Theoretical aspects and preconditions of creation of various forms of the integrated corporate structures in the conditions of globalisation

Globalisation processes last decades draw attention of politicians, scientists and business managers Globalization is a process of interaction and integration between people, the companies and the governments of the different countries, the process caused by international trade and investments.

This process influences environment, culture, political systems and on economic development. On a boundary of 20 and 21 centuries it is difficult to overestimate influence of integration processes on economic. Integration became the factor which has essential significance for acceptance of economic decisions, both for national economies, and for the international. Firms and branches in the current global business scenario undergo serious changes under the influence of globalisation. Business partner relations between firms and the companies have been reached recently at the expense of merges, absorption and consolidations, which were usually used to remain competitive in economic.

Globalisation concerns growing integration of national economy through trade and direct foreign investments (PII). As the capital becomes more mobile and technologies facilitate the international communications, national borders become more nontight for economic activities [26].

P.Skott (Scott P.) asserts, that «globalisation assumes intensive cooperation in business of the world division of labour and radical revision of a world order» [260]. In its concept globalisation,
In after it and internationalisation are considered miroustrojstvom where predominating role to be taken away to the national states. Scientists such, as V.Klifford (V.) and S.Joseph (Joseph C pay to internationalisation influence the big attention.) [162]. They assert, that globalisation conducts to integration of economy, companies and cultures through trade and constantly growing rates of dialogue.

Special popularity to the internationalisation theory has come thanks to P.Bakli's works (P. Buckley) [147], M.Kessona (M. Casson) [151], G.Pattersona (Patterson G.) [240], A.Ragmena (A. Rugman) [255], D.Tisa (D. Teece) [271], etc. In it the problem of intraorganizational communications of the international corporations is mentioned and speaks, why they are more favourable, rather than communications between the different independent companies [130].

For example, G.Patterson (Patterson G.) [240] considers, that «not only the competitiveness, but also cooperation connects the organisations in the conditions of globalisation». This thought is confirmed Rogachevoj Z.S.'s with statement that «reception of unilateral benefits - the basic competitive advantages becomes strategic inexpedient... When cooperation relations allow market participants to unite the competence and potentials and to distribute between partners of an expense and risks at the market control» [110].

Thomas Fridman (Thomas L. Friedman) costs on an item that thanks to integration «individuals and small groups of people for all history of mankind had an opportunity for the first time to co-operate and compete in the world market as high-grade and full manufacturers and consumers of the goods and services» [275].

Originally was considered, that globalisation infringes only on especially state interests, further all have agreed, that corporate structures also test on themselves globalisation influence; and recently more and more economists consider, that all social classes are involved in globalisation.

The competitive environment varies and, accordingly,
Style of activity of all economic agents varies. Thus all new and new methods of the business dealing, otherwise again formed companies and private businessmen are compelled to search for large corporate structures will simply squeeze out them from the competitive market.

Stunning growth rates and progress in the field of information technologies do possible cooperation of people and the organisations which are in different corners of a planet, for the decision of similar problems for the sake of achievement of strategic targets. The planet has turned to a uniform information field with possibility of instant communications.

The dialectics of interaction of globalisation and integration processes shows, that, on the one hand, creation of the integrated corporate structures is natural reaction to negative consequences of globalisation which especially amplify in the conditions of uncertainty of world economic system, and on the other hand, this specific display, the objective precondition to creation of universal global system of fair partnership [192].

One of integration displays on a global scale is creation of the corporate integrated structures in which basis interorganizational cooperation which is understood as joint achievement of the co-ordinated purpose (purposes) by the method corresponding to the general understanding of contributions and payments lays. Cooperation, from this point of view, is behavioural result of variable quality - interorganizational relations can vary in very wide limits from close partnership before weak interaction [196]. It usually is underlined in parnerskom the agreement. Previously the organisations carry on negotiations that they are ready to grant (time, resources, access on the markets etc.) To receive that they want from an alliance. The agreement describes assumed «cooperation degree» or volume of relations. This area can vary from narrowly certain short-term initiatives (such, as the organisation of joint encouragement) for the wide and open long-term
Interaction (for example, partnership in the field of technology / information interchange, etc.).

Agreements on expenses and results of partnership create a certain configuration of interdependence of resources (Pfeffer &Nowak, 1976; Pfeffer &Salancik, 1978) between partners as expected benefits from each partner depend on the contribution of others. Than more prospective scale of cooperation, i.e., the more means it will be enclosed, the above there will be an interdependence between partners and the more requirement for a cooperation high level between them with other things being equal (Gulati &Sytch, 2007).

As marks B.Klejner, the integrated structure represents the economic subject creating certain institute, that is rather stable in relation to changed behaviour or interests of separate subjects and their groups, and also continuing to be firm for the significant period of time formal and informal norms, or the systems of norms regulating decision-making, activity and interaction of social and economic subjects (natural and legal persons, the organisations) and their groups [55].

To number of works in which the integrated formations from the point of view of strategic management are investigated, it is possible to carry A.A.Dynkina's works and A.A. The Sokolov [37], A.Radygina [105], J.Pappe [93] and of some other authors. All of them, anyhow, pay attention to higher stability integrated korporavnyh of structures in conditions neravnovenyh conditions and uncertainty of an environment.

All integrated corporate structures can be divided to following classification signs into some groups:

- On duration of interaction - time for the decision of separate problems (consortia), intermediate term, long-term (strategic alliances, klastery);

- On duration of interaction: from time associations for the decision separate problems (consortia) - before long-term associations (strategic alliances, klastery);

- On degree of independence of participants: from rigidly aligned (concern, corporation) - to equal in rights (chains of deliveries, network integration);

- On structure of participants: from industrial-marketing associations (cartels, syndicates) - before associations of a complex format, (klastery, network structures).

The basic advantages of integration of the companies are:

- sinergetichesky the effect which is the catalyst of process of integration which consists that the result from activity of the integrated structure exceeds total result from activity of both partners before integration;

- Effect from use of resources of the partner (material and non-material) or from their creation or completion at the expense of the partner;

- Increase of stability of the integrated structure at the expense of the compromise of strategic interests of partners at which results of activity of the integrated structure correspond to expectations of partners;

- Effect from use key kompetentsy the partner.

Here it is necessary to notice, that the key moment of creation of the integrated corporate structure is the balance of mutual interests of partners which is reached because each of participants has certain exclusive resources, ability or the competence which will allow it to be present effectively at corporate formation during long vremenija.

The further consideration integrated korportivnyh structures will be conducted on an example of strategic alliances. The global strategic alliance usually forms, when the company wishes to pass in the connected business or the new geographical market, especially where the government forbids import for protection of the domestic industry.
Alliances are usually formed between two or several corporations, each of which bases in the country, during the certain period of time. Their purpose consists in participating in the property of again created enterprise and to maximise competitive advantages in the combined territories. Participants of the international alliance overcome the settled administrative stereotypes, become more flexible and aspire to integration of resources of the organisations. They head for interaction with an environment and strategic development which become the basic drivers of their growth.

Let's consider the basic approaches to definition of alliances of representatives of various scientific schools, having tracked thus their evolution.

The first group of authors - adherents of the theory tranzaktsionnyh costs, for example, O.Uiljamson [283], P.Bakli and M.Kasson [147], B.Kogut [208], A.Parhe [239], etc., name aljansovye vzaimotnoshenija konkurentnoyokooperativnymi, and consider, that the most important the reason of creation of alliances is the desire of all partners to lower costs on operational activity. However any of this group of scientists has not offered a method of measurement of operational costs within the limits of an alliance and prize redistribution between partners.

The second theoretical direction - the resource theory which representatives are J. Pfeffer and J. Salansik [243], K.Prahalad and J. Hamel [248], etc., holds the opinion that the expediency of association in alliances has the purpose completion of missing resources and kompetentsy at the expense of partners in an alliance. Thus practically anybody from them does not give instructions on methods of construction of alliances for the purpose of optimisation sinergeticheskogo effect which, in our opinion, is one of the most important effects and results aljansovogo interactions. Here it is necessary to note conformable this theory Gavrilovoj O. V's point of view which considers, that alliances represent «activity, in process
To which partners grant in sharing complementary resources for achievement of the complementary purposes »[21].

In the third grupu it is possible to carry supporters of the theory of the branch markets whom J concern. Tirol [278], P.Dikson [169], J. Ordover [233], V.Shang and V.Gamilton [262], etc. which though mark preconditions of creation of integration interactions in the form of alliances, nevertheless, do not give recommendations about construction of alliances, do not offer variants aljansovogo the contract and models of a configuration of an alliance.

Adherents of school of strategic management whom we have carried in the fourth group, place emphasis on function of management of an alliance. This idea is accurately traced in works in J. Gerindzhera [1 90], M.Lajlsa [64], K.Harrigana [197], by R.Osborna [234], etc. However, in their works are not traced neither rules of the introduction into an alliance, nor a productivity estimation aljansovogo interactions.

Tendencies of the international cooperation of the companies are observed from the end of last century though now integration of managing subjects of all patterns of ownership into a strategic alliance acquires the increasing urgency. Thus each partner in an alliance pursue own interests which, according to Majburova, frequently hardly differ, and sometimes and are at all opposite. Nevertheless, the alliance will be successful when the balance mutual inetresov partners is observed. Thus each party will search for possibility of acquisition or completion of missing resources and kompetentsy at the expense of partners in an alliance [70].

Let's stay further on definition of the international strategic alliance as which it is offered to understand the long partner interaction of two and more companies possessed in the different countries fixed by the agreement, for joint realisation of the professional work by them, assuming completion of missing resources and kompetentsy at the expense of the partner in an alliance and allowing to strengthen the items in the competitive market. According to R.Moklera, «the strategic
The importance of an alliance for participants is reached at the expense of interorganizational agreements »[225].

There are different points of view on necessity and a role of alliances as forms of strategic interaction. As an example we will result M.Portera's [245] opinion which believes, that alliances are in an intermediate item between standard contractual relations and bargains on absorption and merges.

Though the strategic alliance is described as partnership or joint venture more often, this term can cover a wide spectrum of business relations which can include everything, from simple agreements on joint execution of costs, before completely integrated merge of two companies.

The strategic alliance is a unique individual communication between two or more companies working over the project, intended for reception of profit which any of partners cannot reach independently. Alliance partners continue to possess own business and do not lose the independence, simultaneously investing the capital, experience and others traded on the mutual enterprise.

The alliance is a special type of the partner agreement in which the organisations unite for creation of new joint venture on production, to marketing and distribution, design cooperation, licences for technologies and researches and workings out. It, as a matter of fact, the partnership in which it is possible to unite efforts in projects, beginning from reception of the best price for deliveries, purchasing together is a lot of, for product creation together with each of the firms granting a part of the production.

The alliance as speak, is specific also because it is forged for definite purpose achievement, that is working out of a product, development of the market, penetration on the market or for diversifikatsii, or creations of new area for general purposes achievement. For example, the Indian bank with more than 90-year-old constancy in the financial market with reputation of excellent service
Clients has entered strategic communication with HDFC Standard Life Insurance Company Ltd. For distribution of insurance products of the last. Similarly, Ranbaxy Laboratories in attempt to expand the market base has created a marketing alliance with Teva for distribution of tablets HCL to the USA.

Each strategic alliance can be generated the several companies which co-operate in creation of a new product and / or services «to Pass to the market». In an ideal this new product and / or service will bring the unique valuable offer in a niche and / or a market segment about what the co-operating parties have agreed. There should be a valuable suggestion which will be identified with each of partners, and also is identified for the market (that is for end users).

Strategic alliances have wider spectrum of interaction covering informal business relations, based on the simple contract, such, as a network, the subcontract, licensing and franchajzing on the formalized interorganizational relations, such as agreements on joint venture, and also completely integrated association of two companies.

Actually, merge of two enterprises will be a definitive alliance, where they unite to become one subject. Usually there is a survived corporation which will manufacture a new stock in the disappearing company. The same as purchase of the assets, the survived company then will receive the property right to all assets of the disappearing company, and last will cease to exist.

Distinctive line of a strategic alliance is the aspiration to mutual benefit, conviction that the common efforts directed on satisfaction of requirements of the market, the combined offer will be more effective / valuable / successful, than investors can execute in itself or through less getting relations. This widespread place, when borders between operations of partners on
To strategic alliance become washed away as activity is integrated into purposeful possibility of delivery.

Main element of strong partnership is the mutual respect for each company in the organisation. It includes strong executive adherence one another, the trust to possibilities one another and readiness closely to co-operate on several fronts.

In an alliance there should be a spirit of mutual understanding and cooperation which allows to consider variations in agreement work, will increase the benefits received and all result of the partner agreement. Especially good example of this request can be seen in relations between South West Water and its several partners which meaningly avoided any official legal documentation or use of legal advices.

The integral component of strategic alliances, especially at interaction of participants in an alliance, good communications are.


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A source: Petrishchev Peter Vladimirovich. MANAGEMENT of INTEGRATION PROCESSES AT FORMATION of the INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCES. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Vladivostok - 2018. 2018

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