­ minimisation of costs; a concentration, or focusing, in the market of production from a concrete market segment.

Thus, proceeding from the purposes of activity of the enterprise, and also its ­ position in the market, it is possible to choose the most adequate strategy in ­ which frameworks ­ necessary tools and mechanisms for realisation of industrial and administrative activity of the managing subject get out.

Thus some enterprises use simultaneously some ­ basic and competitive strategy thanks to what peak efficiency of their functioning is provided.

To special and a little investigated in the literature carry strategy leaning ­ against innovative technological decisions. Determinants of such strategy of management of the enterprises, branches and complexes in the branch markets are: investments into research and development, a position in competitive struggle, ­ dynamics of production, technology and competitive possibilities.

These strategy should be directed on reception sinergeticheskogo effect from cooperation of the enterprises. The given circumstance allows ­ to consider these strategy as a basis of development of branches and complexes.

At the present stage of development of a national economy in the economic ­ literature and management practice various strategy of development of branches ­ and complexes in which accents on strategic alternatives providing competitiveness and priorities of growth of the enterprises are made are considered­.

the Important place in these priorities is taken away to strategy of integration directed on close cooperation and cooperation of the enterprises, interaction deepening, development of communications between the enterprises up to association of economic subjects.

Processes diversifikatsii, specialisations, concentration and cooperations, and also requirement for financial resources, information, legal, a trance ­
the tailor and other infrastructure have led to considerable integration ­ of manufactures.

One researchers connect integration with perfection and ­ deepening of intereconomic cooperation and horizontal integration, others ­ consider integration as the social production form at which there is an association of resources raznoprofilnyh the organisations and on the basis of mutual addition higher end result is reached.

it is very frequent, especially in foreign sources, the concept of integration ­ is used in a context with concept of strategy of business.

As joint cooperation forms I.N.Buzdalov defines integration and cooperation, but establishes in them following essential distinction: ­ integration (merge) is carried out from the outside, violently, contrary to interests ­ of economy and through ruin of their part, and cooperation passes a way from below, democratically,­ keeps the property right of directly manufacturer.

the Economic dictionary treats definition "integration" as process of voluntary reunion of separate economic subjects, the leader to such condition when on the basis of intereconomic ­ organizatsionnotehnologicheskih, financial and other communications forms cumulative system ­ vosproizvodstvennyh processes which provides with the activity ­ performance by the purpose set as by it.

According to philosophical interpretation of this phenomenon the concept "integration" is considered as the party of development connected with association in ­ whole before the diverse parts and elements (an armour. Integration - restoration, completion, from integer - whole).

the Specified circumstances allow to draw a conclusion, that economic integration ­ is an objective process ­ of gradual merging of economic mechanisms inherent in a modern society­. The main lines of the given process are association of managing subjects, deepening of their ­ interaction, development of communications between them.

integration Processes can occur not only between the enterprises of one branch, they can mention such spheres of managing, as: ­ agriculture, the industry, trade, financial and credit institutions. Thus by the initiator of creation of the integrated association the enterprise of any of the listed fields of activity can be considered.

the processes which have Begun in 1970th of association, absorption, merges in ­ economy branches are caused by higher efficiency of the integrated formations in comparison with not integrated.

Integration provides a concentration of public resources and forces during necessary time for the most effective and socially significant directions of their use.

Thanks to integration all research-and-production cycle - from theoretical scientific researches, technological workings out before process ­ of manufacture and production sale in a single whole is consolidated­. Unlike the developed countries Russia did not leave on that step of development of economy in which the predominating role is played by the integrated industrial capital and the integrated ­ economic formations.

Instability of an economic situation demands logical classification of the integrated formations for revealing of their advantages and lacks, and also possible directions of development.

the Integrated structures can be divided into following types:

1. Kartelnyj association type.

2. Sindikativnyj association type.

3. Trestovsky type of association.

4. Kontsernyj type of associations.

5. Konglomerativnyj association type.

6. A consortium.

From the point of view of organizational registration of association of subjects ­ can accept following forms.

1. Associations. This voluntary association legal or ­ physical persons for achievement of the general economic, scientific, cultural or any another, as a rule noncommercial, the purposes. Members of associations and the unions ­ keep the independence and corporate franchises.

2. Strategic alliances. This agreement on cooperation of two or more independent firms for achievement of certain commercial objectives, for ­ reception of a synergy of the incorporated and complementary strategic resources of the companies. This form of association represents intermediate term or ­ long-term bilateral (or multilateral) the agreement directed on ­ achievement of an overall aim. Specific feature of alliances is association ­ of specialised actives and possibilities of subjects which ­ in aggregate mutually supplement each other. Strategic alliances are ­ the most perspective form of integration of the companies.

3. Co-operative societies. This voluntary association of the isolated subjects - of the proprietors avoiding nationalisation and recognising economic ­ cooperation in joint performance of various functions.

Thus, integration processes can take place as within the limits of already developed system - in this case they lead to increase of level of its ­ integrity and organisation, and at occurrence of new system from earlier not connected elements. Separate parts of the integrated whole can ­ possess various degree of an autonomy. During integration processes in system ­ the volume and intensity of interrelations between elements increase, new levels of management in particular are built on.

the Following analytical step consists in definition of that, are how much developed vysherassmotrennye strategy and management mechanisms can ­ be realised concerning branches and complexes.

the Essence of a definition of "complex" is opened in S.I.Ozhegova's dictionary, as «set of the branches of a national economy connected with each other or ­ the enterprises of various branches of an economy» [125].

the industrial complex is understood as set of certain groups of branches for which release of similar (related) production ­ or performance of works (services) are characteristic­.

Professor V.P.Gruzinov consolidates industries of Russia in following complexes [200]:

1) fuel and energy;

2) the metallurgical;

3) the machine-building;

4) the chemical;

4) the wood;

5) a building complex (the industry of building materials).

the Fuel and energy complex is presented by itself set of branches of a fuel industry and electric power industry. Its structure includes also specialised types of transport - pipeline and the main high-voltage lines.

In a metallurgical complex enter black and nonferrous metallurgy.

the Building complex consolidates branches of production of goods and the design and exploration work providing reproduction of a fixed capital.

the Machine-building complex represents the difficult interbranch formation including mechanical engineering and metal working.

the Chemical complex is among base otraslejpromyshlennosti Russia and includes the chemical and petrochemical industry, subdivided into many branches and manufactures.

the Wood complex includes a forestry (lesohozjajstvennoe manufacture­), preparation, machining and chemical processing of wood. These branches use the same raw materials, but differ from each other under the "know-how" and finished goods appointment. A leading place on output the forest chemical industry, on number occupied and to number of the operating enterprises - derevoobrabatyvajushchaja occupies pulp-and-paper and
the industry.

the Wood complex (LK) represents the integrated system ­ wood, derevoobrabatyvajushchej, pulp-and-paper and a forest chemical industry,­ mechanical engineering and other branches.

In a basis of allocation of complexes are put vosproizvodstvennyj a principle and criterion of participation in end-product creation. Activity of branches ­ of a wood complex of the Russian Federation is based on use of renewed ­ natural resources - woods, and all other manufactures are connected ­ by an indissoluble technological chain, use related technologies, materials ­ and wood raw materials.

Professor A.P.Petrov notices, that in the Soviet Russia, and also a transition period the wide circulation had concept «a wood complex» which included a forestry and the wood industry. It provided reproduction of wood resources, their protection and use.

According to Strategy of development of the Wood complex to 2020 the Wood ­ complex of the Russian Federation including in the structure a forestry and ­ timber industry branches on preparation and processing of wood takes ­ the important place in a national economy [164].

In Osipova B.A.'s works the wood complex is treated as «set ­ of branches and manufactures in territory of the economic region, having a uniform subject of work (wood resources) and consistently carrying out ­ productions on their use, reproduction and protection».

A.S.Shejngauz considers, that «a wood complex is set of wood resources and the activity of the people ­ directed on optimum use all diverse poleznostej of wood according to social and economic requirements of a society at expanded reproduction of these poleznostej and resources based on these resources­».

In the resulted definitions of a wood complex various aspects of use and reproduction of wood resources are displayed, but the core shows ­
sja accent on the conditions necessary for the organisation rational lesopolzovanija­.

the primary goal of a wood complex - «reception lesoproduktsii ­ in a maximum quantity with the least expenses on the basis of ­ rational use of wood resources» From here follows­­.

In the modern wood legislation of the Russian Federation has received also a place concept «a timber industry complex» (LPK) which ­ is understood as set of kinds of the economic activities which are based on ­ use and reproduction of wood resources, and also interconnected with it in the course of economic activities.

In our research we will adhere to the point of view of professor A.S.Shejngauza approving, that «the timber industry complex is ­ an industrial part of a wood complex, i.e. set of the managing subjects ­ making both processing wood and making from this ­ wood products of this or that degree of readiness for their consumption».

M.A.Vinokurov and And. P.Suhodolov consider, that structure LPK includes the enterprises lesozagotovitelnoj, derevoobrabatyvajushchej, furniture, tsellju - lozno - the paper and timber-chemical branches, wood carrying out preparation,­ its mechanical and chemical processing [23].

Z.I.Fetishcheva in structure of a timber industry complex of the Russian Federation includes ­ set of the enterprises wood, pulp-and-paper and derevoobrabatyvajushchej the industries. They provide with production practically all branches of a national economy, making 3,1 % of total internal production [177].

A.P.Petrov notices, that national economy branches occupied with preparation and wood processing are consolidated in a timber industry complex, and at inclusion in their number of a forestry the wood complex is formed.

Thus the structure of a wood complex of Russia includes three large blocks of processes first, on wood cultivation (lesohozjajstvennoe ­ manufacture), secondly, to preparation of wood and a preprocessing (lesozagotovitelnye manufactures) derevoobrabotke and thirdly, processing of wood and ispolzo ­

vaniju wood resources (manufacture of furniture, saw-timbers, papers, a cardboard, plywood, plates, chemical manufacture).

All processes are integrally connected among themselves. The forestry is ­ a raw-material base of the wood industry, and lesozagotovitelnaja the industry ­ in turn provides with raw materials derevoobrabatyvajushchuju and ­ pulp-and-paper branches.

the Enterprises as a part of a wood complex are consolidated by a technological chain and use wood raw materials, differing with the "know-how" and finished goods appointment (fig. 10).

Expressing the consent with A.D.Janushko's [201] opinion, we will notice, that ­ the research and design organisations and the establishments occupied with the decision of scientific and technical and engineering-economic problems also concern a wood ­ complex, interesting complex branches.

Drawing 10 - the Technological chain of manufactures in a wood complex [5]

Professor N.M.Bolshakov considers the Wood complex as samorazvi - vajushchujusja system which reproduces structure and ­ sotsialnoekonomicheskie relations of the elements [17]. He notices, that the Wood clod -

pleks «it is divided on two, not half equal in the properties: a forestry and lesopolzovanie, this neshozhest strengthens one half influence on another and initiates its development».

Professor A.P.Petrov considers, that a growth major factor in a wood complex is the requirement of a national economy for wood and products of its processing.

the Scientist allocates three periods of development of consumption the wood ­ causing growth of a wood complex as a whole from a position of an intensification.

the First period is designated, as the period of extensive consumption of wood ­ at a high share of its consumption as fuel and in a raw state. This stage represents the industrialisation beginning in a wood complex­. At this stage manufactures on mechanical processing ­ of wood actively develop­. For manufactures low level of a capital intensity and relative simplicity in production process is characteristic.

At the second stage specialised ­ factories - lesopilnye, plywood, furniture and cardboard factories became the prevailing form of the enterprises­. We will notice, that at this stage there were no economic conditions for integration of separate manufactures with a view of maintenance of complex use ­ of wood raw materials. We will notice, that in a number of multiwood regions of Siberia these ­ extensive forms of the organisation of manufacture remain and today. The Russian wood enterprises in the European north - were lesopunkty - still remain mono the resource enterprises. Their industrial profile ­ is presented by a unique kind of economic activities - timber cuttings with small annual volumes [155]. Long application of extensive model lesopolzovanija, focused on constant involving in cabin of new ­ large forests, has led to decrease in resource and ecological potential ­ of woods [122].

the Third stage distinguishes reduction of volumes of transportno-accessible and ­ operational woods in the European part of Russia and restriction of scales ­ lesopolzovanija in a number of multiwood regions that has created preconditions to pereho ­
du the wood industry on an intensification of consumption of wood on the basis of the accelerated development of manufactures on chemical and himiko-mechanical ­ processing of wood. At this stage in branches of a wood complex ­ the enterprises on the basis of the integrated manufactures have been generated­.

integration Process is one of the most inconsistent in development ­ of the organisations [184].

In the researches devoted to the given problem, it is possible to allocate two large directions.

Supporters of one approach to integration as to the process, making positive impact on an overall performance of the companies, to leading decrease in risk and occurrence sinergicheskih effects. In their opinion, benefits of integration are caused by a number of factors, major of which is the following:

• potential sinergizma - reduction of expenses at association of various kinds of business at the expense of a uniform control system, the control and coordination, and also at the expense of acceleration of the turn-around time of means;

• improvement of a supply with information of business, integration of marketing researches (in many branches it is the important incentive stimulus of integration);

• a technological prize at the expense of an exchange of technologies, joint carrying out of research and development;

• possibilities bolshej differentiations of production at the expense of teamwork on perfection of a degree of quality, service, marketing and trade channels. Especially it is shown at direct integration. Moreover, offering the whole complex of the goods and services during manufacture integration, the enterprise can raise the competitiveness at the expense of optimisation of the taxation ­ and growth of liquidity of actives, to weaken possible risks first of all at the expense of management of a stream of incomes. These and other reasons induce the enterprises to expand fields of activity, getting (absorbing) other firms or beginning new kinds of business.

During too time empirical check of this hypothesis has yielded opposite results. Communication between integration and efficiency is not a straight line.

In the researches devoted to the given problem, there is statistically a trustworthy information, that efficiency of integration raises at the expense of rational redistribution of industrial, financial and other kinds of resources directly right after associations, but then eventually it decreases, as complexity of management increases, ­ contradictions in principles and procedures of development and acceptance of administrative ­ decisions in different divisions are found out­­.

Opponents of positive influence of processes of integration on development, consider, that integration is not means of increase of efficiency, and even leads to increase of risks. Namely, on the one hand, integration reduces risk at the expense of elimination of dependence of the enterprise from any ­ one goods or the market, but with another - increases it as there is a risk inherent in integration.

Questions of integration of the enterprises in an equal measure concern and ­ a wood complex.

For example, Manohinoj E.A. at the analysis of activity of the large enterprises ­ derevoobrabatyvajushchej the industries of Leningrad region, it is established,­ that initially integration of manufacture has provided growth of profit and ­ has strengthened their dependence on the foreign companies (IKEA), however during the crisis ­ period in the western countries, in particular Sweden, has led to reduction of orders and sharp reduction of the basic manufacture [100].

In spite of the fact that a number of researchers prove its inefficiency, the large integrated companies remain the prevailing form of business dealing in many countries.

Understanding of that fact, that development of sectors and complexes of economy of Russia is not possible without realisation of their structural reform in interests of improvement of social and economic indexes of development of a society as a whole,
allows to consider integration by one of the factors promoting achievement ­ of this purpose.

Considering specificity of a wood complex, under its integration we will understand ­ changes of industrial activity in spheres entering into its ­ structure, directed on growth of business activity, at the expense of a heavy use ­ of resources and application of innovative technologies at all stages and processes (from reproduction lesosyrevoj bases before deep processing ­ of wood), providing creation of new competitive manufactures and products ­ in the conditions of admissible risk.

O.S.Vihansky allocates aligned, horizontal and konglomera - tivnuju forms of integration [25].

However at such approach, successful realisation of integration, professor O.S.Vihransky marks, depends on many factors, in particular, from ­ competence of the available personnel, and in particular managers, seasonal prevalence in a life of the market, presence of the necessary sums of money, etc. [24].

- connected (aligned, concentric) [87], realised as ­ internal growth of the enterprise - represents the new sphere of activity of the company connected with existing areas of business [39, 40].

At such form the large enterprise creates additional manufacture­. For example, if in a wood complex the furniture enterprise can ­ organise manufacture on release of table-tops or the modified plates. In this case the enterprise is not beyond furniture manufacture, and only ­ increases assortment of let out production, thereby raising ­ competitiveness and reducing own dependence on suppliers. In this case the effect of a variety will be the core effect expected from integration.

In modern conditions it overshadows effect of mass production of homogeneous production.

the Essence of effect of a variety consists that manufacture of many kinds of production within the limits of one large enterprise is more favourable, than manufacture ­ of the same kinds of production at the small specialised enterprises.

In the literature devoted to the analysis of processes of connected integration, questions of vertical and horizontal forms are most full consecrated.

the Vertical integration meaning expansion and a branching of components consists in construction of a full industrial chain ­ of already existing "product".

A.A.Tompson and A.Dzh. Striklend consider vertical integration of one of leading forms diversifikatsii [173].

This kind assumes release inclusion resursodobyvajushchih and ­ the processing enterprises, i.e. movement downwards on an industrial chain (return ­ diversifikatsija), or development of the enterprises of the further processing and ­ use of "product", its advancement and sale, i.e. movement upwards on ­ an industrial chain (direct integration), or simultaneous movement both upwards and downwards on an industrial chain.

Nominal vertical integration was characteristic for the enterprises ­ of the wood complex traditionally presented by set three concerning ­ independent branches: lesozagotovitelnoj, derevoobrabatyvajushchej and pulp-and-paper in 1990-2000

Lespromhozy have appeared objects of joining and absorption from ­ manufacturers of end production - pulp-and-paper combines and derevoobrabatyvajushchih the enterprises which represent itself as initiators ­ and a leading link of integration [146].

the World history and the saved up experience of integration and creation of the integrated ­ structures such as ­ shows cartels, concerns, holdings, consortia, ­ financial and industrial groups, what exactly they are potential of development of branches and sectors.

In the USSR processes of integration and diversifikatsii in parallel developed on the basis of all-Union and regional associations - VNPO "Bumprom", IN «With - juzhimles», VPO "Karellesprom", "Komilesprom", "Arhlesprom", etc. [192].

In the end of the XX-th century the timber industry complex of the country has lagged behind the developed timber industry countries, for the reasons of an exhaustion of raw-material bases, backwardness
a transport infrastructure, reduction of a stock of wood by 1 hectares, low level of complex use of wood resources. And in the beginning of 90th of the XX-th century it has appeared in deep structurally-economic crisis ­ which consequences ­ are not overcome and till today [In the same place].

At destruction old and formation of new economic structures in the beginning of 90th of the XX-th century there were serious problems.

For example, Ust-Ylym LPK in 1992 at privatisation has broken up to 34 independent joint-stock companies (before working in a uniform technological ­ stream - from timber cuttings before end production release - cellulose, wood plates, saw-timbers), and in this case it is possible to establish the fact deintegratsii.

the Understanding of the stated has led to that with a view of formation in LPK a market infrastructure, preservation of technological and industrial communications, realisation by the enterprises of technologically closed cycle ­ of manufacture, the uniform investment and scientific and technical policy and according to ­ the Governmental order of the Russian Federation from 23.12.1993 ¹ 1311 «About establishment of the timber industry holding companies» by 2000 in the FACE has been created 47 timber industry holding companies [19].

during the period from the beginning 2000 g in a timber industry complex development is received by the integrated structures of vertical type.

Integration of manufactures by a technological principle provides ­ considerable economic benefit at complex use of raw materials and ­ processing of a waste [170].

Such form of integration, according to researchers, has allowed:

- to lower risks on uninterrupted maintenance of the enterprises with raw materials;

-lower level of constant expenses for production, as shown ­ in M.Grinblatta and S.Titmana's work [213];

-provide steady realisation diversifitsirovannogo production assortment, and formation of original border of a consumer demand as marks I.O.Averyanov [1];

-improve a financial position and to raise investment ­ appeal [18];

- for many enterprises creation of the vertically-integrated companies ­ is the most perspective by an exit from crisis [30].

we Will notice, that for fifteen years in regional timber industry ­ complexes the significant amount vertically integrated has been created. For example, with 2000 for 2014 it is created 9 new and 11 operating ­ manufactures in a timber industry complex Hunts-Mansijskogo ­ of autonomous region [58] are reconstructed­­.

In structure of industrial production of the North a high share of wood branch have republic Komi (over 20 %), Irkutsk area (12 percent) and successfully vertically integrated companies «­ Syktyvkar LPK», "CHovjules" and "Gutales", holding «Ylym Palp the Enterprise», etc. [99] function­. Into their structure enter lesozagotovitelnye the enterprises and also the transport companies, the enterprises for deep processing of wood and a marketing network ­ of finished goods in territory of Russia and abroad.

we Will notice, that the vertical integration shown in the form of integrated ­ industrial structures, is one of perspective and often meeting forms in timber industry sector.

Creation of financial and industrial groups in wood sector, one more prominent aspect vertical diversifikatsii, defining a synergy from ­ association of financial and industrial resources. Moreover, that financial synergies in diversifitsirovannyh the companies arise thanks to tax benefits and occurrence of home market of the capital [5].

last years vertical integration to become strategy ­ of competitive struggle of enterprises LPK with foreign manufacturers in a direction ­ of decrease in dependence on purchased raw materials and equipment [176].

Horizontal integration, is widely presented in a wood complex, and, according to researchers of the given problematics, assumes search vozmozh ­
nostej growth in the existing market at the expense of the new production demanding ­ new technology, distinct from used [24, 44].

Similar integration allows the enterprise to expand scale of activity ­ at the expense of updating of assortment of production, increase of its quality and ­ replacement of out-of-date means of production. Moreover it is the answer to ­ continuous process «a science - manufacture - the market», stimulating to introduction in manufacture of results of scientific researches and workings out.

Timber industry manufacture owing to the specificity is based on complex use of wood raw materials and processing of a waste.

In JU.V.Zementsky's research proves expediency of horizontal integration - with a view of complex use of wood raw materials and recycling of a wood waste. As an example of such recycling considers development of heat, technological shchepy, fuel briquettes, etc. [56]

Shihalyov V.V. notices, that most parts meeting development strategy in a wood complex: lesozagotovitelnaja (horizontal) integration, lesozagotovitelno-derevoobrabatyvajushchaja (strategy of a combination ­ of timber cuttings and wood processing), lesozagotovitelno-lesohozjajstvennaja (­ integration of timber cuttings and lesohozjajstvennogo manufactures), lesozagotovitelnoinfrastrukturnaja ­(integration of manufacture with a serving subsystem ­ lesnogokompleksa) [189].

Horizontal integration gives a number of advantages:

1. The economy on manufacture scales, promotes cost price decrease,­ improvement of quality of production and stimulates labour productivity ­ according to Zajnullinoj M. R [54];

2. Increase of stability and improvement of economic indicators, ­ considers L.B.Sobolev [161]

3. Decrease in risk and multi-purpose sharing ­ of capacities of the enterprise, according to V.G.Gorshkova [37]

In world practice lesohozjajstvennoe manufacture and timber cutting with difficulty functionally and technologically connected processes [98].

Specificity of character of integration in a wood complex consists in incompleteness of processes of horizontal integration in lesohozjajstvennom manufacture. Its potential in a wood complex, marks Shtelman I.R. is realised far not completely [192].

the Enterprises on the one hand are interested in integration, and with another ­ the integrated managing subjects are subject to risks of the various spheres, were before integration external in relation to them. Thus the majority of problems of complexes of a national economy in a context of their integration, find ­ reflexion in a condition of the enterprises.

In a wood complex, integration of timber cuttings with derevoobrabotkoj ­ considerably expands use of a source of raw materials, influences on ­ lesohozjajstvennoe manufacture and lesopolzovanie.

higher level of an intensification of a wood complex, mentions the wood industry and a forestry, and «. It is reached at the third stage of their development assuming the further growth of consumption of wood in new proportionality and the general increase of a role of wood resources in system ­ of wildlife management», professor A.P.Petrov marks. [139].

At the given stage of development of branches and the enterprises of a wood complex ­ the problems connected with lesohozjajstvennym by manufacture ­ which intensification ­ to become the direct productive factor for expansion and availability lesosyrevyh resources prevail­.

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A source: TORZHOK IVAN OLEGOVICH. the MECHANISM of STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT of the ENTERPRISES of the WOOD COMPLEX. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Voronezh - 2018. 2018

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