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1.1. The review of ways and methods of working out of metrology security of the control and diagnosing of availability index of product of vehicles.

One of principal causes of lowering of efficiency of maintenance of vehicles are [1-4,12-18: 1]. Imperfection of a construction of nodes, aggregates, automatic telephone exchange systems; 2. Insufficient level of maintenance service, repair and equipment means technical diagnosings of processes of maintenance service and automatic telephone exchange repair; 3.

Non-observance of requirements on security of necessary exactitude and unity of measurements. All factors set forth above are a plant of research of special branch of the knowledge carrying the title «technical diagnosing» and studying signs of inaccuracies of automatic telephone exchange, methods, means and algorithms of definition of their availability index of product without dismantling and besides, technique and architecture of use of systems of diagnosing in processes of maintenance of a rolling stock [56]. Operations of leading scientists of Sergeeva A.G., Arinina I.N are devoted the given actual direction

As to working out of metrology security of diagnosing of availability index of product of automatic telephone exchange as a complex of scientific, technical and organizational actions and means at all stages of life cycle of the automatic telephone exchange ensuring demanded quality and effective holding of technical diagnosing, until recently it was given not enough attention now absence of the uniform approach to working out of metrology security of diagnosing of availability index of product of automatic telephone exchange as sets of the measures directed on security of demanded exactitude and unity of measurements in the set time interval with minimum expenditures is observed. It speaks, on the one hand that in a moustache -

lovijah existence of uniform system of metrology security of motor transport questions of efficiency of decisions on security of demanded exactitude and unity of measurements dared experimental methods in the conditions of branch, and on the other hand, presence of the big number of the linked controllable parametres and difficult character of processes of maintenance service and automatic telephone exchange repair.

Technical diagnosing of automatic telephone exchange and its separate aggregates, nodes, elements is directed on the decision of following problems: on definition of availability index of product; searching and localisation of a place of refusal or inaccuracy; prediction of a residual resource or probability of non-failure operation for the set interval of an operating time. The analysis of a state of operability of automatic telephone exchange allows to establish degree of working capacity and the transition moment in failure condition area, i.e. allows to forecast an automatic telephone exchange condition. Thus, diagnosing and prediction of availability index of product are closely interconnected and together with retrospektsiej (a condition in the past) make three stages of a full cycle of prediction.

The diagnosing stage reflects the present availability index of product of automatic telephone exchange without its dismantling, to external signs, by measurement of the magnitudes characterising its condition and comparisons to their selected criteria (to tolerances, nominal, limiting and supposed parametre values, etc.).

Frequently without node or aggregate dismantling it is impossible to evaluate availability index of product of constructive measured parametre, therefore outputs are grounded on indirect indexes of a condition of the automatic telephone exchange as which qualitative measure diagnostic parametres serve.

Otherwise, at realisation of dismantling and violation of mutual position of the worn in details the residual resource is reduced on 30 - 40 % [56].

The basic features of measurements at automatic telephone exchange diagnosing are caused physical raznoharakternostju information, necessity to consider intercoupling of structural and diagnostic parametres, znachi -

telnymi ranges of changes of parametres, necessity to determine disabled components in efficient nodes (and on the contrary). The diagnostic information is used, as a rule, for control of technological process or resources that makes to its special demands regarding operationability and quality. Besides, diagnosing operations assume along with measurements of operation of the control and trials.

The problems solved at diagnosing and the control which is a diagnosing special case, [14] depend on a stage of maintenance of automatic telephone exchange and are reduced on fig. 1.1.

Fig. 1.1. Classification of aspects of diagnosing, ispolz> smyh at definition of availability index of product of automatic telephone exchange.

For security of best values of the specified performances of developed system of diagnosing it is necessary to solve by working out of metrology security following problems [1-3]: a choice, a justification of exactitude and reliability of measurements; rationing of limiting, supposed values of controllable parametres and control of reliability performances at maintenance; exactitude typifications kontrolno - diagnostic methods; estimations of influence of an operating time of automatic telephone exchange on change of metrology indexes of the control and diagnosing.

Now separate techniques are developed for the decision of these problems. However the decision of one separately taken problem without their correlation reduces quality of system of diagnosing. For the problem decision di -

Agnostics, it is required to expand a range of diagnostic parametres that leads to complicating and rise in price of system of diagnosing. In the same consequences can reduce unreasonable heightening of exactitude of measurement of parametres at a probability estimation of quality of the monitoring system and diagnosing without cost STD. Separate consideration of the above-stated questions is called first of all by complexity of received functional dependences between performances of spent measurements and criteria of efficiency of metrology security. Generally, [1,4] optimisation of metrology security is spent on the basis of objective function minimisation

(1.1)

Where F, LM, L - an average resource, intercontrol run and an operating time of the car from the moment of the maintenance beginning; a, V?. - an apparent exponent and an average quadratic aberration of magnitude Z; Z - an aberration of an actual parametre value under the influence of external operation factors from theoretical (average) value a difiniendum on the basis of mathematical models of reliability of nodes, aggregates and car systems; And, With, In - the average costs linked with elimination of refusal, execution of preventive operations (regulations) and costs on monitoring (diagnosing) of an element; VM, V, Uf - variation factors, accordingly Lcp, LM, L; VA, VC, Vb - factors of the variation, corresponding costs; S (L) - continuous costs as a result of technological process, lowering of profitability of the car, called by change of parametres.

From operation [4] follows what to receive the analytical decision of this function probably only on occasion at the decision of separate problems. I.e., a principal cause of lowering of efficiency of metrology security of diagnosing of availability index of product of automatic telephone exchange, now, is absence of a uniform technique of the metrology security co-ordinating the decision of the problems set forth above on the basis of security of set probability of the incorrect conclusion.

In operation [1] it is displayed, that technical, economic or technical and economic criteria should be put in the fundamentals of a choice of means of technical diagnostics of controllable parametres. And technical and economic criteria in the form of minimisation of total reduced expenditures or total specific expenditures for maintenance, maintenance service and repair are preferable.

The technique of choice STD of controllable parametres of the vehicles, described in operation [1], on the basis of requirements of uniqueness, stability, responsivity, informativnosti and adaptability to manufacture to controllable parametres is known. The named technique includes following stages: 1) the analysis of statistical data on operation refusals and inaccuracies on purpose to determine the least safe components and to establish most often iterated inaccuracies; 2) installation of the circuit of structurally-investigatory links; 3) a choice of a technique of searching of inaccuracies and algorithm of diagnosing.

However the given technique is developed on the basis of technical criteria and does not consider influence of errors of the first and second sort and loss, as a result of these errors, and also cost of realised system of diagnosing. Therefore, she does not allow to optimise choice STD of controllable parametres for security of peak efficiency taking into account demanded reliability and cost of availability index of product of automatic telephone exchange.

Integral part of process of diagnosing is localisation of inaccuracies, i.e. Their searching and elimination. Thus search of the given up elements is carried on not before refusal, and in its conjecture. Therefore searching algorithmization should be founded on the logician and the probability fundamentals taking into account functional links between parametres of automatic telephone exchange [1].

The structure of parametres, primarily, is defined by a method of search of the given up element. Methods of detection of refusal are subdivided into two aspects: 1. An alarm indication method at which the given up elements by means of transmitters are automatically displayed; but at difficult konstruk -

tsii a troubleshot node it possesses low efficiency; 2. A searching method where the given up element is defined by execution under the certain plan of some measurements. Two big groups of searching - combinational and consecutive [23] distinguish.

At a combinational method availability index of product of automatic telephone exchange defines on the basis of the set number of the control operations made in any order. Here inaccuracies are determined after execution of all planned measurements by comparison and the analysis of the received results, i.e. On the basis of the analysis of results of a combination of measurements. The given method has important deficiencies - the big time expenditures and consequently is seldom used.

During holding of consecutive searching control operations are made when due hereunder, ensuring their most rational sequence. Thus received values of parametres are evaluated immediately after measurement execution and if the system or node condition is yet clearly defined the following in the order of measurement is executed. The measurement order can be strictly fixed (the arranged unconditional searching) or to vary depending on results of the previous measurements (conditional searching). The Average of the measurements necessary for localisation of inaccuracies, in the second case is less, than in the first, but all the same the logic of searching at the arranged method is more difficult. In this case efficiency of procedure of searching also is evaluated by means of magnitude of probability of correctly diagnosing, depending on errors of the first and second sort. The error of the first sort arises, if the refusal place is localised with insufficient degree of a detail, and an error of the second sort - at incorrect definition of a place of refusal.

By optimisation of exactitude of measurements it is necessary to consider, that depending on their influence on results of the control it is necessary to measure separate parametres with a various error [1]. Magnitude of this error will depend on parametre which reflects availability index of product a game -

troliruemoj automatic telephone exchange systems (for example, on the systems defining tehniko - economic indexes, traffic safety level, operating performances of automatic telephone exchange). For the account of significance of separate parametres in this case in operations [1-3] the way of definition of an admissible measuring error as is offered a tolerance zone part on controllable parametre by means of factor where Q/Cimax "°ggnositelnye values of an error of the incorrect

The conclusions at the control and cost of gauges; Рн-iimax. ' Cimax "

Accordingly the maximum values of an error of the incorrect conclusion and gauge cost on i controllable parametre.

4. The choice of gauges on technical and economic indexes is preferable at the operation control and automatic telephone exchange diagnosing as allows to take into consideration, both metrology performances of measuring apparatuses, and technical and economic indexes of maintenance of automatic telephone exchange.

It is known [2], that with increase in an operating time of automatic telephone exchange, dispersion of values of the controllable parametres characterising availability index of product of systems of automatic telephone exchange is augmented. Metrology performances of diagnosing on these indexes thus vary. Thus, not taking into consideration area of small operating time, requirements to metrology indexes of diagnosing should raise. The greatest reliability

The control should be ensured in the field of the operating time corresponding to limiting values of parametres on which diagnosing as the decision made in this area on the validity of a node is interfaced to errors of the first and second sort is spent.

To increase in an operating time [2] there is a change of performances of the law of distribution (or even an aspect of the law of distribution) parametre: values of expectation, a variance; indexes of the shape and scale of law Vejbulla etc. Hence, for security of the set performances of reliability, the measuring error of values of controllable parametres should have various values depending on an automatic telephone exchange operating time.

From the aforesaid follows, that requirements to metrology performances STD should be shaped taking into account the real operation operating time corresponding to the maximum density of refusals on controllable parametre. Therefore, for small operating time these indexes will represent the estimation overestimated on an error.

It is necessary to mark, that STD automatic telephone exchanges work, as a rule, in difficult conditions as measurement of parametres - polyhedral process and exposes to set of effects as from an environment, and power supplies. In real conditions it is difficult to evaluate each influencing factor separately, since. STD it is submitted to influence at once sets of factors. In operation conditions, at gear installation on the car inevitably there are the errors exceeding that which, arise in normal (laboratory) conditions. Therefore by working out of metrology security it is necessary to consider variation of the mean errors which, as a rule, make a reservation in engineering specifications, but their influence on efficiency of metrology security remains not studied.

Standards of GOST R ISO introduced now in the Russian Federation 5725 - 2002 can be applied to an estimation of exactitude of execution of measurements of the various physical magnitudes characterising measured that property

Or other plant, according to the standardised procedure assuming execution of measurements equally. All measurements should be executed according to the given standard method (in domestic documents - "standardised"). It means, that there should be the written document establishing in all details as measurement should be executed.

The concept is entered into GOST R ISO 5725 - 2002 "the accepted basic value" - value which serves co-ordinated for comparison and is received as: the theoretical or established value founded on scientific principles; the assigned or certified value founded on experimental operations of any national or international architecture; the co-ordinated or certified value founded on joint experimental operations under the guidance of scientific or engineering group; expectation of measured performance, that is average value of the set set of results of measurements - only in a case when the points set forth above are inaccessible.

And, "exactitude" - degree of affinity of result of measurements to the accepted basic value. At execution of measurements exactitude is treated as a combination of casual components and the common regular error developing, in turn from: a regular error of laboratory at realisation of the concrete measurement method and a regular error of the measurement method.

In the standard definitions of magnitudes which characterise, from the quantitative point of view are presented, ability of the measurement method to yield true result (correctness) or to iterate the received result (pretsizionnost).

Before concept "correctness" and "pretsizionnost" in domestic standard documents on metrology till now were not used. Thus "correctness" - degree of affinity of result of measurements to true or conditionally true (real) value izmerjav -

Wash magnitudes or in case of absence of the standard of measured magnitude - degree of affinity of the average value received on the basis of the big series of results of measurements (or results of trials) to the accepted basic value. Correctness is expressed, as a rule, in terms regular by errors (displacement). Correctness understand sometimes as "exactitude of average value".

In turn "pretsizionnost" - affinity degree to each other independent results of the measurements received in concrete established conditions. This performance depends only on random factors and is not linked with true or is conditional a true value of measured magnitude. A measure pretsizionnosti usually express in inaccuracy terms, and it is evaluated as standard (srednekvadraticheskoe) an aberration of results of the measurements executed in certain conditions. Quantitative values of measures pretsizionnosti essentially depend on the regulated conditions. Smaller pretsizionnost corresponds bolshemu to a standard aberration. Extreme indexes pretsizionnosti - recurrence, convergence and reproducibility. Pretsizionnost depends only on casual errors and does not concern the true or established value of measured magnitude.

On variability of results of the measurements executed on one method, besides distinctions between presumably identical samples, many various factors, including:а) the human controller can influence;) the used equipment; equipment calibration; environment parametres (temperature, damp, air pollution etc.); a slice of time between measurements. Distinctions between results of the measurements executable by different human controllers and-or with use of the various equipment, as a rule, will be more than between results of the measurements executable during a short slice of time by one human controller with use of the same equipment.

Necessity of consideration "pretsizionnosti" arises that the measurements executable on presumably identical materials under presumably identical circumstances, do not give, as a rule, identical results. It speaks the inevitable casual errors inherent in each measuring procedure, and the factors influencing result of measurement, do not give in to the full control. At practical interpretation of results of measurements this variability should be considered.

Pretsizionnost is the common term for expression of variability of iterated measurements. Two conditions pretsizionnosti, recurrences named conditions and reproducibility, have been recognised by necessary and, in many practical cases, useful to introducing of variability of the measurement method. In the conditions of recurrence (convergence) factors-d), enumerated above, consider as constants, and they do not influence variability while in the conditions of reproducibility all these factors peremenny and influence variability of results of trials. Thus, recurrence and reproducibility represent two extreme cases.

"Recurrence" - pretsizionnost in the conditions of recurrence. Thus, "conditions of recurrence (convergence)" - conditions, at which independent results of measurements (or trials) turn out the same method on identical plants of trials, in the same laboratory, the same human controller, with use of the same equipment, within a short time interval. "A limit of recurrence (convergence)" g - value, which with a fiducial probability of 95 % is not exceeded by a difference absolute value between results of two measurements (or trials), received in the conditions of recurrence (convergence).

As pretsizionnost evaluate a standard aberration, in this case, "standard (srednekvadraticheskoe) an aberration povtorjav -

Pave (convergence) "- standard (srednekvadraticheskoe) an aberration of results of measurements (or trials), received in the conditions of recurrence (convergence). This norm is a measure of dispersion of results of measurements in the conditions of recurrence.

"Reproducibility" - pretsizionnost in the conditions of reproducibility, i.e. In such conditions, at which results of measurements (or trials) receive the same method, on identical plants of trials, in the different laboratories, different human controllers, with use of the various equipment. "Standard (srednekvadraticheskoe) a reproducibility aberration" - standard (srednekvadraticheskoe) an aberration of results of measurements (or trials), received in the conditions of reproducibility. This norm is a measure of dispersion of results of measurements (or trials) in the conditions of reproducibility. "A reproducibility limit" R - value, which with a fiducial probability of 95 % is not exceeded by a difference absolute value between results of two measurements (or trials), received in the conditions of reproducibility.

Under certain circumstances there can be useful a consideration of intermediate conditions pretsizionnosti at which observations are carried out in the same laboratory, but thus one or more factors - "time", "human controller" or "equipment" - can vary.

The procedures described in standards of GOST R ISO 5725 are grounded on statistical model which looks as follows:

Each result of measurements, at, represents the sum of three components

At = т+В+е, (1.5)

Where: m - the common average value (expectation); In - a laboratory component of a regular error in the conditions of recurrence; e - a casual component of an error of each result of measurements in the conditions of recurrence.

The common average value m represents level of trials, i.e. The common average value of results of the trials received from all laboratories for one concrete examinee of a material or the sample.

Also the concept "a base element (cell) in experiment by an estimation pretsizionnosti" - set of results of trials at one level, received by one laboratory is entered. Level m is unessentially equaled to a river true value

When examine divergences between the results of measurements received by the same method, the regular error of a method will not render any influence, and she can be neglected. However by comparison of results of measurements to the value established in the standard referring to a true value (), instead of on "level of trials" (), or by comparison of the results received with use of various measurement methods, a regular error of a method, naturally, it is necessary to consider.

The component In is considered a constant during execution of any series of measurements in the conditions of recurrence, but it will be various on magnitude for the measurement, executable in other conditions.

The procedures presented to GOST R ISO 5725 - 2002, were developed in the conjecture, that distribution of laboratory components of a regular error is approximately normal, but in practice them apply to the majority of distributions provided that the last are unimodal.

The variance in is called as interlaboratory and expresss the following

In the image:

var {B) = al, (1.6)

Where

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A source: Isakova Kira Sergeevna. RESEARCH And PERFECTING of METROLOGY SECURITY of DIAGNOSING AT MAINTENANCE SERVICE And REPAIR of VEHICLES (ON the ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT EXAMPLE). The thesis on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Tech.Sci. A speciality motor transport 05.22.10-maintenance. Vladimir -. 2007

More on topic 1.1. The review of ways and methods of working out of metrology security of the control and diagnosing of availability index of product of vehicles.:

  1. CHAPTER 4. WORKING out And RESEARCH of ALGORITHM of METROLOGY SECURITY of the CONTROL And DIAGNOSING of AVAILABILITY INDEX OF PRODUCT of VEHICLES
  2. CHAPTER 1. THEORETICAL ASPECTS of METHODS of WORKING out of METROLOGY SECURITY of DIAGNOSING of AVAILABILITY INDEX OF PRODUCT of VEHICLES.
  3. CHAPTER 2. WORKING out of the TECHNIQUE of OPTIMIZATION of METROLOGY SECURITY of DIAGNOSING of AVAILABILITY INDEX OF PRODUCT of VEHICLES.
  4. 4.2 Working out of metrology security of system of diagnosing of availability index of product of electric equipment LTS.
  5. CHAPTER 3. RESEARCH of the TECHNIQUE of HEIGHTENING of EFFICIENCY of METROLOGY SECURITY of DIAGNOSING of AVAILABILITY INDEX OF PRODUCT of VEHICLES
  6. 4.3 Working out of metrology security of system of diagnosing of availability index of product of headlights of vehicles in conditions "passing light", "headlight" and «total light» at realisation of a standard method of measurements.
  7. 3.4. Research of influence of errors of definition of input data on magnitude of a confidence interval of criterion of efficiency of metrology security of diagnosing of availability index of product of automatic telephone exchange.
  8. 4.1 Working out of algorithm for realisation of metrology security of the control and automatic telephone exchange diagnosing.
  9. 1.2. The analysis of metrology security of monitoring systems and diagnosing of difficult technical plants.
  10. Isakova Kira Sergeevna. RESEARCH And PERFECTING of METROLOGY SECURITY of DIAGNOSING AT MAINTENANCE SERVICE And REPAIR of VEHICLES (ON the ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT EXAMPLE). The thesis on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Tech.Sci. A speciality motor transport 05.22.10-maintenance. Vladimir -, 2007 2007
  11. 3.2. Research of influence of variation of the mean errors of values of controllable parametres on magnitudes of errors of the first and second sort at indirect monitoring of availability index of product LTS
  12. 3.1. Research of influence of variation of the mean errors of values of controllable parametres on magnitudes of errors of the first and second sort at direct monitoring of availability index of product of automatic telephone exchange.
  13. 2.2. Working out of a design procedure of tolerances at the indirect control taking into account influence of time of maintenance of vehicles, a variation of the mean error of measurement and completeness of the spent control.
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