1.1. History of studying of terms and problems of their transfer domestic and foreign linguistics

To transfer and mezhjazykovomu to comparison of terms which are traditionally considered as transfer unit [Barhudarov: 1975], in the scientific literature the huge attention [Averbuh is absolutely fairly paid: 1988; Andrianov: 1964; Borisov, Don: 1985; Budagov: 1976; the Hook: 1977; Gerd: 1986; Grinev: 1995; Lejchik: 1988; Marchuk: 1991; neljubin: 1990, 1995, 1996; Pumpjansky: 1965; Skorohodko: 1963; Yakimovich: 1976].
For understanding of problems of transfer of the term it is necessary to address to specificity of the term.
The term traditionally is understood as a word (word-combination) meaning concept of special area of knowledge or activity [Ахманова:1966, Barhudarov: 1970, Volodina: 1998]. After O.S.Ahmanovoj [Ahmanova: 1966, с.11], T.L.Kandelaki [Kandelaki: 1970, с.15]; S.V.Grinevym [Grinev: 1993, с.33], in the present work we consider exclusively substantive units of language though many researchers challenge validity of a recognition substantivnosti konstituirujushchim property of the term as terms. The availability of this polemic marks, in particular, V.P.Danilenko: "In spite of the fact that practically significant part of significant words is used as terms, however, according to a number of scientists, only the noun meets as much as possible full to those requests which allow terms to execute the basic nominativno-definitivnuju function" [Danilenko; 1993, с.47].
Terms can have various structure. On number of components allocate
Terms-words, or the brief terms less often named monoleksemnymi [Lazareva: 2000, with. 15] to which can be carried and the difficult terms formed by addition of bases and having a conjoint or hyphenated writing;
Terms-word-combinations, or compound, multicomponent terms.
L.V.ShCherba characterised compound terms as the combinations of the words having structural and semantic unity and representing the dismembered named nomination [SHCHerba: 1974]. As criterion of consideration of a word-combination as one nominative terminological unit its use for nazyvanija one concept [Grinev serves: 1993, с.32].
With allowance for considered above positions, it is represented to us comprehensive the definition of the term given by S.V.Grinevym, in which it characterises the term "as a nominative special lexical unit (a word or a word-combination) the special language, accepted for the exact name of special concepts" [Grinev: 1993, with. ZZ].
The question on specificity of terms and problems of their transfer always took a special place in comparative linguistics: it considered in the works under the theory of transfer of L.S.Barhudarov [Barhudarov: 1975, с.75]; A.V.Fedorov [Feodors: 1968, с.159]; it is object of more and more steadfast attention of modern scientists. In "the Sensible translational dictionary" L.L.Neljubina is devoted transfer of terms the separate article that underlines significance of a considered problem and complexity of its decision [Нелюбин:2001, s.121-123]. If a transfer problem - equivalence maintenance as "a contents generality... First copy and transfer texts" [Commissioners: 1990, с.47] while translating special texts terms should place emphasis: they define the information contents of the special text, being original keys, organizujushchimi, structuring and coding the special information [Volodina; 1998].
Hence, with reference to terms most sharply there is a question on possibility of achievement of equivalence at existence of distinction of the code units, representing, according to Yakobson's Novel, "a cardinal problem of language and the central problem of linguistics" [Yakobson: 1978, с.18].
Practically all linguists agree that "absolute identity of codes contradicts the language nature" [Каде:1978, с.71]. Possibility of absolutely complete and exact transfer of the contents of the first copy is while translating limited first of all by distinctions in systems IJA and PJA [Commissioners: 1990, с.39; Найда:1978, with. 114]; besides, it is interfered by different traditions of a nomination of the concepts, developed in each of languages, and also distinction of the phenomena of the validity.
Problems of our research include studying of specific problems of transfer of the terms caused by special properties of given lexical units.
In domestic linguistics there are various, even opposite points of view on the special nature of the term. A number of scientists underlines basic difference of the term from lexical units of common language [Kapanadze: 1965; Lotte: 1961]. So, the requests presented to the term of D.S.Lotte (unambiguity, accuracy, absence of synonyms, brevity), actually oppose terms to common lexicon on semantic and grammatical structure. The opposite sight at the term nature is systematised in S.D.Shelova's works: he suggests to revise the basic properties of the term with which help terms are allocated from nontechnical fund as words special, to treat konstituirujushchie term signs as relative and to speak about "terminologichnosti language signs" [SHelov: 1995, с.35]. As a whole, it is necessary to notice, that in a domestic science there was an understanding of that specificity of the term consists first of all in its special function of a nomination of concept of system of concepts: "language unit receives term signs so far as as it acts in terminological function, and loses them in that case when given unit ceases to be the term" [Lejchik: 1976, with. 10]. Thus, that fact, that "border between terminological and common lexicon... Has not historical, but functional character" [Grinev: 1993, с.29], allows us to consider terms as the lexical units freely functioning in language like other words, but having special function nazyvanija special concept within the limits of separate terminosistemy.
In domestic linguistics variety of works [Averbuh is devoted the analysis of the basic properties and term characteristics: 1985; Apresjan: 1995; Vinogradov: 1961; the Hook, Lejchik: 1981; Gerd: 1980; Grinev: 1993; Danilenko: 1977,1993; Dianova: 1996; Kandelaki: 1977; Капанадзе:1965; Lejchik: 1973,1976,1991; Lotte: 1961; Marchuk: 1996; Morozova: 1969; Reformatsky: 1961; Superansky: 1989; Tatarinov: 1996; SHelov: 1995]. In our opinion, most accurately major properties of the term are formulated by S.V.Grinevym: it "specificity of the use" (special area of the use) and "substantial accuracy". Under the first property (on which the criterion terminologichnosti bases, put forward by Gorki school terminovedenija), S.V.Grinev understands use of the term for nazyvanija concepts; Under the second - "clearness, limitation of significance of terms", established by a definition (which availability, in turn, underlies criterion terminologichnosti in understanding of scientific school of the Moscow State University) [Grinev: 1993, с.29].
The basic properties and special function of terms define the requests presented to their transfer. Specificity of transfer of terms, most likely, consists that the major condition of achievement of equivalence is preservation in transfer of substantial accuracy of units IJA, maintenance of absolute identity of the concepts expressed by terms IJA and PJA, otherwise, if terms IJA and PJA code concept of corresponding scientific area, and "identity of codes of the sender and the recipient is an elementary condition of successful communications" [Kade: 1978, с.71] maintenance of identity of concepts meant by terms represents the major problem of transfer of the special text.
The basic problems which are tested by the translator at selection of term PJA equivalent to terminological unit IJA, arise owing to absence in PJA stable terminological units with same "code": first, while translating terms IJA which does not have equivalent units PJA, fixed in lexicographic sources, and, secondly, in the absence of absolute conformity between significances of units IJA and PJA. Over the decision of these problems terminovedy, translators, composers of bilingual dictionaries work throughout several decades: one of the first works most full systematising problems of transfer, E.F.Skorohodko's monography in which the technique mezhjazykovogo comparisons of terms is offered is and transfer receptions "unknown terms" [Skorohodko are considered: 1963].
Revealing of divergences in system of the concepts expressed by terms IJA and PJA, - the important step on a way mezhjazykovoj harmonisations terminosistem, supplying the decision of problems of transfer of terms. mezhjazykovaja harmonisation separate terminosistem, representing one of the major problems modern comparative terminovedenija [Grinev: 1993, with. 19], assumes maintenance of identity of coding of concepts of systems IJA and PJA. This problem basically is achievable, if carriers IJA and PJA use the uniform system of the concepts which have found the expression in corresponding terminosistemah IJA and PJA. So, L.S.Barhudarov results terms as a rare example "coincidence of lexical units" IJA and PJA in their all volume referentsialnogo significances though it notes such phenomena illustrating divergences of terms IJA and PJA in transfer referentsialnogo of significance as partial conformity, crossing of significances, nedifferentsirovannost word meanings and complete of absence of concept expressed by the term in one of languages [Barhudarov: 1975, s.75-78]. Revealing of these divergences requires first of all ordering of terminology IJA.
Sistemnost terminology it was always considered as one of its major characteristics [Budagov: 1976; Grinev: 1993; Kolgina: 1996; Konovalova: 1998; Lotte: 1961; Nikitin: 1994; Reformatsky: 1961; TSagolova: 1985]. It was repeatedly noticed, that sistemnost terminology has a dual basis: on the one hand, it sistemnost conceptual, logic, following from sistemnosti concepts of the science, with other — sistemnost linguistic, sistemnost the language units expressing these concepts. Accordingly, at the analysis of problems of transfer of terminology ordering both linguistic, and conceptual, that is complex comparison of terms at level of concepts and language means of their expression also is necessary. Thus, system relations between the terms forming terminosistemu, are considered by us as a key to ordering of problems of transfer and their decision.
There are various approaches to allocation and the analysis terminosistem. After S.V.Grinevym, under terminosistemoj we understand "the ordered set of terms with the fixed relations between them reflecting the relations between named these terms by concepts" [Grinev: 1993, with. 17]: so, in our research system relations in terminosisteme emerge at is formal-semantic and semasiological level.
Long time terminological systems were investigated in paradigmatics in a separation from any concrete verbal environment, a situation of speech, a statement genre - a word, from any text: " The term is connected not with a context, and with a terminological field which replaces with itself a context. Therefore, if "the terminological key" the context is not so important is known. Terms can live out of a context if it is known, members of what terminology they are "[Reformatsky: 1961, с.46]. In practice, however, application of such approach generates a problem of delimitation of the terminological field, aggravated with a polysemy of the terms functioning in various narrow scientific areas in different significances. We will notice, that A.A.Reformatskogo appearing in the remark" a terminological key ", in effect, it is defined by borders of scientifically-professional area in which frameworks communications are carried out. So, the terminological key to book keeping terminology can"not approach"for ordering of terms of bank or exchange business in spite of the fact that all these narrow areas are included into financial terminology. Moreover, even in system of a sublanguage enough narrow scientific area actualisation of this or that significance of the term can be defined by character of a concrete genre of the text and-or communications problems.
To the modern scientists who are placing emphasis a social role and communicative function of a linguistic sign [Marchuk: 1996, with. P], terminology studying "in natural conditions of its functioning" [Garbovsky is obviously important: 1988, с.21], "in real conditions of the professional... Communications" [Marhasev: 1991, with. ZZ]. It is possible to tell, that in modern terminovedenii primacy of sphere of functioning of terms [Gerd is unconditionally recognised: 1981; Grinev: 1993; Lejchik: 1989].
In this connection it is represented to us expedient to approach to an allocation problem terminosistemy, having entered additional criterion of a text generality of terms entering into it. Separate terminosistema it is considered as object of research within the limits of typological terminovedenija [Kazarina: 1988, with. 18], terminovedcheskoj text theories: " Set of terms makes semantic structure of the document "[Grinev: 1993, с.213]. Moreover," information function "term [Grinev: 1993, с.219], it" communicative activity "[Volodina: 1998, с.206] allow to consider terminosistemu as a basis of the organisation of the special text, contrary to studying of set of terms of this or that scientific area considered in a separation from micro-and a macrocontext, from features of functioning in language. The assumption put forward by N.K.Garbovskim of availability of correlation between classification of terminological subsystems and classification of functional styles [Гарбовский:1988, с.23] is in this respect indicative.
So, in the present work terms are analyzed as the name of elements of system of concepts, organizujushchih a communication of information of the special text and defining the contents of the communicative certificate. Advantage of the similar approach is possibility of revealing of system relations between terms on the basis of their functioning in the special text and comparisons of characteristics of language units at paradigmatic and syntagmatic level. Thus there is possible an exact definition of those significances of language units which are staticized within the limits of the given system, that is the significances really connected by system relations. Revealing of significances of given terminological unit in system of the special text removes a question on an admissibility or inadmissibility in terminology sinonimii, polisemii and some other phenomena, allowing to consider terms as developing units freely functioning in language and revealing laws of display of these phenomena in paradigmatics and sintagmatike in the concrete speech certificate.
Addressing to the text as to the language system reflecting functioning terminosistemy, we simultaneously consider the text and its transfer as realisation of the certificate of special communications. In our opinion, the expediency of such approach to studying of terms as transfer units indirectly is confirmed with the characteristics given to the term of M.N.Volodinoj: " In the term the socially-communicative parametre of knowledge, its communicatively-dialogical measurement is most distinctly shown... In this connection it is possible to assert, that the basic function of the term - whenever possible precisely to express special concepts - along with representative-kognitivnym, has also socially-communicative character "[Volodina: 1998, с.51]. The term is considered as unit of language and is professional-scientific knowledge supplying efficiency of special communications. Equivalence of terms IJA and PJA, bearing the basic volume of the information to a receptor of the special text, is necessary for maintenance of completeness and accuracy of transfer of the information containing in the text while translating.
The approach to terminosisteme as to tekstoobrazujushchej to a basis structuring the certificate of communications, transfers a transfer problem to pragmatical level on which it, in effect, and is considered by the majority of modern scientists at the analysis of translational equivalence [Schweitzer: 1988, с.93]. Comparison of terms IJA and PJA, undoubtedly, assumes studying of features of their functioning in the special text in IJA and PJA, that is correlation with "functionally relevant signs of the given situation" [Catford: 1967, the river 94] and consideration of terms simultaneously at semasiological and pragmatical level. Revealing of system communications between terms on the basis of the analysis of their functioning in the special text allows to establish paradigmatic relations which the term in terminosisteme enters, precisely to define volume of concept expressed to it, its place in terminosisteme IJA and to find out, significance of terminological unit in PJA is how much precisely transmitted. The special text at such analysis is a projection separately taken, closed terminosistemy in which term function emerges.
The analysis of terms as tekstoobrazujushchih the elements making terminosistemu, serving certain sphere of activity (that is functioning in the concrete special text which contents is defined by these terminosistema), assumes the decision of following problems:
Revealing and consideration of the system paradigmatic communications structuring terminosistemu;
Studying of problems of transfer of terms with IJA on PJA from the point of view of maintenance of adequacy of perception of the information concluded in terms (their conceptual contents), carriers IJA and PJA.
For revealing of system paradigmatic relations between terms and definitions of a place of the term in terminosisteme IJA, its equivalent stipulating a choice in PJA, it is necessary to conduct complex studying of a corresponding terminological field and to find out interrelation between terms at level of concepts and at level of the linguistic means used for their designation (in particular, at level terminoelementov).
Paradigmatic relations are traditionally subdivided into semantic and word-formation relations (besides the associative relations which are not considered in the present work). As semantic relations are understood rodo-specific,
Synonymic, antonimicheskie relations, relations polisemii.
It was repeatedly noticed, that at the heart of any terminological system lay rodo-specific, or giper-giponimicheskie the relations differently named giponimicheskimi [Novikov: 1982], inkljuzivno-exclusive [Nikitin: 1988]. It is necessary to notice, that giper-giponimicheskie relations are considered by many scientists with reference to lexical system of language as a whole - as "fundamental paradigmatic relations by means of which the dictionary structure of language" [Novikov is structured: 1982, s.241-242; Arutyunov: 1978; Nikitin: 1988]. In terminology giper-giponimicheskie relations reflect hierarchy of concepts and are fundamental, konstituirujushchimi the relations defining structure of a terminological field. Obviously, what exactly because of konstituirujushchego character of rodo-specific relations the last are recommended as a basis of association of terms in terminological dictionaries: According to a number terminovedov, at a nested principle of an arrangement of terms in the dictionary the interrelation of concepts [Grinev is more accurately traced: 1995, s.34-35].
Application of simultaneously word-formation and semantic analysis in studying of lexical and grammatical and morphological structure of terms creates a basis for revealing of is formal-semantic paradigmatic communications between units terminosistemy. This approach, in effect, unites two various approaches to studying sistemnosti lexical units. The first is presented J.Trira's by semantic theory in which frameworks the language system is considered as set of conceptual fields to which there correspond lexical fields, and can be carried to "logic concepts" sistemnosti lexicon [Long: 1972, с.31]. Correlation sistemnosti terminology with conceptual sistemnostju is underlined practically by all scientists [Budagov: 1976, с.19; Lejchik: 1976, с.9; SHelov: 1995, с.35]. Despite lacking complete parallelism between conceptual and lexical levels of language systems, interrelation revealing between them is productive enough in terminology studying: so, the explication "communications of systems of special concepts and the regular language means serving given system" has laid down in a basis of research of conceptual structure branch terminology, underlining "unity logic and linguistic sistemnosti" [Antonova, Lejchik: 1987, s.31-32]. It is represented to us, that to studying terminosistemy its combination with especially linguistic, consisting in interpretation of language system as word-formation association of words allows to overcome certain limitation of the "logic" approach. In our opinion, the analysis of word-formation paradigmatic relations should play a special role in studying of the compound terms formed from terms-words.
Konovalova E.A. in the research of paradigmatic relations in economic terminology of Russian notices, that the majority of economic terms is united is formal-semantic giper-giponimicheskimi by relations, that is "is formed by means of joining to hyperonyms of the co-ordinated and not co-ordinated definitions", that is the basis for the following conclusion made it: " In economic terminology sistemnost it is shown not only at level of logiko-conceptual correlation, but also at actually language level - at level of lexical and word-formation means "[Konovalova: 1998, с.101]. The Same system relations are marked and in considered by us terminosisteme, and we would like to specify, that sistemnost it is marked at level terminoobrazovatelnyh means, terminoelementov, finding out interrelations giper-giponimicheskih and derivational relations in terminosisteme. Therefore more exact in the terminological relation is V.N.Bylinovicha's remark:" Sterzhnevyj, that is the substantive component of a word-combination indicating its accessory to corresponding semantic category, it is lawful to consider as kategorialnyj terminoelement (KTE), and an attributive complex at it - as specific terminoelement (STE) "[Bylinovich: 1984, с.96].
At the analysis is formal-semantic giper-giponimicheskih relations in our research it is used word-formation (more precisely, terminoobrazovatelnyj), or derivational, the analysis. Actually it represents a method of the componental analysis of lexical and grammatical structure of the term at which the term decays on formanty, being the carrier of the smallest units of the contents — this [popova, Sternin: 1984, с.38]. Integrated sema, entering into semantic structure of the term-hyperonym, unites with various differential semami in structure of significances of terms-hyponyms. In the presence of is formal-semantic giper-giponimicheskih communications integrated to this, as a rule, contains a nuclear component of the compound term, and differential - other terminoelement (terminoelementy) which is entered by definition to the nuclear term-component, leading to narrowing of patrimonial significance. The expediency terminoobrazovatelnogo (derivational) analysis of compound terms marks in M.V.Vereshchaka's research: "the Structure of compound terms, structural-semantic relations of derivativeness give the chance to analyse them from items of their formation to similarly analysis of words from word-formation items" [Vereshchaka: 1984, с.74]. In its opinion, "the analysis terminoobrazovatelnogo nests promotes revealing of rodo-specific relations" [Vereshchaka: 1984, с.75]. The availability formalnosemanticheskih paradigmatic communications between the terms forming terminoobrazovatelnoe a nest, testifies to interrelation sistemnosti linguistic and conceptual.
The analysis of is formal-semantic paradigmatic relations between terms in structure terminoobrazovatelnogo nests is considered by us as a method of ordering of terminology. Communication between paradigmatic relations in terminosisteme and problems of transfer of terms can be thus revealed. So, an obstacle in achievement of equivalence of transfer the various differentiation of concepts in IJA and PJA can be: absence kategorialnogo the opposition of concepts expressed in antonimicheskih relations between terms in one of languages and absence similar antonimii in other is especially significant. Synonymous relations between terms, as a rule, are realised available alternative conformity. Differently, for the decision of a problem of transfer of this or that term on PJA it is necessary to reveal first of all, what paradigmatic relations are entered by this term in system of terms IJA.
So, we believe, that at the heart of ordering and the decision of problems of transfer of terms structure studying terminoobrazovatelnyh nests in IJA and PJA, interrelation revealing between terms at level of concepts and at level of the linguistic means used for their designation (namely, at level terminoelementov) should lay. Therefore for a basis of studying of a terminological field by us are accepted is formal-semantic giper-giponimicheskie relations,
Expressed on terminoobrazovatelnom level. At such approach the analysis of structure of compound terms and comparison terminoelementov, forming lexico-semantic and morfo-syntactic structure of terms IJA and PJA is supplied. Hence, at the analysis of the compound terms IJA which does not have unequivocal absolute equivalents in PJA, the formal structural elements of the term expressing certain differential this (that is meaning a certain special sign) which cannot be adequately transmitted in PJA, and distinctions in differentiation of concepts of systems IJA and PJA, realised on linguistic level can be revealed. Reflexion of rodo-specific relations between concepts of lexical and grammatical structure of terms creates a basis for the analysis of problems of their transfer. Thus, complex structurization of system by allocation terminoobrazovatelnyh nests supplies simultaneously both conceptual, and linguistic (structural, terminoobrazovatelnuju, semantic) ordering of terms and promotes revealing of laws of transfer.
And PJA we will conduct comparison of terms IJA within the limits of a certain version of the text, in concrete terminosisteme, at is formal-semantic and semasiological level, that is at level of concepts and at level of the linguistic means used for their designation (at level terminoelementov).
As subject of our analysis the terminology of a financial accounting forming structure of the text of the annual financial report acts. In our work the text is understood as a corpus of annual financial reports, that is the hypertext considered as invariant of texts of a similar sort, with zhanrovo-stylistic features inherent in them. In the hypertext latent paradigmatic relations between terms are staticized. Accordingly, terminosistema a financial accounting it is considered by us as kognitivnaja model [Lakoff: 1988], or the frame [Fillmor: 1988], underlying the given corpus and doing possible its understanding.
The approach used by us to allocation terminosistemy can be characterised as pragmatical: for a basis correlation of terms with concepts of separately taken narrow scientific area (book keeping, securities tradings, etc.), and terminology functioning as systems, organizujushchej a special genre of the text of the annual financial report which plays a specific role in business communications starts not. Prominent features of the given version of the texts, allowing to consider them as an allocation basis terminosistemy, and principles of sample of terms are resulted in following section of the present chapter.
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A source: Dovbysh Olga Vladimirovna. English financial terminology and the problems of its translation into Russian (on the material of the annual financial reports of foreign companies) Thesis for the degree of Candidate of Philological Sciences Moscow-2003. 2003

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