working out of the conceptual scheme of the organisation of design management by welfare sphere within the limits of working out strateyogii developments

The analysis conducted above, has shown, that the culture concerns one of the most difficult objects, as economic analysis, and strategiyocheskogo managements. Thus, necessity of use of culture as resource of social and economic development in current conditions of economic and on foreseeable prospect does not cause doubts in one of experts and scientists attending to the given problematics.

The key problem of selection of model of design management of objects of culture in formation multipolar world economic sisyotemy with an essential element of the creative and digital beginning perfectly, in our opinion, has been formulated by B.J.Sorochkinym and A.J.RubinshtejYonom still 15 years ago [77].

Essence of effective model of design management of culture zakljuchayoetsja in a finding of such balance between used tools which would allow to overcome simultaneously «market failures» and «illness of the prices» in the given sphere, «the dependence syndrome» (or so nazyyovaemuju «a paternalism trap»), connected with tone fall rynochyonoj to activity of the organisations of culture and others connected with objects kulyotury agents and did not lead to occurrence of "a budgetary spasm», svjazanyonogo with increase of pressure from managers of budgets in stoyoronu a permanent problem of increase of efficiency state rasyohodov (blocked fig. 8).

8 model of limiting factors of efficiency of the government schematically presented in drawing objects of culture, from the economic point of view forms defined organizational - the economic mechanism putting pressure on the subject of management.

Drawing 8 - Limiting factors of efficiency of the government objects of culture in modern economy

So, objective data about availability of "market failures» in sphere kultuyory, supported with low economic productivity of the activity, the economic agents connected with given sphere stimulate growth bjudyozhetnoj loads as on a public finance (in case of use paternalistskoj models), and budgets of the organisations, firms and domohozjajstv (at use of any model of the state support). In the first case, load increases directly, in the second - through increase nalogoyovogo burden.

Growth of budgetary support leads to change of stimulus ekonomiyocheskoj to activity in sphere of culture from improvement of quality towards a substantiation of "objective" impossibility to be economically effektivyonymi, that in turn leads to simultaneously further growth nayogruzki on other spheres of economy and to growth of inefficient costs. As a result level of pressure from financial bodies («bjudyozhetnyj a spasm») is increased. Rate occurrence on economy of means for management and financing of objects of culture causes closing most effektivyonyh and the productive organisations of culture (which in significant ste -

Fines are focused on quality, instead of on "expression" of additional means) and further stimulates the negative scenario.

In this connection, any control system of objects of culture should be organised such and only so that vysheotmechennaja dependence did not arise. It means working out of tools strategiyocheskogo managements, which already at level of their introduction would have vstroenyonuju system of an estimation of efficiency and productivity (both in qualitative, and in cost expression), accurate and clear systems otvetstvennoyosti all agents included in given process both clear and system stiyomulirovanija the most effective agents.

Last years, as the most answering to the given problems of approaches the system of design management is put forward. During research of the best an expert of introduction of design management in regions was vydeleyono three basic models of management in subjects of the Russian Federation.

The first model has received the name of segmental model, which podyorazumevaet use of design management only in one sphere dejayotelnosti. At use of the given model probably gradual vneyodrenie design management, its approbation on separate segments that will allow to evaluate already at an introduction stage efficiency in those or others obyolastjah.

The second model - total. The given model is based on universal introduction of design management not only for the purpose of use proektyonoj methodology, but also reorganisation of thinking of employees on system stayonovlenija flexible communications and structures.

The third model of introduction - complex, including obediyonenie resources of the federal centre and maintenance klasternogo developments.

Thereby, in the Russian Federation two basic strategy of design management at region level are realised: () the directive; () the inductive.

Within the limits of the first (segmental and complex models) tselepolaganie and strategic planning precedes search of design commands and 68

To formation of projects [78]. It supplies, on the one hand, coordination fedeyoralnyh and regional strategy and concepts of development with regional projects, with other - forms paternalistsky type of behaviour of design commands which actually should be arranged under lowered "sveryohu" initiatives and the purposes.

Within the limits of the second (total model) design commands form a set of initiatives which then at level of design office of region uvjazyyovajutsja with one another and form base for formation of strategy of sotsialyono-economic development of region.

Thereby the first strategy starts with methodological holizma, and the second - from methodological individualism. In our opinion, tselesoyoobrazno to select the third, integration way to construction of design management on a mesoeconomic level which would integrate in itself the initiative of separate commands with obshchesistemnymi problems of development of the country.

By bases of the legislation of the Russian Federation about culture and FedeYOralnym the law «About the general principles of the organisation local samoupravleyonija in the Russian Federation» it is established: «bodies local samoupravleyonija will organise library service of the population in the territory; create conditions for the organisation of leisure and maintenance of inhabitants with services of the organisations of culture; supply protection and preservation of objects kulyoturnogo heritages. They form local budgets and culture development funds; develop and accept local specifications of financing of culture; carry out regulation of relations of the property in the field of culture [79].

Local governments are allocated by authorities on sozdayoniju, reorganisation and liquidations of the municipal organisations of culture, their registration. They nominate chiefs of the given organisations; osushchestvyo
ljajut building of buildings and structures of the municipal organisations kulyotury, arrangement of territories adjoining to them; supply conditions for activity of culture establishments in municipal union; oryoganizujut also contain municipal information service, create usyolovija for activity of local mass-media, for realisation of entertainment and other cultural actions; carry out the control over lease conditions zdayony, premises and other objects of the property of the organisations of culture »[80].

One of the basic barriers of introduction of design management till now is absence of the models describing structure, necessary reyosursy and the interaction organisation. All it is supplemented with the problems resulted above, such as the low motivation insufficient kvalifikayotsija and arising conflict situations. In our opinion, the primary goal of management at transition to new system of the organisation of work is nayoznachenie and strict observance of priorities of design work over routine at preservation of functional load and in the project (fig. 9).

Drawing 9 - Distribution of priorities at the organisation of design activity

Achievement of distribution and real use of priorities probably at creation rigid institutsionalnoj structures, reglamentiyorujushchej interaction of functional and design work on all urovyonjah the state organisation of management.

To all problems described above problems of the most design management increase directly. First of all, it so nazyyovaemaja «triple limitation» [81], reflecting necessity soyobljudenija balance between a scope, cost, time.

In the subsequent to a classical triangle it has been added kacheyostvo (fig. 10).

Drawing 10 - Balance of the organisation of the project of culture sphere

On the other hand, as restrictions act the human resources including motivation indicated above, qualification and vozmozhyonye arising conflicts.

In each project the balance of priorities is distributed starting with vvodyonyh data and the purpose. In any time reduction for the account uveliyochenija is possible, for example, costs, in others - quality improvement for the account vozrasyotanija time etc. From the point of view of the organisation of structure of management proyoektom, it is possible to meet three basic roles more often. A role of the customer, isyopolnitelja and sometimes the investor or the sponsor (fig. 11). Such cast is characteristic for external projects, however its use for internal projects allows to organise just system of priorities and to allow some functional conflicts.

Drawing 11 - the Parity of functional roles and roles in the project

In our opinion, at the organisation of design activity in bodies goyosudarstvennogo managements at level of regions first of all neobhodiyomo to consider specificity of the region. Experience of pilot regions bezusyolovno is important and can become a basis for introduction of similar system upravyolenija, however it is necessary to consider not only organizational vzaimootyonoshenija inside, but also external factors.

For example, mentality of the population. The work organisation in natsionalyonyh republics can differ rather from other regions owing to existence of informal institutes of interaction then to ustanovyoleniju balance of roles design and functional the role personal can be added. The given problems can be considered at an organisation stage proektnoyogo managements by realisation of interrogations, both the population, and workers of the state structures, the organisations of forsajt-sessions and public obsuyozhdeny.

The designated problems and theoretical models of the organisation proektyonogo managements can form a basis for working out of an optimum way of introduction for each economic sphere separately.

So, for example, the culture sphere, differing a prevalence subyoektivnoj values of the blessings over their economic value, requires the account of specificity economic-psychological and the social factors, probably making predominating impact on investment privlekatelyonost projects. The ways of the organisation analysed by us vzaimodejstyovija functional and design structures, in our opinion, allow razrayobotat to the recommendation about realisation of design methodology in the given sphere.

Creation of design offices in sphere of management of culture will allow to increase investment appeal of the given sphere to private investors, that within the limits of search of optimum schemes of financing and razviyotija state-private partnership is rather actual and duly. Use of the design approach for strategic management in culture sphere causes a number methodological and teoreticheyoskih the questions caused by specificity as the blessings, generated in the given sphere, and a problem of an estimation of efficiency of its functioning as a whole. The traditional methodological approach used for an estimation of efficiency in market economy, leaning against the expenses analysis and poyoluchennyh results for culture sphere, is inefficient. pereyohod to design management in sphere of culture demands working out of new mechanisms of an estimation. It is possible to allocate following existing approaches to an estimation of efficiency of the given sphere:

I. The Economic (market) approach, in which frameworks predpriniyomajutsja attempts to justify the contribution of culture in social and economic razyovitie. Here benefits of culture are considered as identical traditsionyonym to resources, and the accent is done on them "ischerpaemost", and the core voproyosom is maintenance «mezhpokolennoj justice». D.Trosbi in the works compares culture to natural resources and suggests to use the same methods for its measurement. From the point of view of D.Trosbi, neyoobhodimo maintenance «an identical standard of well-being or utility
Between the generations, expressed through per capita consumption or as the contribution of resources or a stock of the capital [82] ».

It is necessary not only to distribute in regular intervals consumption of the blessings among generations, but also to supply replenishment of resources, an investment of means and forces of each generation in maintenance of the developed cultural level. ObesYOpechenie similar distribution it is possible, in our opinion, only through formation of system of cultural values. Important act voproyosy motives, the purposes, installations not only consumer, but also "sohranjajuyoshchego" behaviour which for today remain outside of a subject of an economic science. Some aspects of a problem have already received illumination within the limits of interdisciplinary economic-psychological podyohoda. So, A.JU.Markelov's approach to a reproduction problem ekonomicheyoskih agents allows to consider features of behaviour of agents inside and between generations, not missing thus economic essence of a subject of activity (in this case features of benefits of culture as blessings obshcheyostvennyh and questions of their fair distribution) [83].

The traditional economic approach suggests to evaluate, first of all, efficiency on volume of the expenses allocated for the decision postavyolennyh of the purposes and received results. A key problem here vystuyopaet allocation and fixing of certain target indicators on which it is possible to judge a system effectiveness as a whole. If the given target indicators to form only on the basis of principles of market efficiency, it in long-term prospect can lead to irreplaceable losses obekyotov a cultural heritage. Losses can arise owing to «effect of a track», V.J.Muzychuk described in a number of works [84].

The essence of "effect of a track» consists that cultural activity gets to a zone of "market failures» and at their occurrence always neobyohodimo interference from the state, that first of all obuyoslovleno the specificity of benefits of culture.

II. The Institutsionalno-behavioural approach. Within the limits of data podhoyoda it is supposed to evaluate not only economic efficiency, but also influence which costs for culture render on formation sootvetyostvujushchih institutes. As an example it is possible to result a situation when the State expenditure on culture conducts «cultures of economy» to formation, i.e. certain informal institutes and behavioural patterns of the economic agents positively influencing efficiency of its functioning. Growth of economic culture can influence on proizvoyoditelnost work of the separate worker and its efficiency labour dejayotelnosti as a whole.

We will understand as economic culture certain sovokupyonost values and norms of behaviour, the routines connected with national harakyoterom, mentality, features of national thinking, which vyyorazhaetsja in economic behaviour of the agent. Besides, here it is possible govoyorit that the state investments in culture promote growth of national identity of economic agents that resists nabiyorajushchemu last years to process of destruction of own cultural traditions accompanied by their superficial replacement cultural trayoditsijami of other countries. Costs for culture partially allow to decide zayodachu on creation in long-term prospect natsionalnoyoorientirovannogo business.

III. The Subjective approach. The essence of the given approach consists that the estimation of efficiency of functioning of sphere of culture is conducted on the basis of value judgment of satisfaction of consumers of benefits of culture. At such approach priorities on financing poluyochat those projects in sphere of culture which answer expectations, sformiroyo
vavshimsja at end users. The culture sphere follows for potrebiteyolem, that in the issue can lead to destruction of the cultural environment and orientation formation only on a mass culture.

Allocation of these approaches rather conditionally also does not give to us accurate poniyomanija how it is necessary to evaluate efficiency funktsioniroyovanija culture spheres as a whole. From the point of view of design management obyoektami cultures, complexity of allocation of target indicators rezultativnoyosti the project conducts to impossibility of its successful realisation. From here vozniyokaet necessity of realisation special interdisciplinary issledoyovany, allowing to leave on system of indicators of an estimation of efficiency of functioning both all system as a whole, and efficiency realizayotsii separate projects in culture sphere in particular.

As we have defined earlier, existing statistical data do not allow to track accurate tendencies of interrelation accepted gosudaryostvennymi structures of administrative decisions and changes effektivnoyosti functioning of the given sphere, in our opinion, it is necessary rassmatyorivat a problem of an estimation of efficiency in culture sphere in mezhdistsipliyonarnom a complex, and not just within the limits of traditional economic while - zatelej [85]. For example, to answer about the decrease or growth reasons poseyoshchaemosti objects of culture, it is not enough to lean only against volumes of their financing. It is necessary to carry out the specialised researches opening features of behaviour, connected with consumption kulturyonyh the blessings.

It is necessary to notice, that within the limits of behavioural economy and ekonomiyocheskoj psychology, and also traditional marketing there is a number isyosledovany behaviour of the consumer. Similar researches include such directions, as management of behaviour of the consumer (M.J.Gorbunova,
O.J.Ponukalina, V.A.Titov, D.V.Glebov, T.V.Titov, etc.) [86], ratsioyonalnost consumer behaviour (V.I.Maevsky, D.S.Chernavsky, etc.) [87], features of decision-making by consumers and the psychological effects previous and following acceptance consumer reyosheny (A.A.Urklina, E.V.Petruv, JU.V.Loginov, etc.) [88], however, spetsiyoalnyh interdisciplinary researches of the behaviour connected with potrebyoleniem of benefits of culture, in due volume it was not conducted [89].

Similar researches, in our opinion, could supply inforyomatsiju necessary for acceptance of administrative decisions and in sphere kulyotury, especially at transition to design management regarding a choice priyooritetov from set of projects. The big role in researches potrebiyotelskogo behaviour the problem of expectations and their correlation with really received utility [90], or so-called plays «surplus of the consumer». And if we speak about culture sphere, here takes place not so much koyolichestvennyj (correlation of the expected price with real), how many kachestyovennyj (volume of the received information or pleasure, satisfaction of interest) surplus.

Such statement of a question leads us to two factors which are difficult for evaluating only economic toolkit: a quality estimation usyolug, represented by cultural objects, and also an estimation of expectations and preferences of the population, cultural values and the general cultural urovyonja.

For creation of design offices in sphere of management of culture, along with organizational actions, it is necessary to execute a number issledovayotelskih actions. Within the limits of these actions it is necessary:

1. To conduct scale forsajt-sessions with different groups potrebiyotelej the benefits of culture, directed on understanding of how should vygljayodet «future theatre», «future library», «a future museum» etc. the Given sessions are necessary for achievement of a consensus concerning that, kayokuju objects of culture in the future from the point of view of the consumer of these blessings and the state should bear functional load. For sharing in the given sessions it is necessary to involve youth and to create at the population maksimalyonyj interest to discussed problems through realisation various obshcheyostvennyh discussions, transfers on TV, discussions on pages of printing editions and in a network the Internet.

2. To conduct complex interdisciplinary psihologoyoekonomicheskoe research of preferences of consumers of benefits of culture of different groups of the population, considering polovozrastnoj and the social status, and also a bond yield of consumers of benefits of culture. The purpose given issledoyovatelskogo the block consists in formation of an authentic picture about the population prefers to consume what benefits of culture and in what obeyome, and how many it is ready for consumption of these blessings to pay. The given block should lean against use of psychological and sociological toolkit. Within the limits of this block it is necessary to carry out researches on revealing of valuable orientations of the Russian youth as core poyotrebitelja benefits of culture in the future. The problem on revealing of preferences of the population meyozhdu three groups of projects should become one more problem realised at this stage: The projects directed on preservation of present cultural objects and the blessings, the projects directed on sozdayonie of new benefits of culture and objects, the projects directed on rendering of cultural services the population.

3. Realisation of economic and statistical researches, napravyolennyh on revealing of features of communication between volumes of investments and reyozultativnosti activity of objects of culture (theatres, libraries etc.), and also realisation of additional researches of the reasons of occurrence of "illness of the prices», the culture of V.Baumolem, V.Bouenom and A.J.Rubinshtejnom revealed for sphere [91].

4. Realisation of the block economic-psychological and nejropsihologicheyoskih the researches directed on revealing of dependences between kulyoturnymi by the blessings by the consumed individual and productivity of its work.

5. Realisation of complex researches of a television content of the basic television channels about availability of culture transmissions and characteristics of a consumer audience corresponding to them.

6. Realisation of researches of the core regional the Internet - of a content of the organisations of culture about quantity of users and druyogih the characteristics, allowing to help to evaluate popularity of a resource.

On the basis of the indicated requests to design office, and rassmotyorennyh above kinds of models of introduction design upravlenijarazrabotaem the conceptual scheme of the organisation of design management sotsialnoyokulturnoj spheres within the limits of working out of strategy of its development (fig. 12).

As we already mentioned, in our opinion, all considered models have a number of defects, therefore we offer to use kombinayotsiju the considered models. Apparently, from the drawing 12, the developed scheme of introduction of design management will allow to avoid on the one hand «boyolezni the prices» as the greatest priority will be had by projects, napravyolennye on maintenance of objects of a cultural heritage, and on the other hand to avoid «a budgetary spasm» that promotes increase effektivnoyosti the State expenditure in welfare sphere.

Drawing 12 - Conceptual shemaorganizatsii design upravleyonija welfare sphere within the limits of working out of strategy of its development

Thus, transition to design management in culture sphere at level of region demands not only realisations of a complex of organizational actions and the actions connected with preparation and training gosudaryostvennyh of employees kompetentsijam necessary for design upravleyonija. For the decision of the given problem realisation of complex psihologo-economic scientific researches, pozvoljajuyoshchih to generate the methodological and theoretical base of design activity with allowance for specificity generated in sphere of culture of the blessings, in our opinion, is necessary.


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A source: Tarnovsky Vladimir Viktorovich. WORKING out of STRATEGY of DEVELOPMENT of WELFARE SPHERE ON THE BASIS OF MECHANISMS of DESIGN MANAGEMENT. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. An eagle - 2018. 2018

More on topic working out of the conceptual scheme of the organisation of design management by welfare sphere within the limits of working out strateyogii developments:

  1. the analysis of the Russian experience of application of design management of welfare sphere within the limits of working out of strategy of development
  2. working out of algorithm of strategic design management by objects of welfare sphere at regional level
  3. working out of methodical toolkit of strategic design management by welfare sphere
  4. Scientifically-practical recommendations about working out of strategy of development by welfare sphere of regional level on the basis of the mechanism of design management
  5. Tarnovsky Vladimir Viktorovich. WORKING out of STRATEGY of DEVELOPMENT of WELFARE SPHERE ON THE BASIS OF MECHANISMS of DESIGN MANAGEMENT. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. An eagle - 2018, 2018
  6. 3.1. Technology of working out of strategy of development sotsialnoyokulturnoj spheres of the regional level, including mechanisms of design management
  8. Chapter 1. Working out scientifically reasonable upravlenyocheskih decisions as a basis stable funktsioniyorovanija and developments of enterprise structures
  9. concept, essence and the importance of design management within the limits of strategic development
  10. Construction of working conceptual model sotsioemotsionalnogo intelligence