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to Feature of educational activity in sphere of physical training of military aviation-engineering high school

In «Requirements to an obligatory minimum of the maintenance and level military-vocational training graduates of military schools of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation with the higher military-vocational education» it is specified: « The graduate of a military school with the higher military-vocational education should: to possess force and dexterity, to have good health, to be able to carry out confidently the necessary list of physical exercises, to overcome considerable physical activities, to own culture of physical self-improvement ».

Proceeding from Manual requirements on physical preparation (NFP-2001), cadets of military schools seize:

On the first course - volume of physical exercises and theoretical positions of the military men, passing military service on an appeal;

On the second year - the volume of physical exercises established by the program, theoretical knowledge both organizatorsko-methodical skills and abilities of carrying out of physical preparation and sports work in volume of requirements to the commander of branch;

On the third and older years - all volume of physical exercises, theoretical knowledge both organizatorsko-methodical skills and abilities in the organisation of physical preparation and sports work in volume of requirements to the commander of a platoon, roty.

Physical preparation in a military school should promote propagation of a healthy way of life, education at cadets of spirituality and morals, morally-strong-willed and mental qualities, a habit to regular independent employment by physical exercises.

Performance of a problem of creation at trainees of certain level of knowledge, skills in the field of physical training, high degree of development of physical qualities (force, speed, endurance and dexterity), is provided in the course of carrying out of all forms of physical preparation of a military school.

Physical preparation of cadets of military schools will be organised and spent according to Federal laws of the Russian Federation, requirements of the State educational standard for the higher and average educational institutions, qualifying requirements to the graduate of military high schools, orders and instructions of the Minister of Defence of the Russian Federation, its assistants, instructions and recommendations of Sports committee of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation and chiefs by whom the military school is subordinated. It is directed on perfection of impellent abilities of military men, practical development of exercises, receptions and curriculum actions, mastering by cadets by theoretical knowledge, formation at them physical perfection of military men of military units and divisions (29, с.4).

Check of physical preparation in a military school is carried out:

In delivery of entrance examinations by candidates for receipt in a military school (the control of physical readiness on 3-4 exercises);

In the course of training (on current exercises of the program of training);

At examinations and offsets (practical, theoretical and organizatorsko-methodical preparation);

At complex check (certification) of a military school - according to the check plan.

The operative control over teaching material mastering is carried out according to the thematic plan in a current of each semestre. Upon termination of each odd semestre of training offset with the differentiated estimation for which 4 hours of school hours are allocated is spent.
On offset level theoretical and organizatorskometodicheskoj readiness of cadets is checked only. Practical readiness is defined by current progress on 4-5 exercises defined by the program of training. In the end of even semestre examination, and in the end of last semestre - graduation examination in physical training is spent. At examinations level of practical, organizatorsko-methodical and theoretical readiness of cadets is checked.

The cadets who have not seized physical exercises provided by the program on planned employment, are allowed to take examinations and to offsets only after development of these physical exercises on additional employment at o'clock of independent preparation.

The general estimation on physical preparation of cadets of military schools develops of estimations of their practical, theoretical and organizatorsko-methodical readiness and is defined:

"Perfectly" - if for practical and organizatorsko-methodical readiness estimations "perfectly" are received, and for theoretical - it is not more low good";

"Well" - if for practical and organizatorsko-methodical readiness estimations "well or"perfectly"are received, and for theoretical is-not more low satisfactory";

"Well" - if more than half of received estimations "well", in the absence of unsatisfactory estimations or if an estimation of theoretical readiness - is unsatisfactory", az and practical and organizatorsko-methodical readiness - it is not more low good"

(29, ss.43-44).

Practical preparation is the major component of process of formation of cadets in physical training sphere.

According to requirements of the State educational standard for higher educational institutions, and also qualifying requirements to graduates of military high schools, the graduate of a military school with the higher military-vocational education in the field of physical training should possess force and dexterity, to have good health, to be able to carry out confidently the necessary list of physical exercises, to overcome considerable physical activities, to own the basic and special exercises on physical preparation; to put into practice receptions of hand-to-hand fight and overcoming of obstacles; independently to be engaged in physical training.

For the purpose of performance of these requirements by Manual on physical preparation and sports in Armed forces of the Russian Federation the list of the exercises included in curriculums on physical training is defined. According to this list to cadets of the military schools which are carrying out preparation of technical structure of aviation military units, it is necessary to master 35 exercises (147, с.256).

Variant of distribution of program exercises for studying at courses and training semestre.

On physical training cadets of military schools seize practical skills during uchebno-training employment, morning physical gymnastics, passing physical training, and also participating in sports actions and in the course of independent employment by physical exercises.

Check and estimation of individual physical readiness is carried out according to Requirements on check and an estimation of a condition of physical readiness of military men of Armed forces of the Russian Federation, confirmed by the order of the deputy minister of defence of the Russian Federation of 2001 № 34.

Each cadet in the course of training should be checked up and estimated on the physical training programs.

In the end of a training and academic year semestre, at examinations and offsets practical readiness of cadets of military schools is checked on 3-5 physical exercises. Selection of physical exercises for check is carried out according to following requirements: exercises are appointed to the general or high-speed endurance for check in all cases, and the others - with the account of passage of the program, the level of development of each quality and skill is checked no more on one exercise.

During check physical exercises are offered to be carried out in such sequence:

Exercises on dexterity,

Exercises on speed,

Power exercises,

Receptions of hand-to-hand fight,

Exercises on endurance, overcoming of obstacles, swimming and exercises as a part of division.

In the separated cases under the decision of the examiner the sequence of performance of physical exercises can be changed.

The cadet who has not executed appointed physical exercise without a good reason, is estimated on it "unsatisfactorily".

At clearing of the cadet on a state of health from performance of any physical exercise appointed to check, its practical readiness is estimated "not above well" in the presence of positive estimations on other physical exercises and not less to one of them it is not more low good".

If the cadet has not arrived on check without a good reason after the termination of check it is estimated "unsatisfactorily" (226, с.9).

The volume of theoretical knowledge of cadets of military high schools is certain by Manual on physical preparation and sports in Armed forces of the Russian Federation, requirements of the State educational standard for higher educational institutions, and also qualifying requirements to graduates of military high schools.

According to requirements of the above-stated documents, the graduate of a military school with the higher military-vocational education in the field of physical training should: to know:

About system of physical preparation in Armed forces of the Russian Federation;

About laws of use of physical exercises for health improvement, zakalivanija an organism, increase of stability to adverse factors of an environment and professional work, and also in development of physical qualities and formation of impellent skills;

About influence of physical preparation on increase of battle readiness and fighting capacity of division;

The nobility:

The purpose, problems and principles of physical preparation;

The list of the physical exercises provided for a concrete military speciality and their technique;

The maintenance of the basic forms of physical preparation; standard requirements on physical preparation;

Requirements to check and an estimation of physical readiness of military men and divisions (29, ss.58-60).

Concerning physical training cadets of military schools seize theoretical knowledge on theoretical employment (lecture, seminars), methodical employment (uchebno-methodical, instruktorsko-methodical and ostentatious), during carrying out of uchebno-training employment, also in the course of independent work.

Theoretical knowledge of cadets on offsets and examinations it is checked according to subjects of the theoretical and methodical employment stated in item 44 of Manual on physical preparation and sports in Armed forces of the Russian Federation (NFP - 2001). Check is spent by a method of oral or written interrogation. For these purposes one question for check of theoretical readiness and one methodical task for the control of level the organizer-sko-methodical of readiness is beforehand made examination cards, maintenances.

Primary activity of experts in physical training sphere directly for power structures the maintenance of article 17 of the Federal law of 1999 № 80 - FZ «About physical training and sports in the Russian Federation» - «Physical preparation and sports in Armed forces of the Russian Federation» is. Given to become asserts, that physical preparation is one of the basic subjects of combat training, important and an integral part of military training and education. The management organisation, financing are defined by instructions and statutory acts. For carrying out of fizkulturno-improving and sports work in Armed forces sports clubs in the form of the state noncommercial organisations which create conditions for employment by physical training and sports are created, will organise competitions, prepare sportsmen and sports commands, contain DJUSSH. Physical preparation of citizens doprizyvnogo and invocatory age to military service TECHNICAL TRAINING COLLEGES, technical schools, high schools, in educational points of initial military preparation are spent in educational institutions. The general management of physical preparation for military service and the control over such preparation carries out Federal enforcement authority in the field of defence together with federal enforcement authority in the field of physical training and sports.

Physical training in Armed forces of the Russian Federation on the structure - difficult dynamic system. The system of physical preparation is a set of the components making process of physical perfection of military men, and providing its functioning according to the requirements shown to their physical readiness. Such components are: the maintenance, a technique, management.

The maintenance of physical preparation is made physical by exercise, theoretical knowledge, organizational-methodical skills. It finds the expression in certain means and forms the physical exercises which application should be combined with observance of hygienic requirements and use of improving forces of the nature (air, the sun, water). Physical preparation of military men will be organised and spent in following forms: studies, morning physical gymnastics, physical training in the course of uchebno-fighting activity. An orientation and features of these forms of physical preparation make essential impact on their maintenance.

The technique is a set of methods and the receptions directed on the decision in the course of physical preparation of certain physical problems. The training technique to separate physical exercise includes those or different ways of its learning and perfection both methods used for this purpose and methodical receptions.

Technique of carrying out of those or other forms of physical preparation - concept wide. The carrying out technique, for example, studies, includes the distributed structure of a lesson, feature of carrying out of its various parts, use, of some methods and methodical receptions of training and education. Thus the technique of carrying out of studies on separate sections of physical preparation has some general lines and at the same time essential distinctions. Therefore with reference to separate forms of physical preparation the technique of their carrying out can be the general and private.

The general technique of carrying out of studies on physical preparation provides their identical duration, similar problems on the essence and the maintenance of separate parts of employment and other general questions of use of methods and training and education receptions, i.e. all that is characteristic for carrying out of studies on any section of physical preparation.

The private technique includes set of all questions of various methods characterising use and receptions at carrying out of employment on concrete section.

The technique of carrying out of other forms of physical preparation has the general and private character.

Special problems of physical preparation are caused by specificity military-professional work staff of kinds of Armed forces, Airborne troops.

Special problems of physical preparation are: for technical structure of aviation parts-primary development of the general, high-speed and power endurance, speed are;

For cadets of the military schools which are carrying out preparation of technical structure of aviation military units - primary development of the general and power endurance, dexterity, speed and force, coordination in collective actions.

To heads of employment on physical preparation in aviation military units are: with military men of flight structure - the commander of a squadron (group) and its assistant (the commander of crew - in distant and military-transport aircraft), the chief of physical preparation and sporota parts; with military men of technical structure - the assistant to the commander of a squadron (group) on engineering-aviation service.

By preparation for employment the head, first of all, should understand the maintenance of forthcoming employment, to specify on Manual the technics of performance of physical exercises, receptions and actions, their sequence, methodical receptions of training, to think over an employment course, its material maintenance.

It is necessary to pick up exercises, receptions and actions for a preparatory part with the account of level of readiness of staff and the maintenance of the basic part of employment.

The head should define an order of performance of a preparatory part of employment, a way of carrying out of the basic part (as a part of all division, on branches or on groups), an employment place, sequence of training, the maintenance and a technique of carrying out of complex training, a final part.

After that makes the plan-kospekt, correctly having distributed time for separate parts of employment. In the plan-kospekte it is necessary to reflect employment problems, to specify a carrying out place, time taken away on employment, the prospective form of clothes, and also material maintenance and used grants. More low to list the basic maintenance of employment, time on performance of those or other actions. The Plan-kospekt subscribes the head of employment and affirms its immediate superior (приложение1).

Studies are the basic form of physical preparation. They are obligatory for all categories of military men.

Duration of studies makes in military units - 1-2 educational hour (50 - 100 mines), in military schools - 2 class periods (90 mines).

Studies are spent in the form of theoretical and a practical training.

Theoretical employment are directed on mastering by military men by the necessary knowledge provided by the program of training, and spent in the form of lectures and seminars.

Practical training is a principal view of studies and is subdivided on uchebno-trenirovachnye and methodical.

Uchebno-training employment consist of three parts: preparatory, the basic and final.

Methodical employment are subdivided on uchebno-methodical, instruktorsko-methodical and ostentatious.

The morning physical gymnastics are spent with a view of regular physical training of military men. It promotes fast reduction of an organism after a dream in a vigorous condition, is an obligatory element of a daily routine and is spent in 10 minutes after lifting daily except days off and holidays. Its duration - 30-50 minutes

The morning physical gymnastics are spent as a part of division by the foreman or the prepared assistant to a platoon. The clothes form appears person on duty on military unit depending on air and force temperature

Wind.

The morning physical gymnastics are spent by variants. Variants where the physical exercises studied earlier on a practical training employment join, are developed by the chief of physical preparation and sports of military unit who plans them with the account of the decision of the general and special problems of physical preparation, material resources and features of preparation of staff.

The morning physical gymnastics are spent, as a rule, in the form of the complex employment, divided (including) on preparatory, basic and final parts.

Five approximate variants of carrying out of morning physical gymnastics are resulted in НФП-2001.

In winter conditions the morning physical gymnastics are spent in fast rate in the form of walking and run alternation in a combination with obshcherazvivajushchimi and special exercises. At low temperature of air, in view of strong cooling it can is spent in overcoats (jackets).

At carrying out of morning physical gymnastics are indoors carried out obshcherazvivajushchie exercises (on training apparatus, with dumbbells, ekspanderami, weights) and complexes of free exercises. The gymnastics come to an end with run and walking on a place.

Physical training in the course of uchebno-fighting activity is spent for the purpose of increase of level physical trenirovannosti and maintenance of professional working capacity of military men. It will be organised with the account of solved educational and fighting problems includes:

Physical exercises in the conditions of fighting watch,

Passing physical training,

Physical exercises at movement of armies by vehicles.

Planning of employment on physical preparation is carried out from calculation:

For soldiers (sailors), sergeants (foremen), cadets of the educational military units, passing military service on an appeal, - 3 ch. In a week in school hours;

For cadets and listeners of military schools - 2 two-hour employment (one - in a grid of lesson schedules, another - at o'clock of independent work);

For the military men, passing military service under the contract, - 4 ch. (2-3 employment) in a week in working hours.

Daily, except days off and holidays, the morning physical gymnastics in are spent 30-50 minutes

Actions for mass sports in military unit (in a military school) are spent 3 times a week: two times - on 1 ch. In the working days (during free time from employment) and 3 ch. - in target and holidays.

The basic forms of preparation of commanders of divisions to which the organisation and carrying out of physical preparation with staff are assigned, are: theoretical, instruktorsko-methodical, uchebno-methodical, ostentatious employment, instructing and independent work (29, s.55-57).

Theoretical employment are spent for studying of bases of the theory and the organisation of physical preparation, orders of the Minister of Defence and other supervising documents on physical preparation.

Uchebno-methodical and instruktorsko-methodical employment are directed on formation at commanders of skills and the abilities necessary on the qualitative organisation and carrying out of actions for physical preparation.

Ostentatious employment are spent in the same way, as well as corresponding forms of physical preparation of military men, on them officers and sergeants attentively observe of actions of the head and trainees who make comments one of the most prepared officers.

Instructing are spent with officers and sergeants - heads of physical preparation or their assistants, as a rule, on the eve of day of carrying out of studies or other forms of physical preparation. Periodicity and duration of instructing is defined by corresponding commanders and chiefs of physical preparation and sports.

Independent work has for an object deepening of theoretical knowledge, perfection of methodical readiness of heads. It includes independent studying of supervising documents and methodical grants on physical preparation and sports; explanation of problems and the maintenance of forthcoming employment; drawing up of the plan-abstract of carrying out of employment on physical preparation: training in performance of exercises both methodical receptions of the organisation and carrying out of employment.

The commander of a platoon (roty) in a combat training log-book considers:

Carrying out of employment on physical preparation, marking presence of military men, date and a theme of employment, puts the list;

Performance of control specifications on physical preparation (thus each soldier and the sergeant should are checked up and estimated in a current of academic year on all exercises of the program);

Course of delivery of norms of the Military-sports complex each military man of a platoon (roty).

Results of practical checks by definition of level of physical readiness of military men are fixed in sheets and cards of the account of results of check which are stored in a military unit staff.

The account card is got on each military man, passing military service under the contract, since time of its receipt for military service and is stored in the private affair. In an account card the results shown at the first conclusion of the contract (for cadets of military schools-results of entrance examinations) and data about sports specialisation and qualification (on the basis of test classification books of sportsmen) are brought. Further, all estimations received by the military man on physical preparation on annual total checks, performance and acknowledgement of sports categories are considered. In a case when the military unit is exposed to inspection or other checks stipulated in the present Manual, in an account card results of these checks are brought.

Listeners and the cadets who have not seized physical exercises provided by the program on planned employment, are allowed to take examinations and to offsets only after development of these physical exercises on additional employment at o'clock of independent preparation.

Methodical maintenance of physical preparation is carried out by officers - experts of physical preparation and sports at active participation of experts of other services. It includes:

Generalisation and distribution of the best practices of the organisation and carrying out of physical preparation;

Working out of recommendations about improvement of physical preparation of military men, maintenance of heads of physical preparation with necessary methodical grants;

Rendering assistance to commanders of divisions in carrying out of employment on physical preparation and sports actions;

Methodical management of independent physical training of military men;

The organisation of work of a methodical class (office) on physical preparation and sports.

Supply with information of physical preparation will include:

Formation of a databank concerning physical preparation and sports in Armed forces, as a whole across Russia and in foreign countries;

Gathering and generalisation of the information on the advanced techniques used in physical preparation and its finishing to data of commanders of divisions and heads;

Informing of military men, members of their families, the civil personnel of Armed forces on the maintenance of standard legal certificates published in the country concerning physical training and sports, requirements of orders and instructions of the Minister of Defence of the Russian Federation on the given question;

Explanations to staff of the important role of physical readiness of military men and its influence on alertness of armies (forces);

Popularisation, including through mass media of Armed forces, achievements of military men-sportsmen at the All-Russia and international competitions;

Registration of the evident propaganda reflecting a condition of physical training and sports in the country, questions of physical preparation and sports work in Armed forces, military unit, division;

Propagation of a role of physical training and the sports, healthy way of life and their value in preventive maintenance and eradication of bad habits.

The commander of a platoon conducts lessons on physical preparation with the subordinated staff, watches correct training of soldiers, commanders of branches. He should know business moral qualities, successes and lacks of physical preparation of each military man, to keep account physical preparation and in due time to take measures on elimination of the revealed lacks.

At carrying out of all kinds of employment on physical preparation the commander of a platoon achieves performance of safety requirements and to the traumatism prevention.

Organizatorsko-methodical preparation is spent during all term of training of cadets of military schools. Its main objective is formation at trainees of optimum volume of knowledge, the skills, necessary for the correct organisation and a skilful management of process of physical perfection of staff.

The basic forms of organizatorsko-methodical preparation are theoretical employment (lectures and seminars), methodical employment (uchebno-methodical, instruktorsko-methodical and ostentatious), methodical practice of cadets in the course of carrying out of uchebno-training employment and independent work. For increase in duration of time of functioning of cadets in roles of heads of the physical preparation, each practical employment it is necessary to sate with elements of methodical perfection.

The general maintenance of requirements to physical training of cadets of military high schools and physical preparation of officers VS the Russian Federation throughout many years does not change, differentiated only in respect of mission, features and specificity of passage of military service.

Meanwhile, the modern transformations occurring in the state system of higher education, mention system of preparation of officer shots. After all it is known, that indissolubility of a society and army is the basic postulate of the state functioning. Today the paradigm of the doctrine of a military education is directed on process of a humanisation and accordingly on increases of humanitarian making higher military school

Physical training problems, are realised in the course of the nonspecial sports formation of military men defined, how «physical preparation» and, according to a definition given by V.M.Vydrinym (56), looking like: «Physical preparation - process of formation of impellent skills and development of the physical abilities (qualities) necessary in professional work».

All problems of physical preparation in VS the Russian Federation from its objective functions are subdivided into the general and special.

The general problems reflect the general requirements of uchebno-fighting activity to a physical condition of all categories of military men and, depending on the importance, are subdivided:

1. The problems directed on maintenance of a necessary level of development of elements of physical readiness of military men to fighting activity;

2. The problems directed on inculcation by the military man of knowledge and corresponding abilities, allowing to raise their activity, consciousness and competence in the course of the physical perfection;

3. The problems reflecting participation of physical preparation in increase of a level of development of other military men composed to battle readiness, its assistance to achievement of all necessary parametres of fighting capacity of staff.

Thus, for achievement of the purpose of physical preparation and, according to the purpose of physical training in the course of training it is necessary to solve all vyshepostavlennye problems. Proceeding from it, training purposes if training problems really scientifically obosnovanny also are precisely formulated, give to system of modern physical training of military men a concrete orientation, providing correct selection of means and methods

For today a main objective of physical preparation (physical training) in Armed forces, it agree the order of the Minister of Defence, is maintenance of necessary level of physical readiness of military men for performance of fighting and other problems according to their mission (147).

Passing to is standard-legal base of the maintenance of physical training, it is necessary to notice, that in the higher military educational institutions the scientifically-educational division chair of physical preparation and sports and educational department is engaged in realisation of a management and the organisation of process of physical training. Their activity is carried out according to following priority state documents:

1. The federal law «About formation» 1999.

2. The order of the Minister of Defence № 80 from March, 12th, 2003, Moscow.

3. The order of the Minister of Defence № 631 from December, 31st, 2000, Moscow (Manual on physical preparation and sports in Armed forces of the Russian Federation (НФП-2001)).

4. The state educational standard of professional higher education 2000 g

On the basis of the documents set forth above the basic briefs of chair are developed: the curriculum and the curriculum, in conformity from which the thematic plan and the schedule of studies further are made and is spent all study.

y and discrepancies in discrepancy of numerous recommendations.

Use of auxiliary means of physical training in Armed forces is carried out according to «the Charter of internal service», «Manual on physical preparation», «the Management under the medical control over physical preparation and sports».

To the hygienic factors promoting more effective decision of problems of physical training, concern: sanitary-and-hygienic conditions of places of employment and the equipment (cleanliness and a premise cubic capacity, cleanliness of air, temperature, humidity, illumination), personal hygiene, hygiene of uchebno-fighting and sports activity, a dream and food mode. Hygienic factors and improving forces of the nature at their correct combination to physical exercises promote improvement of a physical condition of military men and according to physical training. dekvatnymi »though as he considers verbal methods allow to transfer in the shortest term the big information on volume to put before trainees of a problem and to specify ways of their decision. The oral statement is carried out in the form of the story, conversation, an explanation, the description and other forms of speech influence.

Thus, the maintenance of pedagogical process of the physical training, considered from a position of methodology and the physical training theory, can act as a special pedagogical way of theoretical understanding of system of the sports formation, including all width of a spectrum of statement of scientific and metodiko-practical questions. Only their professional use in teaching activity can provide effective mastering of a teaching material, and formation of culture physical. Unfortunately, in practical work of teachers of physical training in wide scales of it does not occur, as confirms our research.
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A source: Andreev A.N.. Optimisation of pedagogical process on physical training of military aviation-engineering HIGH SCHOOL. 2005

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