<<
>>

Factorial structure of semantic space of perception and typology of image VS the Russian Federation

Revealing of a modern condition of image VS the Russian Federation in the youth environment, and the basic socially-psychological features of its formation assumes construction of semantic space of perception VS the Russian Federation.
The semantic space is understood as definitely grouped system of signs, the objective and social validity. At the heart of construction of semantic spaces statistical procedures lay (the factorial analysis, multidimensional shkalirovanie, klasternyj the analysis), allowing to group a number of separate signs of the description in more capacious categories-factors. Each such factor is implitsitnym semantic konstruktom, and represents «… steady kategorialnuju a scale presented in mentality of the subject at level of deep structures of an image of the world, expressing importance for the subject of the certain characteristic (parametre) of objects and the validity phenomena (or their separate class), and carrying out function of differentiation and an estimation of objects and the phenomena on that parametre which consequence are attributing of corresponding vital sense by it».

For the purpose of construction of semantic space of perception VS the Russian Federation the variant of a technique semantic shkalirovanija is developed. It is based on a method of the semantic differential offered by C.Osgudom. The semantic differential allows to estimate konnotativnoe the value, the closest concept to which in domestic psychological tradition is the concept of personal sense.

It is noticed, that the semantic differential is focused on social installations, stereotypes and other emotionally sated, poorly structured and a little realised forms of generalisation. Results of application of semantic differential are group semantic spaces. Hence, there is a possibility of research by means of semantic differential of forms of mass consciousness at construction of semantic spaces for separate populations - groups of the people united to a certain sign (to a sex, age etc.).

Unlike universal semantic differential where the lexicon is selected in a random way from the most various semantic areas, at research of image VS the Russian Federation it is expedient to apply private semantic differential which is under construction on the basis of a narrow conceptual class. It allows to carry out more thin semantic analysis, and received factorial structures to interpret as kategorialnuju a grid of the given conceptual class – "armed forces".

Semantic shkalirovanie has allowed to estimate not so much concept, how many perception examinees of a reality standing up for by it, as answers of the examinee "... Appear rather rather connected with a word meaning in that sense in what he can be interpreted in semantics. The word as though plunges the examinee into a certain deep context; on eyes of the experimenter there is a judgement and an estimation of representation standing up for by it in imagination of an informant». Besides armed forces of Russia, objects for otsenivanija were also VS the USSR in the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945гг.), and Ideal VS for Russia.

It is clear, that semantic spaces are adequate model of a psychological reality only in that case when the system of scales is formed by relevant signs, and not only an investigated reality, but also the examinee.
Such scales have been received by means of associative experiment and technics repertuarnyh lattices (item 2.1 see). For the categories allocated in associative experiment, the opposite pole has been picked up proceeding from the maintenance of a category and antonimii Russian. Except the categories received on the basis of results of associative experiment and technicians repertuarnyh of lattices, in an experimental set have entered a part of scales of classical semantic differential of C.Osguda and the spent V.F.Petrenko's semantic differential on a material of Russian lexicon.

The basic scheme of an experimental situation consists that the examinee should place (proshkalirovat) tested object (concept «Armed forces of Russia») on the graduated scales set by antonymous adjectives of type "strong-weak", "far-close" etc., according to the value judgment of value of this word (see the appendix 8). SHkalirovanie on a separate scale consisted that the examinee, estimating VS the Russian Federation, placed it between two poles of the scale containing 7 divisions (see the appendix 9). Thus, to concept VS the Russian Federation value of an estimated sign on a seven-ball scale was actually attributed.

In procedure semantic shkalirovanija has taken part 412 person of both sexes at the age from 15 to 21 years from Moscow, the Moscow, Tyumen, Pskov, Leningrad and Penza areas), living in big and small cities, settlements of city type and a countryside. Under the basic socially-demographic characteristics (to an age, sex, a place of residing and formation) sample corresponds to a general totality – youth of Russia of corresponding age and is representative (the size of an actual error does not exceed 5 %).

Data processing included an estimation primary the statistican, comparison of distinctions in expressivenesses of a sign, factorial and klasternyj the analysis. First of all, the analysis of expressiveness of initial signs has been made at perception by young men VS the Russian Federation. The obtained data are presented in the form of semantic profile VS the Russian Federation (the appendix 10). Consideration of the most significant signs characterising modern image VS the Russian Federation in the youth environment (fig. 12 see), allows to draw a conclusion on prevalence of positive characteristics over the negative.

At a following stage for revealing of a small number latent konstruktov, defining perception VS the Russian Federation, is used statistical procedure of the factorial analysis.



Fig. 12. The most significant characteristics of image VS the Russian Federation

(Average values on scales in the range from 0 to 6).

The given kind of the statistical analysis gives the chance to receive not only substantial, but also the quantitative description of an image. Thanks to it transition from big quantity of signs to more capacious categories what the allocated factors are is possible. Occurs "szhimanie" data, scales are grouped in factors which, being not realised, define perception. The factor maintenance it is possible to consider as invariant maintenances of signs entering into it. The semantic space of perception VS the Russian Federation will be in that case geometrically presented by n-dimensional space in which axes are n the allocated factors.

On the basis of the data representing 7-ball estimations on 50 scales of concept «Armed forces of Russia» the correlation matrix reflecting interrelations of scales is constructed. The given matrix is subjected faktorizatsii by a method of the main things a component and to the subsequent rotation of 5 factors by method Varimaks. The decision on allocation of such quantity of factors is accepted on the basis of the analysis of own values of the correlation matrix exceeding unit, criterion of a trace and criterion interpretiruemosti and invariancy. The matrix displaying results of rotation is resulted in the appendix 11. Parallel faktorizatsija the initial data split to signs of a sex, age, formation and region has shown similar results and has confirmed the made decision. The received factors reflect five measurements of semantic space, and have been interpreted proceeding from names of the scales having bolshy weight under the given factor.

The leading factor explaining 31,5 % of a dispersion has received the name «a condition Estimation». It has appeared is similar to traditionally allocated factor "Estimation". However, here the greatest contribution carry out not emotional, but objective (from the point of view of respondents) characteristics VS the Russian Federation, their readiness and efficiency (see table 5). Besides, this factor included the scales usually allocated in factors "Force" and "Activity". As an explanation of it the big unity of informative components with emotional, peculiar social pertseptsii, in comparison with perception in obshchepsihologicheskom sense serves. In neraschlenennosti the factor features of youth are reflected also: sharpness and beskompromissnost judgements, aspiration to maximalism, the abstract criticism. Allocation of the given factor testifies to mainly not differentiated estimation of Armed forces of Russia youth on type «coincides – does not coincide with an ideal».



Table 5

The scales which have made the factor of perception «a condition Estimation»



The second factor explaining 18 % of a dispersion of signs, is interpreted as «the Social importance». The given factor sets perception of necessity of existence of Armed forces of Russia from a social generality to which examinees (see table 6) belong.

Table 6

The scales which have made the factor of perception «the Social importance»

it is possible to transfer the Essence of this foreshortening of perception as «necessary to us, our society». Possibility of achievement of problems is connected With it facing to army (activity, courage, optimistichnost). Taking into account basic purpose VS the Russian Federation (reflexion of external aggression), a combination "our" and "necessary" can speak actualisation in consciousness of youth of fundamental opposition "we-they", characterising public consciousness.

The third factor explaining 9,3 % of a dispersion has received the name «Weight of service». The scales reflecting severity of service, not comfortable state of health of the military man (see table 7) have entered Into it.



Table 7

The scales which have made the factor of perception «Weight of service»



The similar factor ("Comfort") has been allocated by V.F.Petrenko on a material of Russian lexicon. In this case the majority of scales are made by the signs characterising interpersonal mutual relations is some kind of an estimation of a psychological climate round the military man. Perceiving Armed forces, examinees estimate them from a position of the person in shape. Recreating those sensations which are tested, according to young men, by the military man, they neosoznanno put themselves on its place, are identified with it. It is possible to assume, that the given factor is display of one of specific mechanisms of formation of image VS the Russian Federation.

The fourth factor including 4 scales, but, nevertheless, accurately outlined, has received the name «Personal affinity». The factor underlies 6,7 % of a dispersion of signs and reflects degree of affinity the examinee of Armed forces of Russia (see table 8). Here there is a speech not so much about affinity as acquaintance to army, how many about worried feeling, about emotional acceptance. Unlike the second factor expressing a generality with VS the Russian Federation within the limits of a wide social context, the affinity to Armed forces of the concrete examinee, their personal acceptance ("mine") or otverzhenie here is expressed.



Table 8

The scales which have made the factor of perception «Personal affinity»



Last, bipolar fifth factor explaining 4,4 % of a dispersion, has received the name «Romanticism – the ordinary». Along with the signs reflecting difference from a usual, peace life (see table 9), the factor is connected with perception of a youth, optimism and danger (i.e. geroichnostju). The size (big) as is connected with singularity, an exit for frameworks of daily experience of young men.

Table 9

The scales which have made the factor of perception "Romanticist-ordinary"



The similar factor, named "Commonness", has been received in P.Bentlera and A.Lavoje's research. Significant communication with a sign "optimistical" testifies to a positive emotional component of the factor. The sign «not necessary», apparently, reflects the semantic relation of modern youth to romanticism as to something superfluous.

Thus, the technique semantic shkalirovanija with the subsequent factorial analysis has allowed to reconstruct an image VS the Russian Federation in consciousness of youth - to construct mathematical model of subjective space. The mathematical model is mathematical space, i.e. abstract set of elements (named space points) with the set relations between elements. Thus points of mathematical space correspond to elements of real subjective space, i.e. images of perception, representations, concepts, and relations between space points correspond to real subjective relations between elements of subjective space. The allocated factors represent 5-dimensional semantic space of perception VS the Russian Federation modern youth. Proceeding from essence of the spent statistical processing, the given factors describe the most appreciable distinctions between examinees on perception of those or other characteristics VS the Russian Federation. Hence, such distinctions are one and displays of features of image VS the Russian Federation in the youth environment.

Psychosemantic experiment has shown, that, perceiving Armed forces of the Russian Federation, young men form their image, first of all, in a direction of not differentiated estimation uniting three traditional osgudovskih measurements ("Estimation", "Force", "Activity"). At the same time, the semantic space bolshej dimensions is constructed, the private factors of perception characterising features of an image VS the Russian Federation in consciousness of youth are allocated.

The analysis primary the statistican of scales on whom examinees estimated VS the Russian Federation, has shown, that their perception differs appreciable variability (the standard deviation on seven-ball scales fluctuates in the range from 1,24 to 1,91). Hence, there is an appreciable variety of specific features of perception VS the Russian Federation (the appendix 12 see). Allocation of types of such perception is necessary both with the research purpose, and with practical - for the decision of a problem of segmentation of a youth audience at the activity organisation on purposeful creation of image VS the Russian Federation.

Specific features of each examinee are described by their estimations under 5 factors of perception of Armed forces of the Russian Federation. Accordingly, the typology of image VS the Russian Federation can be constructed on the basis of grouping of examinees under the allocated factors of perception. To this purpose it is applied klasternyj the analysis of examinees by a method of k-averages, with use of factorial estimations of 410 examinees. During data processing examinees united on the basis of affinity among themselves under perception factors in big enough klastery. The optimum quantity klasterov is defined on the basis of preliminary hierarchical klasternogo the analysis and specified on the basis of the importance of distinction final klasternyh the centres and by criterion interpretiruemosti klasterov.

Result klasternogo the analysis was division of set of examinees on 4 klastera. Thus, using similarity between examinees, klasternyj the analysis has allowed to organise initial number of specific features of perception VS the Russian Federation in groups of the most similar among themselves. Examinees of each group have similar features of perception and the Russian Federations are characterised by certain type of image VS. Revealing of features of perception of each group by comparison of average values on each of the allocated factors, gives the chance to describe image types. How distribution of values of examinees under the allocated factors submits to the normal law (values of asymmetry do not exceed - 0, 377, values of an excess – 0,472; Check was carried out by means of Kolmogorov-Smirnova test, thus, differences from normal distribution are not authentic, p=0,48), for the proof of the importance of difference of average values in group from other sample parametrical t-criterion Sjudenta was used.

The first group included 105 persons (26 % from sample). Among them the majority of men. The Russian Federations characterise type of image VS peculiar to them (for a society of Armed forces of the Russian Federation, a negative estimation of their condition, accent of perception negation of necessity see weight of service, absence of romanticism of military service table 10). The given type of image can be defined as "Negative" image.

Table 10

Features of image VS the Russian Federation peculiar to the first group of youth

("Negative" image), in comparison with other part of sample



The second group was made by 96 persons (23 %). An image VS the Russian Federation in consciousness of the given group (see table 11) can be characterised as "Discharged". Positively estimating VS the Russian Federation as effective and prepared, in certain degree necessary for a society, examinees are allocated among other groups with perception of weight of service and absence of personal affinity. The position occupied with young men of this group («Army – not for us») leads to an indifferent estimation of condition VS the Russian Federation («And so will descend»). The aversion of army in the given type of image is combined with sensation of trouble for the person, discomfort of military service.

Table 11

Features of image VS the Russian Federation peculiar to the second group of youth

(The "Discharged" image), in comparison with other part of sample



The third group was made by 91 persons (22 %). The analysis of average values of factorial estimations of examinees of the given group allows to name type of image corresponding to it "Sympathizing". First of all, the relation of members of the given group to VS the Russian Federation as necessary for the country, understanding of their social importance (see table 12) pays attention.

Table 12

Features of image VS the Russian Federation, peculiar thirds to youth group

("Sympathizing" image), in comparison with other part of sample



Young men of this group have the maximum loadings under the factor "Affinity" that means personal affinity the examinee of Armed forces, the coordination with system of personal values. The importance of such component testifies to it as romanticism also. Affinity VS the Russian Federations to valuable system of the person, comprehension of the social importance are combined with a negative estimation of their condition. The understanding of necessity of Armed forces leads, thus, to comprehension by young men nerealizovannosti their hopes concerning modern army. Such perception VS can be characterised the Russian Federation as experience for destiny of "our" army, desire that it was more prepared and effective. Formation of such image is in many respects connected with presence of personal experience of service (48 % of examinees in this group have such experience).

The obtained data show, that at a considerable part of young men along with perception of Armed forces of Russia as «» and "necessary", their negative estimation is generated. It contradicts the position accepted in social psychology that «… the person always can keep a positive image of the group» a little. Really, social groups and membership in them are connected with the positive them positive or negative estimation existing in a society. Hence, social identity can be positive or negative. According to model of social identification of G.Tedzhfela and J. Turner, through group membership the person realises bazalnuju requirement for self-esteem and consequently is inclined to aspire to belong to good group. And if the accessory is already set, – to consider the group good, the best. The estimation of own group is defined by the individual through social comparison of tsennostno-significant qualities and characteristics. The comparison which result to become positive difference of the group from another's, generates high prestige, negative – low. Positive social identity in bolshej degrees is based on favorable comparisons ingruppy and relevant autgrupp.

Results of the carried out research testify about defavoritizme, peculiar to a considerable part of youth - the phenomenon opposite ingruppovomu favoritizmu and being unacceptable with social point of view. «Finally - notices V.S.Ageev, - defavoritizm always leads to destruction, disappearance of the given group as to some social integrity. However, this process can be stretched in time and, for example, in case of the big social groups, will stretch very strongly. But the final social result of any defavoritizma is unequivocal – the termination of existence of group as that». It is possible to assume, that the similar type of image will not be steady. These results should disturb, as a logical exit from a situation of negative estimation VS the Russian Federation about which the subject perceives as "ours" and «lichnostno relatives», consists in destruction of this identification.

The fourth group of youth 118 persons (have made 29 % from sample of examinees). Examinees of this group estimate position of the military man as more attractive, and objective condition VS the Russian Federation as good enough (see table 13). Perception VS the Russian Federation is more connected with daily occurrence, than with singularity and romanticism. The main thing for this group of young men are comprehensible conditions of service. Hence, it is possible to name such image of Armed forces of the Russian Federation as "is situational-comprehensible".

Table 13

Features of image VS the Russian Federation peculiar to the fourth group of youth ("Is situational-comprehensible" image), in comparison with other part of sample



Not looking at a positive estimation of condition VS the Russian Federation and conditions of the military service, the given type of image cannot be named by "positive". Absence of understanding of the social importance of Armed forces of the Russian Federation, not expressed personal affinity testify, possibly, about appeal of army only as possibilities of achievement of the narrow personal purposes.

The parity of various types of image VS the Russian Federation is presented on fig. 13. Apparently from the offered diagramme, prevalence of various types of image is approximately identical.



Fig. 13. Parity of various types of image of Armed forces of Russia in the youth environment

.

Thus, the carried out research has allowed to reconstruct semantic space of perception VS the Russian Federation. The optimal expression of such space is the 5-dimensional structure, allowing to describe an image VS the Russian Federation by means of five factors. The given factors, are original axes of perception, semantic konstruktami, used young men at perception VS the Russian Federation. The first, and the most significant, allocated factor is not differentiated estimated category of objective condition VS the Russian Federation, an alloy traditionally allocated "Estimations", "Forces", "Activity". Other allocated factors characterise concrete features of perception VS the Russian Federation. They are expression of specific laws of perception – identification with a role of the military man and inclusion VS the Russian Federation a context of comparison "we-they". The account of the given factors at purposeful formation of image gives the chance «to have conversation in youth language», providing efficiency of communications.

Revealing only 5 factors of perception testifies about enough simple kognitivnoj models VS the Russian Federation in consciousness of youth. Presence defined «kognitivnoj intensity» at perception of army youth can be the reason of it. Creating simplified model VS the Russian Federation in the consciousness, young men, possibly, avoid discrepancy in an estimation of separate characteristics VS the Russian Federation, their social importance and influence on a society.

The allocated factors have formed a basis for division of examinees into the groups possessing similar features of perception VS the Russian Federation. Such classification has given possibility to describe 4 types of image VS the Russian Federation in the youth environment. These types are the generalised variants of the most widespread to the youth environment of foreshortenings of perception of the military organisation of Russia. Already interpretation of these types testifies about influence of image VS the Russian Federation on behaviour of young men concerning military service.

The assumption of linear character of interrelation between personal affinity to VS the Russian Federation and positivity of their general estimation has not proved to be true. Type "Discharged", characterised by high values under the factor «the condition Estimation», simultaneously has the lowest values under the factor «Personal affinity». And on the contrary, high degree of personal affinity is peculiar to "Sympathizing" type at low values of the factor of an estimation of a condition. Possibly, those to whom are close VS the Russian Federation, apply at their estimation the big insistence, and for whom they are absolutely not significant, estimate them superficially, not worrying for their condition.

Research has not revealed type of image VS the Russian Federation which it would be possible to name unconditionally "Positive". It specifies in problematical character of perception youth VS the Russian Federation and confirms an urgency of correction of their image.
<< | >>
A source: Davidov D.G.. Socially of feature of image of Armed forces of Russia in youth.

More on topic Factorial structure of semantic space of perception and typology of image VS the Russian Federation:

  1. the Chapter III. The CONCEPT of PERCEPTION of SOURCES of INTERNATIONAL LAW LEGAL SYSTEM of the RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ch. 4 items 15 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993)
  2. mechanisms of formation and a direction of correction of image VS the Russian Federation in consciousness of youth
  3. ENVIRONMENT Definition of characteristics of effective image VS the Russian Federation in youth
  4. interrelation of image VS the Russian Federation with identity of youth and its installations on military service
  5. Chapter 3 the Mental image of space
  6. § 3.2. Legal bases of cooperation of the Russian Federation and the European space agency
  7. § 3.2. Legal bases of cooperation of the Russian Federation and the European space agency
  8. the maintenance of socially-psychological model of correction of image of Armed forces of the Russian Federation
  9. 4.1. Semantic space and a word
  10. Socially-psychological characteristics of youth as subject of image VS the Russian Federation
  11. § 3.1. Legal bases of interaction between the Russian Federation and the European Union in the field of research and space use
  12. § 3.1. Legal bases of interaction between the Russian Federation and the European Union in the field of research and space use
  13. 5.4. Represents to the President of the Russian Federation of the offer on structure of federal enforcement authorities, about appointment on dole/snost and osvobolsdenii from a post of vice-presidents of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministers, about imposing on them of summary punishments and about their encouragement
  14. THE CHAPTER III. LEGAL ASPECTS OF RELATIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE FIELD OF SPACE ACTIVITY
  15. ways of protection of the competitor (and its goods) from discredit or from operation of its image by use of its means of an individualization in comparative advertising by the right of the Russian Federation and Germany
  16. THE CHAPTER III. LEGAL ASPECTS OF RELATIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE FIELD OF SPACE ACTIVITY