1.2. The analysis of metrology security of monitoring systems and diagnosing of difficult technical plants.

At diagnosing holding on one of stages it is expedient to take advantage of principles dopuskovogo the quality assurance [29], representing inspection of a parity on the basis of measurement of indexes of quality of troubleshot automatic telephone exchanges:


Where Aj, Bj - the least and greatest value i-ro controllable parametre accordingly, % - the real value of a controllable index (parametre).

As the major factors influencing indexes of efficiency of metrology security, magnitudes of errors of the first and second sort the important question of metrology security of difficult technical systems is the choice of a way of an estimation of these indexes are. There are the indexes characterising errors of the first and second sort - risks of the manufacturer and risks of the consumer accordingly.

Two ways of an estimation of magnitudes of errors of the first and second sort [25,28,29,36,40,83-96] are known: the first way is grounded on application of unconditional indexes; the second - on the basis of conditional indexes.

Unconditional indexes evaluate a share of possible events in all their mass [25] and are defined from expressions *н

R, = Jf (x)


h „-ch

^ = SH


d (x) + jf (x)


Jf (Ax) d (dh)

d (x),

- »*П-Х

Jf (Ax) d (dh)






Jf (Ax) d (Ax)

d (x) + jf (x)

d (x).

Jf (Ax) d (Ax)



x „-x where P, P2 - probabilities of the first and second sort accordingly; 1^х) DDh) - density of distribution of values of controllable parametre and an error of its measurement Dh accordingly; h„, hn - the upper and lower acceptable values of controllable parametre.

Conditional indexes evaluate a share of possible outcomes, in what or parts of all events. In this system of indexes the error of the second sort is defined as R2 = Р2/Р, where Rg - probability of a recognition of a plant of the control suitable for application. The error of the first sort is evaluated by conditional probability of that among serviceable plants of the control are available incorrectly rejected: R, = R,/Ri, / ' „- a priori probability of an up state of a plant of the control.

Unconditional and conditional indexes have various physical sense. Therefore the choice of this or that of systems of indexes depends on solved problems.

From materials of operation [14] it is visible, that the new same cars made and collected at a factory, the past the period obkatki, possess the individuality inherent in each separate sample, and demand to itself an individual approach according to the major ekspluatatsionno-technical qualities included in them, such as fuel profitability, dynamism and reliability. In this connection there is a necessity for individual definition of availability index of product of elements of each car.

In this case, it is expedient to take advantage of expression for individual conditional risks [29]: n

I \f {x) p {y-x) dx \f {x) p (y~x) dx (1.12)

L R =1-J

\f (x) p (y-x)) dx \f (x) p (y-x) dx Here, f (x) - an unconditional distribution function of controllable parametre, r (u-h) - a measuring error probability density, / - concrete value of result of measurement for automatic telephone exchange data (a node, system) for which the individual risk is defined.

As shown in operation [29], the "individual" risk of the consumer depends on the real size of controllable parametre and is distinguished for different copies of nodes or automatic telephone exchange systems in a controllable series.

It creates additional difficulties at use of "individual" risk for an estimation of quality of procedures of the control, since. In that case it is desirable to consider all checked automatic telephone exchanges. Proceeding from the aforesaid, we have expressions for average risks: I = 1

(1-13) From presented to [29] expressions it is visible, that for calculation as "individual" and average risks, it is necessary to possess exhaustive data about distributions of a probability density of a measuring error and a probability density of controllable parametre.


Where P, j, p2i - probabilities of errors of the first and second sort at the control on i - mu to parametre

In most cases difficult technical systems are inspected on several parametres that carries on to necessity of an estimation of indexes of reliability for a case of the multiple parametre control. Probabilities of errors of the first and second sort are defined from expressions [1,39]

At holding of diagnosing of automatic telephone exchange regularly, if

D ',) = 1 J - jР (At, g;... ^-hja) (1-19)



Where/> 2, and „, (> ',) = 1 \r, (at, -"individual"risk of the consumer at


The control i-ro parametre.

In the worst case, for dependent and independent measuring errors it is possible to record:


1 = 1

The requirement (1.20) leads to a condition, that LTS is serviceable, if:

^liwX^lirw ' - ' ^ HKH ») ^» (1-21)

Where §! „,„;...; ^pjum - results of measurement i=l..., n controllable indexes.

The condition (1.21) ensures smaller magnitude of an error of the first sort, but its application in practice is hampered, since. It is necessary to evaluate at first an error of the second sort and only then to analyze the validity of automatic telephone exchange.

The important development cycle of monitoring systems and automatic telephone exchange diagnosings is definition of standard values of controllable parametres. To standard values of parametres treat: nominal, limiting and admissible. Rationing nominal and limiting values of controllable parametres is made according to [20]. Depending on an aspect of change of controllable parametre there are two approaches to an estimation of supposed operation aberrations of controllable parametres LTS [4].

At monotonic change of values of controllable parametre the permissible deviation [4J is established: 1. Proceeding from conditions of security of the set non-failure operation for components of the automatic telephone exchanges linked with security of traffic safety for the certain period; 2. Proceeding from a condition of a minimum of the specific costs linked with maintenance and repair of components of the aggregate.

In the first case permissible deviation D is defined from expressions and


?> = 0,5 Tf, under a condition ag 0,05; and

?> = 0,3 Tf, under a condition az> 0,05. In the second case the problem decision is grounded on minimisation of objective function of an aspect with

(1.23) where Q (D) - probability of refusal of an element for a period of its service depending on magnitude D; K (D) - number of inspections of an element during maintenance at established D and Lm; Lm - intercontrol run of the car; L (L ';/? ') */> d „, Р1 (L '; In ') = т\п

A Jf

So, for definition Pt and Р2 with the account of contraction of control tolerances it is had:


\f {x) dx

. AT 4 • (»-25)

\\f {x) p {y-x) dydx

) \№p {y-x) jydx - *> l '

For a case of the multiple parametre control the set of supposed values of the controllable indexes, set by inequalities (1.10) represents a n-dimensional parallelepiped in the problem space of a plant with co-ordinates dsu, but set of results of measurement on expressions (1.21) are not a parallelepiped, generally, and cannot be set as follows:

- the Analysis of operation [23], has displayed, that magnitudes of errors of the first and second sort except laws and their distribution parametres of controllable parametre and its measuring error at multiple parametre monitoring of difficult technical systems influences as well completeness of a spent control by measurement. It is possible to present completeness of the control as a ratio of number of controllable parametres nk to the common number of the parametres uniquely characterising availability index of product of technical system



This index is applicable, if all controllable parametres are identical in informational sense, i.e. Bear the information about ravnonadezhnyh subsets of elements of technical system and are mutually independent.

For a case when between system elements there are links, and the choice of independent parametres is impossible, the methodical component of reliability of the control is defined as follows [23]

D, = with ((|) where Ј? fxi 0,7). Hence, by working out of metrology security first of all it is necessary to achieve enough the big completeness of the control and only after that to solve a question on exactitude of measurements spent at the control.

Complexity of spent processes, and also their correlations, demands at an estimation of level of metrology security to use complex indexes [23]. As the basic complex indexes efficiency and cost indexes more often are accepted, and as the basic criterion use more often an efficiency index, and cost consider as the additional bounding factor.

Two principal views of a complex index of efficiency on which fundamentals synthesis of metrology security is carried out are known

Difficult technical systems: effectiveness ratio and "reliability - cost" [23].

The first is an index for comparison purposes with use of weighting coefficients. However for an estimation of efficiency of metrology security of automatic telephone exchange the specified index is not suitable, as does not allow to define influence of metrology security on quality of realised system of diagnosing of availability index of product of automatic telephone exchange.

The second criterion "reliability - cost", offered Shabali - nym [23, 97, 100], allows to consider quality and cost of metrology security simultaneously. However all known deficiencies of introducing of complex indexes in the form of a ratio of the magnitudes having different dimensions are peculiar to it also. The decisions accepted on the basis of such indexes, lead in many practical problems to extreme measures.

The wide circulation was received by informational criteria of an estimation of efficiency of the control, characterising an increment of reliability of data on availability index of product of the difficult systems, received in the course of diagnosing. Informational criteria treat to a discharge of integral indexes. They allow to consider completeness of the control, exactitude of spent measurements, reliability of measuring apparatuses, but do not satisfy to a conformity principle, as it is impossible (or it is very difficult) to establish connection between their values and values of indexes of efficiency.

The integral [23] index of an overall performance of the automized system of the diagnosing, grounded on comparison ef - fektivnostej operations real and some ideal diagnosing systems is offered. This index considers simultaneously and effect from monitoring system and diagnosing application, and an expenditure for its holding. However deficiencies are peculiar to informational criteria, basic of which the impossibility to establish connection between amount of the information received in the course of the control and efficiency of the realised monitoring system is, i.e. this criterion does not satisfy to a conformity principle.

The complex index [23] representing a relative increment is developed

fm.o. = - ^ g - ' (1.33)

A "max '

Where DG> =БР-Б - an increment of an index of efficiency of technical system at the expense of metrology security; ДБТАХ=БИ-Б - the greatest possible increment of an index of efficiency of technical system at the expense of metrology security; BR - value of an index of efficiency of technical system which is operated with real (designed) metrology security; - value of an index of efficiency of technical system which is operated without metrology security; BI -

Value of an index of efficiency of technical system which is operated with metrology security, are characterised, timeliness, a zero error, infinitely big speed and 100 % completeness of measurements.

As shown in operation [23], except a case of the one-parametre control, immediately to define dependence of a complex index on parametres of metrology security it is practically impossible, and it is necessary to realise problem decomposition. In operation [23] the technique of decomposition of the specified problem is developed for processes or systems in which functional links are characterised by the big number of dependences, and the structure of functional links allows to dismember process on elements of smaller dimension. The specified technique allows to present process of functioning of system as sequence of stages, on each of which measurements or the control on one parametre are spent.

Thus, the considered complex indexes not to the full meet the requirements shown to them, therefore no of them can be used immediately for working out of the control and diagnosing of availability index of product LTS. Therefore it is necessary to develop criterion

The efficiency, meeting the requirements stated above, and allowing to evaluate efficiency of metrology security of diagnosing of automatic telephone exchange taking into account security of the set performances of reliability of the control with minimum expenditures in the set time interval.

The important question arising at system engineering of metrology security is the choice of measuring apparatuses of controllable parametres [25]. Their choice is base operation of system engineering of metrology security. It is caused by that measuring apparatuses - the technical fundamentals of metrology security. They define the decision of the primal problems of metrology security - exactitude and reliability of measurements, trials, reliability of diagnostic operations and unity of measurements.

Understating of exactitude of measuring apparatuses used at realisation of the monitoring system and diagnosing calls lowering under the sedate law of quality of production, and overestimate attracts increase in expenditures at measurements, complexities of a construction, mass and overall dimensions of measuring apparatuses, reduces their stability to influencing factors.

For the job of boundary values for controllable parametres of technical systems in case of the indirect multiple parametre control now use system of nonqualified tolerances. Use of such way of the control leads to occurrence of methodical errors of the first and second sort that calls lowering of reliability of technical systems in maintenance, and increase in cost of their maintenance.

The problem of a choice of optimum system of nonqualified tolerances is defined as a difficult nonlinear multiple parametre optimisation problem. And, as a rule, decisions should be accepted in the conditions of a priori insufficiency about laws of distribution of values of controllable and structural parametres and errors of their measurement.

The important question at calculation of tolerances of controllable parametres is definition of values of errors of the first and second sort.

In view of the big labour input of calculation of errors of the first and second sort for their definition it is expedient to use numerical methods, in particular simulation modelling methods. However the carried out researches do not allow to consider influence of measuring errors of values of controllable parametres, and also variation of the mean errors on values of errors of the first and second sort at calculation of tolerances on controllable parametres.

The important problem at monitoring system and diagnosing architecture is optimisation of exactitude of spent measurements. At definition of acceptable values of probabilities of errors Pidon the first, R? ^, the second sort and Rn} two cases are possible:

1.opredelenie acceptable values of probabilities of errors of the first and second sort at the control or diagnostics, proceeding from the set requirements to tolerances and measuring errors of the generalised or structural parametres of systems of automatic telephone exchange by standard techniques stated, for example, in [60]. 2.0пределение acceptable values of probabilities of errors of the first and

The second sort, proceeding from economic reasons taking into account function on -


ter. Magnitude of admissible losses from errors of the incorrect conclusion is thus defined at the control and diagnostics - Pdop [50]. Also function of dependence of change of the cost price of production And With from a measuring error Ah or average quadratic aberration

<< | >>
A source: Isakova Kira Sergeevna. RESEARCH And PERFECTING of METROLOGY SECURITY of DIAGNOSING AT MAINTENANCE SERVICE And REPAIR of VEHICLES (ON the ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT EXAMPLE). The thesis on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Tech.Sci. A speciality motor transport 05.22.10-maintenance. Vladimir -. 2007

More on topic 1.2. The analysis of metrology security of monitoring systems and diagnosing of difficult technical plants.:

  1. 1.1. The review of ways and methods of working out of metrology security of the control and diagnosing of availability index of product of vehicles.
  2. 4.2 Working out of metrology security of system of diagnosing of availability index of product of electric equipment LTS.
  3. 4.1 Working out of algorithm for realisation of metrology security of the control and automatic telephone exchange diagnosing.
  8. 3.4. Research of influence of errors of definition of input data on magnitude of a confidence interval of criterion of efficiency of metrology security of diagnosing of availability index of product of automatic telephone exchange.
  9. 4.3 Working out of metrology security of system of diagnosing of availability index of product of headlights of vehicles in conditions "passing light", "headlight" and «total light» at realisation of a standard method of measurements.
  10. Isakova Kira Sergeevna. RESEARCH And PERFECTING of METROLOGY SECURITY of DIAGNOSING AT MAINTENANCE SERVICE And REPAIR of VEHICLES (ON the ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT EXAMPLE). The thesis on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Tech.Sci. A speciality motor transport 05.22.10-maintenance. Vladimir -, 2007 2007
  11. the Analysis of existing approaches at the organisation of systems of check of conditions of technical installations
  12. Chapter 1. The analysis of methods and bioengineering systems for monitoring soyostojanija animals at the cattle-breeding factories
  13. 3.8 Regular monitoring of show of the purposes of quality of a difficult process
  14. A microfield «Monitoring systems and atomic power station managements»
  15. Systems of ecological monitoring of an aerosphere of air
  16. Survey of methods of research of systems of ecological monitoring on the basis of mobile robots
  17. the Appendix 4. Results of research of principles of chang of aircraft attitude of difficult systems.
  18. Classification and structure of the sensing transducers applied to systems of ecological monitoring
  20. Konversatsionnyj the analysis of monitoring of an Internet forum
- Acoustic devices and systems - Aerials, OHF devices and their technologies - Aerodynamics and processes of heat exchange of flying machines - Automation and management of technological processes and manufactures (on branches) - Aviation and space-rocket technics - Bases and the bases, underground constructions - Biotechnology of foodstuff (on branches) - Building - Building designs, buildings and constructions - Building materials and products - Building mechanics - Cars, motor industry - Chemical technology of fuel and high-energy substances - Chemistry technology - Computer science, computer facilities and management - Computers and systems - Control and test of flying machines and their systems - Designing and a design of courts - Designing and building of roads, undergrounds, airdromes, bridges and transport tunnels - Designing, a design and manufacture of flying machines - Devices and a quality monitoring of an environment, substances, materials and products - Devices and measurement methods by kinds of measurements - Devices and methods for measurement of an ionising radiation and x-ray devices - Devices and methods of transformation of images and a sound - Devices, systems and products of medical appointment - Document-knowledge, архив-knowledge - Documentary information - Durability and thermal modes of flying machines - Dynamics, ballistics, traffic control of flying machines - Electrical engineer - Electromecanics and electric devices - Electronics - Electrotechnical complexes and systems - Electrotechnical materials and products - Electrotechnologies and an electric equipment in agriculture - Electrotechnology - Elements and devices of computer facilities and control systems - Energy devices on the basis of renewed kinds of energy - Engineering geometry and computer drawing - Engineering geometry and computer drawing - Engineering technology - Fire and industrial safety (on branches) - Foundry manufacture - Friction and deterioration in machines - Goodsknowing foodstuff and technology of products of public catering - Goodsknowing the industrial goods and light industry raw materials - Heat supply, ventilation, an air conditioning, gas supply and illumination - Hromatogrophy and Hromatogrophyses devices - Hydraulic engineering building - Hydraulic machines and Hydropneumaticunits - Hydraulics and an engineering hydrology - Industrial fishery - Industrial power system - Information systems and processes, legal aspects of computer science - Information-measuring and operating systems (on branches) - Instrument making, metrology both information-measuring devices and systems - Knowing machines, systems of drives and a detail of machines - Labour safety (on branches) - Land complexes, the starting equipment, operation of flying machines - Library science and bibliology - Light engineering - Machines and devices, processes of refrigerating and cryogenic technics, central airs and life-support - Machines, units and processes (on branches) - Management in social and economic systems - Management of processes of transportations - Manufacture Organization (on branches) - Materials Science - Materials technology (on branches) - Materials technology of manufactures textile and light industry - Mathematical and software of computers, complexes and computer networks - Mathematical modelling, numerical methods and complexes of programs - Mechanical engineering and knowing machines - Membranes and membraneses technology - Metallurgical science and thermal processing of metals - Metallurgy - Metallurgy of black, colour and rare metals - Metallurgy of technogenic and secondary resources - Methods and systems of protection of the information, информационня safety - Metrology and metrological maintenance - Motor transport Operation - Mountain machines - Navigation and an air traffic control - Navigation Devices - Nuclear and radiating safety - Nuclear power installations, including designing, operation and a conclusion from operation - Nuclear reactor building, machines, units and technology of materials of the nuclear industry - Operation of air transport - Optical both optiko-electronic devices and complexes - Physical fields of the ship, ocean, atmosphere and their interaction - Powder metallurgy and composite materials - Power - Power electronics - Power plants and power systems - Power systems and complexes - Power, metallurgical and chemical mechanical engineering - Processes and devices of chemical technologies - Processes and devices of food manufactures - Processes and machines of agroengineering systems - Processing of constructional materials in mechanical engineering - Processing of metals by pressure - Quality monitoring and diagnostics in mechanical engineering - Quantum electronics - Radar-location and radio navigation - Radio engineering and communication - Radio engineering, including systems and TV devices - Radio measuring devices - Road, building and hoisting-and-transport machines - Robots, mechatroniks and roboticses systems - Rolling stock of railways, draught of trains and electrician - Safety in extreme situations (on branches) - Safety of activity of the person - Sailing charter Operation, navigation - Ship power installations and their elements (main and auxiliary) - Shipbuilding - Solid-state electronics, radio-electronic components, micro-and наноэлектроника on quantum effects - Standardization and product quality control - System analysis, management and information processing (on branches) - Systems of automation of designing (on branches) - Systems, networks and devices of telecommunications - Technical aesthetics and design - Technical science - Technics of high pressure - Technologies and machines of processing by pressure - Technologies and machines Weldining manufactures - Technologies and maintenance service means in agriculture - Technologies and means of mechanisation of agriculture - Technology and building organisation - Technology and equipment for manufacture of semiconductors, materials and devices of electronic technics - Technology and a preprocessing of textile materials and raw materials - Technology and machines of timber cuttings and a forestry - Technology and processing of polymers and composites - Technology and the equipment of chemical processing of a biomass of a tree; wood chemistry - Technology and the equipment of mechanical and physicotechnical processing - Technology of a skin and fur - Technology of electrochemical processes and protection against corrosion - Technology of fats, essence and perfumery-cosmetic products - Technology of food products - Technology of garments - Technology of inorganic substances - Technology of instrument making - Technology of materials and products textile and light industry - Technology of meat, dairy and fish products and refrigerating manufactures - Technology of mechanical engineering - Technology of organic substances - Technology of processing, storage and processing of cereal, bean cultures, groats products, fruits-vegetables production and wine growing - Technology of rare, absent-minded and radioactive elements - Technology of shipbuilding, ship repair and organisation of ship-building manufacture - Technology of shoe and kozhevenno-notions products - Technology of silicate and refractory nonmetallic materials - Technology of sugar and sugary products - Technology of tea, tobacco and biologically active substances and subtropical cultures - Technology, machines and the equipment of timber cuttings, a forestry, tree-processings and chemical processing of a biomass of a tree - Telecommunication systems and computer networks - Theoretical bases of computer science - Theoretical the electrical engineer - Theory of mechanisms and machines - Theory of the ship and building mechanics - Thermal engines - Thermal power plants, their power systems and units - Thermal, electrorocket engines and energydevice flying machines - Track, research and designing of railways - Transport - Transport and transportno-technological systems of the country, its regions and cities, manufacture organisation on transport - Transport, mountain and building mechanical engineering - Turbomachines and combined turbounits - Vacuum and plasma electronics - Vacuum, compressor technics and pneumatic systems - Water supply, water drain, building systems of protection of water resources - Waterways of the message and hydrography - Wheel and tracklaying vehicles - Wood-knowledge, technology and the equipment tree-processings -