the basic components of strategy of development of the enterprises of a machine-building complex in modern conditions.

Strategy with allowance for the view stated in [3] has specific features which allow:

=> to reject all other possibilities as incompatible

With strategy;

=> not to apply the given strategy as soon as the real course of events will introduce the organisation to desirable development;

=> during a formulation of strategy it is impossible to expect all

Possibilities which will open at a drafting

Concrete actions.

Therefore it is necessary to use hardly generalised, partial and inexact

The information On various alternatives;

=> at occurrence of more exact information can be

Validity of initial strategy is called into question. Therefore the feedback, allowing to supply duly change of formulations of strategy is necessary.

Process of realisation of strategy can be divided into two big


Process of strategic planning - development of a set of strategy, beginning from base strategy of the enterprise and finishing functional strategy and separate projects (programs am);

6} process of strategic management - realisation of certain strategy in time, a reformulation of strategy in the light of new


Strategic planning is the systematised and logic process based on rational thinking. At the same time it is art of forecasting, research, accounts and a choice of alternatives.

Strategy of the enterprises should be constructed on the hierarchical

To principle.

The conceptual model of the strategic plan allows to define

Following stages of the strategic plan of the enterprise:

1. The environment analysis:


Internal possibilities.

2* Definition of a policy of the enterprise (tselepolaganie).

3. A strategy formulation in a choice of alternatives:

Definition of base strategy;

Choice of strategic alternative.

4, the Formulation of functional strategy:

Marketing strategy;

Financial strategy;

Production strategy;

Social strategy;

Strategy of organizational changes;

Ecological strategy.

Result of activity under the scheme of drawing up offered above

Strategic ppnna the enterprises the document named is

"The strategic plan предприятия1 ' [4] and having usually following

Bases nye sections:

T.Tseli and enterprise problems.

IL Current activity and long-term problems.

ПІ* Enterprise Strategy (base strategy, the basic strategic alternatives).

IV* Functional strategy.

V, the Most significant projects (programs),

VI. The Description of external operations.

UGG. Investments and resource distribution.

VIII. Planning of unexpectedness (formation reserve strategists j, "systems of fast reaction").

In the given work an object in view - working out сіратегического the plan of the enterprises of a machine-building complex with reference to which the scheme of working out of model of strategic management can be presented on fig. 1.2.

Strategy, being an uniting basis for organizational efforts, requires working out of a series of strategic plans both at enterprise level as a whole, and at level of divisions. It is natural, that each strategic plan is a part of the general, n enterprise strategy unites all of them together.

Thus, the structure of strategy of the enterprise and process of integration of various private strategy should not drop out from

Our attention.

Core of any strategic plan of the enterprise is its base strategy. According to a life cycle of the enterprise a management

Can choose one of following base strategy;

Growth strategy - about with povnaja the strategy of the enterprise expressing aspiration to growth of sales volumes, profits, the capital, that is

Development strategy;

Strategy stabijataiii - strategy of activity of the enterprise in the conditions of instability of a sales volume and incomes. It is directed on


Achievement of early stabilisation of the income and the subsequent increase in profitableness;

Fig. 1.2. The scheme of creation of model of strategic operation of business

rigjutsgija - purely defensive strategy,

Applied in the conditions of deep crisis of the economic

Enterprise - activity

Table 1,2

Matrix of strategic alternatives

Base strategy Criteria Strategic alternatives
1, Growth (offensive) 1. A sales volume.

2. The income.

3. A share on рынке*

4. Growth rate.

1. A market intensification: proyo

niknovenie on the market, market development, geographical ekspanyosija.

2. Diversifikatsija: vertical,

Horizontal, collateral.

3 - mezhf irmen noe cooperation

And cooperation.

4. Vnesh not economic dejatelyonost.

2. Stabilisation (to an ice crust - p are l n o-defences itel - naja) 1.dohod on продажи*

2. The income on assets

3. The income on the share 4-speed of revival

1. Ekonomi I: auditing of expenses,

Consolidation, revival.

2. Shifts: improvement of the income,

Income restoration, финан* sovaja a maturity.

3. Stabilisation: selectivity,

Balancing in the markets, financial economy.

3. A survival (oboroniyotelnaja) Critical certification (estimation):

- Product and rshka;

- Financial sosyotojanija;

- Managements.

1.perestrojka systems upravle - n ija: struktu ra-with istem a-a -


2. Financial reorganisation,

3. Marketing reorganisation: izjayo

tie the goods, economy, tshchatelyona I am prepared nja expansion nja

The selective markets.

It is obvious, that within the limits of the Chosen base strategy some rates of actions which it is accepted to name strategic alternatives [5,6] are possible. Some of possible strategic alternatives are shown in table 1*2


Having considered in most general view strategic alternativi, we will note the important role neekonomicheskih in this process.

Growth strategy has been for the first time in detail developed by I.Ansoffom (see rislz). On the basis of this strategy the model of growth of the enterprise [7,8] which consists of 5 stages can be constructed

Let's consider each of stages more in detail.

I. A planning Stage

The company is in a condition of readiness for a formulation of strategy of growth, that is there is some combination of environmental conditions and internal possibilities. For definition of degree of readiness following circumstances should be taken into consideration:

= ^> possibilities of acquisition of income are accurately defined and

Serious consideration of use of resources is conducted


For realisation of advantages under the scheme "the market/production / a competitiveness” '

=> should bp the coordination short-term is conducted and

Long-term objectives without achievement of superfast success with the subsequent superfast falling;

=> the control system should correspond to strategy


=> measures of financial insurance (possibility of additional investments) in case of unforeseen circumstances should be taken.

P, the Initial stage

Usually the firm passes (or this stage very fast tries to pass). The basic characteristics of a stage:

=> arise and bottlenecks in processes are liquidated and

To structure of realisation of concrete projects, which not

Have been provided in the plan;

=> the sales volume grows, though income firm practically not


ИІ. A penetration stage

The basic lines of the given stage the following:

=> the further penetration of firm on seller's markets;

The sales volume and incomes grow, and their growth becomes

About a ration alnym;

=> acquisitions and the absorption designed at the stage of G,

Are finished;

Certain advantages appear before


GU, the Accelerated growth

The basic lines yes іі iogo a stage the following;

=> the sales volume and incomes grows very fast, and growth

Incomes starts to advance growth of sales volumes;

=> the market share extends and comes nearer and

The planned.

, Odpako already in the end of this stage the negative phenomena start to appear: re-equipment, change in system and management structure is required, higher investments in research and development that leads to attraction of great volume of financial resources are necessary

Enterprise foreign trade activities can be considered as additional strategic alternative of growth. It essentially differs from an intensification of efforts on

natsio ї і alnom rpzhe, first of all, from the point of view of a class of risk.

It is possible to carry to advantages of foreign trade activities

The following:

1, increase in a sales volume and profit at the expense of reception of new seller's markets and indemnification of losses in the national market at the expense of reception bolshego profitableness level;

2. Search of production with low expenses e use of available "know-how" and the new technologies, which application in the national market less effectively;

3. Protection of the market of raw materials by sharing in its extraction, operation and production on its basis of competitive products.

The marketing strategy is considered in the western literature as one of leading functional strategy. Moreover, many experts in marketing often identify a marketing strategy with the strategic plan [9],

It is allocated four approaches to marketing strategy planning; a matrix of possibilities on the goods-markets, a matrix of "the Boston consultative group", effect of market strategy on profit (PIM) and the general strategic model of Malt liquor [10].

The matrix of possibilities but to the goods-markets provides

Use of four alternati vngh marketing strategies for preservation and (or) sales increases; breaking onto the market, market development, working out of the goods and diversifikatsija. The strategy choice depends on degree of a saturation of the market to company possibility constantly to update production. Two or more strategy can be combined.

Let's notice, that a matrix of possibilities on the goods-markets, a matrix of "the Boston consultative group", RSH or the general strategic model of Malt liquor it is necessary to consider as one of possible approaches to marketing strategy drawing up, instead of as strategy or their process выработки*

Marketing strategy basic elements are shown in table 13.

Using the indicated elements, marketing strategies on each of market segments which serves the enterprise are made: they then unite in a uniform marketing strategy. Attempt is thus done

Creations of the maximum system effect from the point of view of economy of expenses (use of the same channels of distribution, advancement strategy

The goods and t.d,).

One of the major parts of a marketing strategy is the budget made together with economic services of the enterprise. There are two basic approaches to working out of the budget of marketing: planning on

To basis of indicators of target profit and planning on the basis of profit optimisation, Besides, is made the analysis of marketing expenses. It

It is carried out in three stages:

• studying of levels of costs under usual articles;

• transfer of usual items of expenses in the functional;

• distribution of functional costs on the goods, realisation methods, trading territories, trade channels in so further.

Table 1.3.

ДГамк0нен / ді marketing strategies

Strategy components Typical decisions (approaches)
L. Strategy of a product, Product Updating

Creation of a new product

Conclusion of production from the market

2. Strategy of channels of distribution L of the goods Direct channels

The indirect channel

smeshapiyj the channel

3. Strategy of advancement of the goods Advertising

Sales promotion


Whether other sale

4. Pricing strategy Strong introduction on the market

snjatne cream

Price-fixing on one of the chosen signs.

The analysis of marketing expenses evaluates a cost efficiency of various marketing factors, allows to define, what expenses

affektivny and what are not present and to introduce the corresponding it is changed willows in strategy.

Financial strategy assumes formation and defines use of financial resources for realisation of strategy of the enterprise and corresponding rates of actions. She allows economic services to create and change financial resources and to define their optimum

Use for achievement tselen the enterprises in various situations,

In the conditions of market economy deep economic analysis of functioning of the enterprise which includes should precede development of actually financial strategy:

> The economic activities analysis;

> Definition of financial possibilities of the enterprise.

> From the point of view of working out of financial strategy the economic activities analysis is conducted in the following


> Measurement of possibility of the enterprise to pay the come current liabilities;

> Measurement of degree (limit) to which the enterprise can be financed at the expense of extra means,

> Measurement of productivity by the enterprise of the


> Management efficiency measurement as a whole, including profitableness of activity,

Enterprise financial possibilities define its present and future potential in fondoobrazovanii, the sizes of l sources of realisation of base strategy. Therefore financial possibilities not only define

готові The visitor of the enterprise to strategic actions, io and in many respects define these actions. So, at growth strategy such financial possibilities, as volume of financial resources in roubles and converted

To currency, wear of the equipment and a number of others define a choice of strategic alternative of strategy of growth: development of new production, diversifikatsiju, interfirm cooperation and foreign trade activities.

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A source: Aslanov Mustafa Azhdar ogly. Strategy of marketing development of competitive production of the enterprises of mechanical engineering (on an example of the enterprise of the geophysical equipment). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. Moscow - 2005. 2005

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