1.3. Theoretical bases of service interaction in the course of realisation of the goods in retail trade

In the given section of dissertational research the author will concentrate on consideration of theoretical bases of service interaction, and also will try to allocate a number of the basic features which are inherent in service process in retail trade.
As is known, in the macroeconomic plan the trade role has dual character. On the one hand, retail trade acts as the intermediary between manufacturers of the goods and their consumers. On the other hand - she is the manufacturer of the services named as trading service. It is necessary to notice, that work of workers of trade has a number of distinctive lines which are inherent in the given activity unlike work in other branches of a national economy. One of such features who have been allocated by Vinogradovoj S.N., are [45, with. 455]: - simplicity of technological operations of workers of mass trades (sellers, packers, cashiers) and low enough qualifying requirements to their fulfilment; - As the given work is connected with service of buyers constant presence on a job is necessary, constant informatively-communicative contact to consumers. It creates high enough physical activities (work standing, a considerable quantity of monotonous movements in the limited space, availability of constant noise, especially in large food supermarkets). Simultaneously there are significant psychological loads that increases requests to a physical and psychological condition which are presented to staff; - In trade sphere relative density of a female labour, youth it is necessary for them to create conditions for advanced training and education of children is great; - Relative density of the businessmen who do not have vocational training [45, with has increased in retail trade. 456]. The author of research as a whole agrees with the above-named features which have been presented above. In addition it is necessary to notice, that specificity of work of workers of retail trade, consists in monotonous and monotonous process of service of buyers. In itself work of workers really does not demand high qualification, but thus there is a high emotional pressure, for management which special knowledge from area of psychology, conflictology, servisologii is required. Long-term supervision of the author over development of the given process of interaction in retail trade, allow to draw a conclusion explaining the reason of low qualification of shots in branch. The economic crisis in the country per 1990 has led to that in trade sphere as in one of the most profitable, the former teachers, engineers, medical workers have directed. As a result the large part from them was fixed on a new professional field of action, developing a myth and a stereotype existing in company - the sphere of trade does not demand special, профессион&чьных knowledge and skills. The given assertion was defining main principles of trading service up to the end of 90th years. However, modern features of development of a trading line of business, testify to the return phenomena and consequences: defect highly specialised, a professional knowledge conducts to loss before present achievements - clients and profit. Hungarian scientist Lea Kardosh in the book «Ethics of trade» writes: « Trade is non-productive sphere, that is a part of service of non-productive character.
Trading service is, on the one hand, service of consumers, granting of services directly directed from the person to the person, and with other is a service of material character which is directed not on the person, and on moving of subjects (goods) and indirectly acts on the population as on the consumer as a whole and particularly on each separate person. At service of the buyer by the seller it is a question of the relation of two subjects. The basic conflict between them arises because the serving party is not the servant. The most important problem of service consists that because of frequent immoral actions in concrete relations the serving subject does not find corresponding communication with that whom it serves. It or is humiliated (in hope to receive high material compensation) or imagines itself the government body resisting to it »[103, с.39]. Employees of the educational centres on training of personnel for trade sphere notice, that it is the most difficult to overcome at sellers not realised, internal aggression on the buyer, especially at those who has the big experience of work. The situation reminds the process of opposition accompanied sometimes by conflict situations. As already it was marked earlier, trading service is the system of maintenance allowing the buyer (consumer) to choose for an optimum alternative of acquisition of the goods or service. Service standardization assumes performance by attendants of certain rules and the requests which observance is regulated by the standard, intrafirm documentation, and deviations in trading service are reduced to a minimum. The individualised service demands, that services rendered the buyer corresponded to increase of level of trading service of concrete buyers and their expectations. As practice of trading business shows, the decision of problems with maintenance of standard level of service creates additional possibility of reception by trade enterprises of stable competitive advantage. Foreign commercial firms spend a lot of time and forces for creation of the organizational (corporate) culture stimulating and supporting high quality service. Small independent dealers often enough try to get advantage over large commercial networks by means of the individualised (personal) service. Large trading houses, using the scales, purchase the goods under lower prices, and the small companies place emphasis on high quality service of buyers. According to the author, the individualised service demands, that services rendered the consumer corresponded to its personal needs that causes increase of level of trading service of concrete buyers. Consumer service is the element of trade entering into system of management of trade enterprise, is a set of actions and the programs directed on improvement of process of fulfilment of purchase of the goods or services. Availability of the given programs increase value of visiting by the consumer of shop and acquisition of the goods by it. The arrangement of shop of/department, availability of the goods in range, their quality and a stock of goods, the organisation of submission and presentation in a trading hall, range and quality of trading services, creation of a positive microclimate of sales and many other things, - all it promotes convenience and comfort of buyers, "comfort" creation. Now, in the conditions of growth of quantity of trade enterprises, the wide offer of the goods and the most severe competition, the special role is acquired by service of buyers - directly in a place of acquisition of goods, as a survival conditio sine qua non in the circumstances. It is necessary to notice, that trading service and rendering to buyers of additional services, is organic continuation trading-engineering procedure in a trading house, irrespective of its scales and an accessory. The circle of service services rendered to buyers is extensive enough and, besides, replenishes constantly and improved at the present stage market economy developments in Russia. Studying and knowledge of the possible nomenclature of services, application of this knowledge in practice-one of the major conditions of successful commercial activity of any trade enterprise in the consumer market. Foreign experts recommend to be guided by at sale of any goods the rule «attention - interest - desire - action-end - service». It is deciphered as follows: draw attention of the buyer, will cause interest, wake desire to purchase. If it does not make action, that is purchase, in end of your efforts push him something like a hint that the goods exclusive or come to an end. Still before purchase has taken place, the buyer should learn, that it is waited by an after-sale service: possibility of replacement during a warranty period, return possibility if the goods do not approach. However it is necessary to notice, that if expectations of consumers increase, and level of trading service remains invariable the general level of satisfaction of consumers decreases. Therefore a number of trade enterprises cautiously enough approach to advertising of quality of the service, and promise to buyers only that level of service which they have possibility to grant now. As a whole, it is possible to ascertain, that demand for high-quality service in the field of trading service constantly grows, and recently especially fast rates. The majority of buyers carry out adherence change to certain trade enterprise on the basis of the internal sensations and estimations of a degree of quality of trading service. In a complex of functions of trading management one of leading places takes management of process of service of buyers on trade enterprise. Realisations of the given function, according to the author, the big attention owing to its high importance in maintenance of development of trade enterprise and increase of efficiency of its activity should be paid. Than this high importance is defined? First of all, maintenance of a high level of trading service of buyers is one of acting forms of sharing of trade enterprise in a competitiveness in the consumer market, formations of its competitive advantage. Management of process of service of buyers is considered as difficult set of the decisions produced by managers with allowance for of a competitive item of trade enterprise in the consumer market, stages of its life cycle, present potential labour, material and financial resources. This set of administrative decisions is one of the basic mechanisms of development by trade enterprise of the selected market niche. Besides, management of process of service of buyers inseparably linked with management of the major economic indicators of activity of the trade enterprise, essentially influencing its financial condition. Efficiency of the given management directly influences trade turnover volume, the sum of incomes and trade enterprise profit, and, hence, and on possibilities of financial maintenance of its forthcoming development. The author of research allocates that important fact, that maintenance of a corresponding degree of service of buyers in shop is not only display of good will of managers of the trade enterprise, directed on maintenance of high end results of economic activities, but also their direct responsibility. High quality trading service becomes today a priority direction in a commercial policy as it allows to increase number of loyal buyers and positively influences image of shop. The majority of managers of trading houses agree with the assertion, that the major element of management of modern trade is quality management of service of service of consumers. By the author of research it has been defined, that main objectives and problems of trading service are: 1. Professional consultation of buyers in the course of a choice and goods purchase. 2.0р1^низация the effective presentation of the goods underlining their unique offer, design, functional characteristics. 3. Transfer of the necessary engineering specifications allowing to retail businesses properly to execute the functions under quality assurances of the goods. 4. Preselling preparation of items for the purpose of giving of a proper trade dress by it. 5.0беспечсние complete readiness of an item for operation or consumption during all warranty period. . The tax and ordering of the information on how production is maintained or consumed, and also the detailed account of claims from buyers. 7.0рганизация an after-sale service and granting of commercial warranties to buyers of the goods. 8.3нание needs and requirements of clients and their maximum satisfaction. 9.0рганизация the optimum calculation of the goods with allowance for the maximum conveniences to buyers in the course of selection of the goods. 10. Maintenance of proper quality of registration of purchase, including speed of service, professional literacy. Material components of trading service include design and illumination of a trading hall, physical comfort (temperature, music, floors, a smell and other), sale methods, level of professional etiquette and ethics, cleanliness of premises, availability of advertising at-sight sales. As a whole, everything, that it is possible to describe, define, evaluate, measure or compare easily among themselves. Therefore managers of the majority of trade enterprises evaluate the given party of trading service more often and do not take in attention its other part - personal or moral aspect of service. Moral components of trading service are connected basically with the organisation of business atmosphere in a trading hall, psychology of sale and the prices, qualification and behaviour of attendants, with the analysis of physiological and psychological features of behaviour of buyers in the course of their service. Differently, management of trading service is considered as difficult set of the decisions produced by managers with allowance for of a competitive item of trade enterprise in the consumer market, stages of its life cycle, present potential labour, material and financial resources. This set of administrative decisions is one of the basic, modern tools of deduction by that or other trade enterprise of the market item selected it. The control system of service in retail trade sphere at enterprise level includes following elements of management: - Use of main principles of standardization and certification (in particular, workings out of typical schemes of placing of trading sections and departments; the equipment, the goods; workings out of intrafirm standards of conformity, etc.); - Working out of typical strategy of service for different types of trade enterprises and the list of services of certain quality; - - Search of possibilities (tactics) in the course of the organisation of a control system of shop service; - Development of unequivocal approaches at an estimation of level of service and quality of services, their safety and availability; - The monitoring system organisation behind quality of trading service and services; • working out of philosophy and the concept of service for the concrete enterprise, forecasting of its development; - Working out trading - technological schemes of the organisation of trading complexes and microcomplexes with the purposes of optimum use of the trading area of shop, and also the trading equipment; - Use of main principles and rules merchendajzinga at the calculation and display of general merchandise; - Working out of elements of a corporate style of shop; -Working out of the standard documentation with the purposes of observance of corresponding requests of the legislative and other normative statements connected with maintenance of the rights of consumers in the course of their service (these requests are defined by the law on protection of the rights of consumers, sales efforts procedure, rules of sale of the goods); - System engineering of corporate culture of the enterprise, standards of conformity and actions. Until recently to service concerned as something minor, insignificant. However last years it was found out, that without researches of psychologists in the field of service it is difficult to understand essence and the contents of the given process. Let's consider such base concept of service activity, as service. Its feature (under the dictionary) has dual character that follows and from its significance - the action benefiting other (the moral and psychological beginning), and the economic conveniences represented somebody (the industrial party of service). The given duality of concept "service" causes a number of psychological and economic difficulties in need of its estimation. In the conditions of a commodity production each service necessarily acquires the price. But at its communicatively-moral component there is a contradiction which can be allowed only with allowance for cultural traditions of consumers. For example, one of the reasons of backlog of development of service in Russia (in particular, occurrences of new service services), in our opinion, roots in cultural stereotypes: «to be rich - it is a shame», and free of charge to do a favour, be the philanthropist, the patron of art it it is good, these are orthodox values, etc. Also intangibility of service, as a rule, is psychologically worried by the potential consumer, as its "uselessness". During this moment, for experts it is important to understand: what exactly influences motivation of the person how there is a choice process, tselepolaganija, what appears decisive for its preference of that or service? Knowing answers to the given questions, it is possible to predict and plan work of the enterprises of retail trade. Other feature of service - intangibility, nematsrialnost, inseparability from the source. Service is not saved separately from process of its granting, cannot be preserved", as the goods. It exists only in process se productions and simultaneously"is as though acquired"by the person. Therefore experts in the field of service are compelled to use psychological and psychophysiological criteria for understanding of features of the market of services. On supervision of the author, they divide services in a materiality principle into the tangible actions directed on a body of the person (public health services, a passenger transport, beauty salons, hairdresser's, sports establishments, restaurants and cafe), and the intangible actions directed on the goods and other physical objects (a freight transport, repair, the equipment contents, protection, cleanliness and order maintenance, laundries, dry-cleaners, veterinary services). Other services carry to the intangible actions directed on consciousness of the person (formation, radio-telecasting, information services, theatres, museums), or on intangible assets (bank, legal, consulting, insurance, operations with securities). Quite often for understanding of the nature of service use criterion of sharing in process of the customer (consumer) - whether is it a part of the most service system or receives service out of system. And, the author of research underlines importance of the given approach for the managers operating process of rendering of services that they could define the most optimum strategy for management of process of rendering of the given service. So, allocate services vysokokontaktnye (civil air freights, medical services, hairdresser's, restaurant services, etc.) And nizkokontaktnye (insurance, laundries, car-care centre, bank services). The given approach shows necessity of finding-out as presence of the customer influences quality of rendered service. Special researches as even in a number of spheres with vysokokontaktnoj orientation the client can evaluate quality only after se completion (irrespective of the presence) are necessary. According to the author, the services rendered by retail trade enterprise, also it is necessary to carry to vysokokontaktnym as process of service of buyers assumes dialogue with commercial clerks to some extent. Bifunktsionalnost service presents to the person of the worker of the given sphere and dual requests. On the one hand, this availability of sufficient professionalism in the activity (knowledge of corresponding technological operations with material objects), on the other hand-availability of special knowledge from psychology area. Specific feature of service consists that it always function of the person (worker), instead of cars. Hence, service activity is a special sphere of action where all complex of psychological knowledge is shown. The manager in service (as a rule, the expert with higher education) should know not only, how to carry out this or that psychological research (the academic knowledge), but also to be able to trace occurrence of the new humanitarian technologies connected with the human factor. The author has tried to define that minimum of psychological abilities and knowledge which workers of sphere of service should possess: 1. The manager in service sphere should have a high level kreativnosti as in itself service activity assumes its distribution in search of new niches of the market, "designing" of new services. 2, the Executor in service sphere should have special type of thinking (so-called "brikolazhnyj"), that presumably has congenital character. Such "brikoler" it is capable to execute a large quantity of diverse problems provided that it has enough «improvised semispecialized means». Z.Vse workers of sphere of service should have a high level of communicative abilities - ability for the short period to come into dialogue contact and to reach sufficient constructive understanding for satisfaction of requests of the client, despite of natural barriers (cultural, national, soshchshno-psychological, tender and even language). 4. Ability to express psychodiagnostics on the basis of natural observation and skills that becomes especially important last years in connection with attempt of introduction and development of individual schemes of service. The worker of sphere of service should be able understand fast the purpose of arrival of the client, its requirement, and also to take measures for satisfaction of its inquiries. The given ability, according to the author, happens congenital though there are special techniques on training more often. 5. Ability to behave professionally in the conflict, at the expense of the received special knowledge from area of conflictology, ethics of business dialogue. Thereby becomes obvious, that involved in sphere of service experts, such as the servisolog-researcher, the manager of the higher and average link working in sphere of service, and others, should have Certain specific lines of mentality and special properties of character. Other base concept of service activity «a contact zone»-it the general sphere surrounding customers (clients) in their finding at the enterprise of service. The contact zone is a collective concept which structure includes a complex of factors, physical (a place of granting of services), psychological (communicative process of participants) and professional (experience and knowledge of the representative of sphere of services) characters. The condition of a contact zone decisively influences, whether the client will address to the given service firm again. It also does attractive to visitors service service that without use of the newest workings out in the field of psychology already cannot be supplied, after all contact to the visitor-is a nucleus of service activity. According to the given concept of a contact zone, it is necessary to allocate the specific moments inherent in given definition. Those, on supervision of the author, are: 1. The contact space is a premise where direct service of visitors (for example, the modern and spacious trading areas, game halls, halls of restaurants and cafes-bars and so forth) is carried out; the General atmosphere of premises - adjoining to the enterprise of service territory, rsklamno-decorating (a signboard and so forth); a premise interior. Special knowledge is necessary for arrangement of the given space from area of psychology of perception, psychology of advertising, etc. 2. Contact process between the client and the executor (or the representative of the executor) is a behaviour of the first employee who is coming into contact to the visitor; observance of the established mode of operation, presence of employees on jobs; external shape and the behaviour corresponding to image of firm; « prisposobljaemost »the seller of service to a situation, ability to cause to itself trust of the client; the ethics reflecting sufficient level of culture of dialogue with visitors; ability to choose the adequate form of the circulation. In this case knowledge in the field of communicative psychology, imidzhelogii, ethics, psychology of sales, presentation is important. Z.Soderzhanie of contact is a direct interaction of the client with the representative of service of service and indirect effect on the client through data on represented services and service forms (the price-list, the list of rendered services, the specifications and technical documentation, copies of the certificate of registration and the licence). Knowledge of the general psychology, communicative, perception psychology is here too important. The transferred features of a contact zone are universal for any enterprise of service. Features of work in a contact zone as it has been noted, demand additional knowledge of employees. Except training to profile skills and the information, they should have special psychological knowledge and a practical work in directions: communicative processes (features of the introduction into psychological contact, maintenance and an exit from contact), conflictology, perception psychology, express psychodiagnostics, receptions of effective negotiations, technologies of sales-services, firm and service presentation. Psychological knowledge is important both for beginners, and for persons who work for a long time already in sphere of service and is considered as professionals. Psychologists-experts notice, that, first of all, it is necessary to train in the given specificity of work of managers of the top echelon. And only then, when they realise importance of the given training, its significance and an economic gain independently will start to enter such forms of training at the enterprises for ordinary employees. The described feature of service activity has affected that now there was an independent branch of psychology - service psychology - a science studying features and a role of the psychological phenomena in serving activity of workers of a contact zone and consumer activity of customers. The service psychology is the actual scientific direction caused by objective practice. Subject domains of psychology of service (components) are: 1. The person of the worker of service, the subject of the given kind of activity. 2. The person of the customer-client, object of service. 3. Psychology of the activity (process of service of the customer) as mutual relations of the client and the worker in a contact zone in the course of service. Long-term supervision over practice of realisation of successful sales, allow the author to draw a conclusion on presence at process of retails of elements of psychology of service. The conclusion bases also that the large part of progressive trading sciences also base on knowledge of psychology of perception, merchendajzinge, advertising activity, organizational activity. The author of the present research offers to consider features of service interaction in retail trade enterprise by the following analogy, namely to focus attention on persons of the worker of trade and the person of the buyer (consumer). In this case in the course of trading service to honey formation of a special contact zone where effect receptions against each other are carried out occurs them. Interaction is carried out in the form of oral consultations, display and goods demonstration, purchase registration. The author pays special attention on identical level of two parties at interaction, and also: - Allocate a contact zone (dialogue space between the buyer and the seller in the course of realisation of trading services); - The person of the seller, as the person who are rendering service; - The person of the buyer, as consumer of the given services. Schematically described process of interaction between the commercial clerk and the buyer is carried out in the form of the scheme presented on fig. 1.3.1: Fig. 1.3.1. The scheme of interaction of the seller and the buyer at service As service psychology is in a formation stage the same as and servisologija, the differentiation of psychology of service, allocation of some its directions further is expected. The author development of following directions is supposed: 1. The first - is connected with professional work psychology. It consists in working out of methods of effect on consumers, for their stimulation in fulfilment of orders, and also psychological aspects of marketing (studying of requirements and motives of customers), revealing of demand for trading services depending on a sex, age, specific features of clients, psychology of a fashion, psychology of an advertising effect and other. 2. The second direction - studying of following interactions in service: «the worker of service - the client», «the client - the client», «the worker of service - the worker of service», «the worker of service - the chief». It is obvious, that in features of service interaction in retail trade system there are psychological aspects of interaction and motives of activity of participants of service process, typology of psychological aspects at service of the population, technology of rendering of psychological services. Simultaneously the author of research specifies the basic directions of researches in the field of service interaction in retail trade: - Studying of psychological mechanisms of interaction of consumers and workers of trade enterprise for the purpose of the maximum satisfaction of their requirements; - Studying of requirements of buyers, motives which they are guided by at purchases; - Studying of demand for various services depending on a sex, age and specific features; - Consideration and introduction of optimum conditions of the organisation of work for workers of a contact zone. Thus, as a result of consideration of teoretiko-methodological bases of quality management of services by the author of research it has been defined, that retail trade for last century has passed a number of certain qualitative stages of the development which result are following characteristics: - Occurrence in the market of the new trading formats which classification is presented in the appendix 1; - Reduction of a share of unorganized trade across Russia in the form of the open markets to 19,6 % in 2006; - Active development of retail commercial networks which is accompanied by competitiveness growth in the given environment; - The large part of modern retail trade enterprises tries to establish own "game rules" in the consumer market which are expressed in becoming tougher requests to conditions of deliveries and production realisation. At the same time, according to Rospotrebnadzora, the quantity of the substandard goods realised through retail commercial network, does not decrease (level of the defective goods on separate commodity sections Reaches 57 % from number proinspected and more). The author of research sees in the given problem vital issues from trade enterprises in the field of quality management of trading services which, according to the author, includes also an obligatory element - quality and safety of the goods offered to realisation. It is necessary to operate effectively within the limits of trade enterprise as quality of the goods offered to realisation, and quality of the services accompanying process of sale. Undoubtedly, for efficient control quality of trading service as a whole it is necessary to change first of all approaches to management of trade enterprise at the expense of allocation of such specific object of management as «quality of trading services». As a whole the modern structure of the components defining quality of trading services, includes following variables: Quality of the goods, culture of trade, level of the organisation of trade, lay-out of a trading hall, qualified personnel, service and quality assurances etc. At the heart of service interaction at retail trade system there are psychological aspects of interaction and motives of activity of participants of service process, hence, they are necessary for considering at formation of managerial process by quality of trading services. By the author it is defined, that process of interaction of the seller and the buyer occurs within the limits of the person, so-called «a contact zone». Successful interaction is finished by process of fulfilment of purchase, and, as a rule, brings a condition of satisfaction for both parties participating in interaction. Effective interaction of the parties is based on a profound knowledge from area of psychology of a consumer' behaviour, merchendajzinga, ethics and dialogue psychology.
<< | >>
A source: Yermolaev Natalia Nikolaevna. PERFECTION of QUALITY MANAGEMENT of SERVICES In SYSTEM of RETAIL TRADE. 2007

More on topic 1.3. Theoretical bases of service interaction in the course of realisation of the goods in retail trade:

  1. 1.1. A modern condition of retail trade and questions of quality of service of the population
  2. 2.2. The theoretical bases and algorithm of forming by the doctor of speech interaction with the patient in a context of realisation of educational function
  3. the Appendix 6. Features of sphere of retail trade and their influence nja a competitiveness in branches and competitiveness of retail businesses.
  4. an import Share in considered retail trade in separate kinds of the goods in the Russian Federation as of 01.07.98 (according to Goskomstat of the Russian Federation) *
  6. 1.1 Place of retail trade in system of economic mutual relations
  7. 1.1 Place of retail trade in system of economic mutual relations
  8. Specificity of management competition in retail trade
  10. 2.3 Management of competitiveness of retail trade enterprises
  11. Management of competitiveness of retail trade enterprises
  12. CHAPTER 1. Theoretical bases of interaction of police with institutes of a civil society.
  13. Hierarchical structure of rates of competitiveness of the enterprises of retail trade
  15. Chapter 1. Theoretical and istoriko-legal bases of productions of under-quality goods in civil legal proceedings
  16. 3.3, Model of quality management of trading services in retail trade
  17. the bases of occurrence and the termination of a right protection of instructions of an origin of the goods, the exclusive right to instructions Goods origins
  18. legal bases of interaction of courts of justice of member states of the European association free traded, and also Vessels of EU with Court of the European association of free trade