methodology and the theory of military-psychological researches: the essence and the maintenance

Objective requirements of development of modern Russian Armed forces put forward the specific targets which decision demands the high competence of enough specialised field of knowledge before military psychologists.
Thereupon, as show the carried out researches, many representatives of a military psychological science and practice have illusory representations about so-called exclusive "concreteness" of military-psychological knowledge and necessity of its ignoring of "general": theoretical, methodological, historical, etc. – abstract and nothing giving to army practice bases.

However, in practice the neglect the methodological party of military-psychological researches, as a rule, leads to variety of errors among which the most essential and typical are:

Illusion, that scrupulous accuracy of methods of modern military psychology (for example, mathematical processing of the received data by means of the COMPUTER) can compensate likelihood character of its conclusions, positions and recommendations;

Adjustment by military psychologists of statement of problems under the habitual both standard receptions and ways of their decision within the limits of a dominating research paradigm instead of search of methods (as "new", so "old"), answering initial substantial scientific the purpose;

Absence of convincing arguments in favour of correctness of interpretation of the received result in initial – proclaimed at the initial stage of research concepts and categories, that in practice is shown by time in not realised substitution of one research problem another which often are not concerning a subject scientific search.

As one of the reasons of display of the specified errors it is possible to consider absence of understanding some military psychologists of functional and substantial distinction of methodological and theoretical levels of the analysis of military-psychological researches. The given aspect gets the special importance in connection with presence at a considerable part of military researchers of stereotypes about their identity that leads to methodological simplification of many research problems. Not pressing in deep reasonings on the given question, we will allocate some positions resolving the existing contradiction.

Law for all areas of human activity is increase of the importance of its consciousness. The this consciousness is more developed, the to reach possibilities of necessary results more effectively. Moreover, consequences of scientific activity depend not only on moral and intellectual qualities of people, their knowledge and abilities, but also from a scientific reflexion – knowledge of scientific knowledge which are developed by methodology of a science or research practice.

The methodology represents knowledge of "organism" of reformative or informative activity which at the best needs to be optimised periodically, in the worst – to treat, that is possible, only possessing knowledge of it, therefore the methodology answers questions: how, how also what means there is a transformation and knowledge of objective and subjective realities? Thus the problematics of methodology of military-psychological researches includes:

The analysis of scientifically-world outlook and theoretical bases of spent psychological researches, principles and approaches to their organisation;

Definition of an accessory of subjects of researches to schools, paradigms or psychology directions, including its military branch;

Studying of a problematics of military-psychological searches, dynamics of change of their maintenance on the various bases (to object, a subject, problems, a method etc.);

Allocation of specific properties and forms of military-psychological researches, their differentiation, identification and classification;

The analysis of efficiency of application and parity of used methods, receptions, ways of military-psychological knowledge, the tendencies of their evolution including formalisation, matematizatsiju, a computerisation, a humanisation etc.;

Studying kognitivnoj subsystems of military-psychological researches – a huge arsenal of used analytical and empirical informative means, definition of their scientific value and productivity;

Reflexion of features and tendencies of development of military-psychological researches during the various periods of their carrying out in concrete regions of the country and kinds of Armed forces;

Definition of specific objective and subjective conditions and factors of the organisation of the military-psychological researches which have influenced their maintenance, dynamics and results;

The formulation of laws and forecasts of development of military-psychological researches, optimum directions of their evolution etc.

Thus, as object of methodology of military-psychological researches the scientific knowledge received as a result of their carrying out, and a subject – laws, tendencies and dynamical processes of achievement of scientific results should act.

Unlike the methodology representing knowledge of knowledge, the theory is knowledge reflexed (methodology). In a broad sense the theory is represented a complex of sights, representations, the ideas directed on interpretation and an explanation of any concrete phenomenon or process – the fact.
In narrow sense the theory – the higher, most developed form of the organisation of the scientific knowledge, giving complete representation about laws and essential communications of certain area of the validity – its object (for example, mentalities, consciousnesses, behaviour, thinking, memory, stress, the conflict etc.).

Attributes of any theory are its object and a subject, and also informative means: concepts, categories, laws (tendencies, laws), methods, ideas, principles, etc., components so-called an invariant kernel concrete science during a concrete epoch or time. Therefore the theoretical analysis of military-psychological researches assumes reflexion of following questions:

Definition objective and a subject domain of military-psychological researches;

The formulation of the purposes and problems of military-psychological researches, ways and ways of their achievement;

Promotion of the basic and auxiliary hypotheses of military-psychological searches, the analysis of their acknowledgement;

Definition of scientific bases of the organisation and carrying out of military-psychological researches;

Substantiation of applied methods of military-psychological researches, their structure and preparation and carrying out stages;

Application of the opisatelno-explanatory device of military-psychological researches (concrete system of terms, concepts and categories; sets empirical, including experimental and measuring techniques and other means);

Allocation of features of the maintenance of the military-psychological researches caused by various objective and subjective factors of their organisation, and also other quantitatively-qualitative characteristics.

In this context it is possible to speak about methodology of military-psychological researches as theories, but it is impossible to mean, that any theory of military-psychological knowledge represents its methodology.
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A source: Antsupov A.J., Pomogajbin V. N.. Methodological problems of military-psychological researches. 1999

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