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2.3.Оценка целесообразности изготовления конкурентоспособной машиностроительно&#

В связи с конкуренцией особенно важным становится выбор стратегии развития НИОКР и производства машиностроительной продукции. Для этого необходим инструмент выбора этого рационального пути развития, создание различных методов и оценок целесообразности той или иной разработки и изготовления продукции.
It is obvious, that in the conditions of financial deficiency the feasibility report (the FEASIBILITY REPORT) expediency of working out of any production becomes a paramount problem, but especially it concerns competitive machine-building production, which besides it enough the big cost price (nz-for high naukoemkostn and: other) g demands significant capital costs on realisation of marketing actions (studying of demand, foams of internal and external roars, strategy of development and
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tovaroprodvizhenija, service, advertising, etc.). The developed methodical recommendations are a necessary part of the business plan on business development (working out and competitive products manufacturing).
Works on methodology of drawing up of business plans are known. The American expert-manager R.Abramsa [31], By its definition the business plan allows to formulate the purpose and sense of any business, to present its financial side. As a rule, the business plan consists of 2 parts;
Technical substantiation;
The Feasibility report.
The first part contains the description, for example, competitive machine-building production (or other business which expediency is justified). Here the basic technical characteristics of an item, a novation and advantage in comparison with existing analogues are represented.
In the second part of the business plan efficiency of the offered project is defined and it is characterised by system of indicators: natures alnyh and cost,
Natural indicators concern: item parametres (or business), defining parities of characteristics of a designed item and analogue.
The mission of natural indicators consists in technological level definition.
The technological level represents the generalised indicator characterising degree of approach of technical indicators
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Developed item to analogue (for domestic items-approach to foreign analogue),
The technological level indicator can be calculated under the formula:
^ - ^.JiA.y,
*1 VЈ*
In *? Where-yo - - factor of growth of productivity of unit of an item (or
В1
Technologies) in comparison with analogues;
Bj.
В2 — productivity of analogue and a developed item (or
Technologies) in physical units;
РЕ\r\n-N - - factor of change of service life developed
Р2 + EN
Items in comparison with analogue;
R = — ¦, here T - service life of an item (technology) in years;
En — standard effectiveness ratio of capitals a bed nin> equal 0,15;
W - factor of equivalence of the basic technical parametres of a developed item in comparison with analogue.
At account of factors in the given formula we use indicators from [32].
L the Factor of equivalence of technical parametres is defined under the formula:
Xt X
~u. WELL
1 n
EZ
Where ai... And, - factor of weightiness (importance) of compared technical parametres;
H |. Hn; Yi... Un - sizes of the technical parametres of a developed item with the same name and analogue.
It is obvious, that dolzhjay to be observed following conditions:
The size of each factor of weightiness is in an interval About (and; < 1 и определяется в зависимости от степени влияния параметра на технический уровень разрабатываемого изделия;
the sum of factors of weightiness is equal 1 (or and, = 1).
At an estimation of several variants of a developed item the preference is given to an item which indicator of efficiency is the greatest.
Parametres of economic efficiency of a developed item concern cost indexes (or technologies); the price of an item, annual economic benefit, payback time of investments, settlement factor of economic efficiency.
Let's consider in more details actually the working out and production feasibility report.
Account of the price of a produced item
The price for a produced item is defined [32] under the formula:
TS = С0 + PN |
Where С0 - the complete cost price of an item in rub; Pn - standard profit in rub,
Standard profit mochoju to calculate as
P „= [С0-(RM + RP)] N^DSJU,
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Where Ru - expenses for raw materials and materials in rub;
Rp - expenses for purchase and completing items in rub; Nrskt, - the profitability specification in %. The specification rejagabelnosti the defensive complex enterprises makes 17-20 % However for the enterprises introducing into production and realising on external ryshe highly effective items or \"know-how" the profitability specification can be povyshenna 15-18 %.
The complete cost price in this case can be defined in a kind:
. Expenses for raw materials and materials:
p p
R «=? MiVi (1 + ИЛ00) - ^ MoTXiVorxi,
1. 1
Where M - - rates of application of a material in kg;
At ^ - dena material units of weight in rub;
Yokes, - transportno-zagotovvtelnye costs - 5 %; MoTXi — a material waste in kg; VoTXi - the price of a unit of weight of a waste of a material in rbl. of the Expense for purchase and completing items;
t РП=Х HJVJ (1+IW100) \'
1 where N - rate of application of completing items in ed;
V. - Yen unit of a completing item in rub,
The basic salary of industrial workers:
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«7
1
Where ti - norm of time for fulfilment of operation and hour;
Si — an hour tariff of the worker according to the enterprise in rbl. the Additional salary of industrial workers
Where Nd - a share of the additional salary (20 %).
Deductions on social insurance from the salary of industrial workers:
U-CU + LJIVIOO,
Where Bore-share deductions on social insurance (37 %).
Account of burden costs is made ukrupnenno to proportionally sum of the basic salary of industrial workers a kind:
P.-UIW100.
Where Nnak, - burden costs (100 %),
Expenses jaa raw materials and the materials completing items are defined by calculation method.
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A source: Aslanov Mustafa Azhdarogl . Strategy of marketing development konkurentosposobnogoproizvodstva the mechanical engineering enterprises (on an example of the enterprise of the geophysical equipment). 2005

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