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1.2 Modern approaches to research of formation of readiness for professional work

Various authors offered the schemes of formation of the person of the professional. A.T.Rostunov means the system consisting of four functional blocks by similar formation: vocational guidance, profotbor, profpodgotovka and profadaptatsija [171].

Vocational guidance, according to stages of professional formation, is necessary on training in educational institutions, profotbor is realised by means of delivery of entrance examinations in vocational training establishment, profpodgotovka is carried out in establishment of vocational training and profadaptatsija proceeds directly on a workplace. The similar scheme offers E. M.Ivanov, subdividing formation process on following stages: information-consulting, is professional-educational and adaptable [71]. It becomes obvious, that responsibility for formation of readiness for professional work lays down on shoulders of the organisations of vocational training.

Formation of readiness for professional work assumes the decision of following scientific problems:

– Definition of structure of readiness;

– Definition of factors of formation of readiness;

– Definition of ways of formation of readiness for professional work.

Approaching to a question of studying of structural structure of readiness for professional work, authors allocate certain quantity of the structural components which choice is caused by the approach on which research (functional, personal is guided, lichnostno-dejatelnostnyj) to various signs and the bases.

For example, representing the personal approach to research of readiness for professional work, M.I.Djachenko and L.A.Kandybovich allocate in its structure following components [58]:

– A motivational component which assumes the positive relation to activity, requirement successfully to carry out a task in view, aspiration to become successful and prove to be from the best party;

– orientatsionnyj the component includes knowledge and representations about features and professional work conditions, about its requirements to the person;

– The operational component means possession kompetentsijami professional work, knowledge, abilities, skills, ways and professional work receptions;

– The strong-willed component means self-checking, self-mobilisation, ability to operate the validity;

– The estimated component assumes an estimation of the professional work for the purpose of the further perfection.

Analyzing structural structure of readiness for professional work of young experts in lichnostno-dejatelnostnom a foreshortening, I.H.Hamizova allocates readiness components: motivational, estimated, kompetentnostnyj, creative, emotionally-strong-willed [211]. For a level estimation sformirovannosti the given components the author suggests to use following indicators (table 1.2.1).

Absence of communication of structure of the readiness offered by the above-named authors is of interest for our research, with activity structure, readiness to which is necessary for generating. That is authors mean, that expression of professional specificity of activity is reflected in operational or kompetentnostnom readiness components.

Table 1.2.1 – Indicators sformirovannosti components of readiness for professional work (on I.H Hamizovoj)

Component Indicators
1. The motivational Professional orientation, professional motives, installation on successful professional work
2. The estimated Ability adequately to estimate level of the development and to see prospects of the further development
3. Kompetentnostnyj Generated common cultural and professional the competence, ability to solve professional problems
4. The creative The creative approach to the decision of professional problems, originality, creative thinking, inquisitiveness
5. Emotionally-strong-willed Ability to regulation of the activity, acceptance of responsibility for quality of work, satisfaction the chosen trade, positive emotions from results of own activity

Among researches each element of structure of readiness for professional work is understood as its independent kind (physiological, psychological, psychophysiological, motivational, kognitivnaja, communicative, etc.).

V.A.Slastenin and L.S.Podymova in structure of the general readiness for professional work is allocated with such components [182]:

– Psychological readiness (an orientation on activity, interest and requirement for it);

– Scientific-theoretical readiness (common cultural and special knowledge);

– Practical readiness (necessary professional skills);

– Psychophysiological readiness (preconditions of mastering by a trade, professionally important personal qualities, abilities);

– Physical readiness (adequate to requirements of a trade and a speciality a state of health and developments).

The considerable quantity of works is devoted research of structure of readiness for professional work, however till now there is no uniform point of view concerning structural structure of readiness for professional work, that in certain degree complicates process of diagnostics and the further formation of separate components of readiness for professional work.

Within the limits of our research, certainly agreeing with influence on readiness of a different sort of factors (psychophysiological, psychological, etc.), we will not subdivide the readiness which result is effective realisation of professional work, into compound kinds. That is we will consider the general readiness as result of cumulative influence of a various sort of factors: genotipicheskih, psychophysiological, psychological and social.

The analysis of researches of structure of readiness has shown, that number of the components offered by different authors, not equally; for a designation various terms and concepts, however sense of the components having various names at different authors are used, often coincides or is approached. Thus, having systematised the saved up knowledge devoted to a problem of research of structure of readiness for professional work, we can draw a conclusion, that this term is understood as the complex formation including components, persons reflecting conformity to operational structure of activity and a professional orientation of the person.

Success of formation of readiness for professional work is defined by numerous factors. The analysis of readiness for professional work in the concrete value, spent by us as it has been designated in the previous paragraph, at a support on lichnostno-dejatelnostnyj the approach, causes necessity of the account of factors of influence of internal and external character: inclinations, abilities, an actual condition of the person, an emotional and motivational mood on activity, level of preparation, external conditions of performance of activity, etc. Formation of readiness for professional work assumes the analysis of interrelations inter - and intraindividualnyh factors of development of the person. Possibilities of the person and efficiency of its activity are defined as congenital, biological possibilities, and social conditions (education, training, training). The cumulative influence of similar factors causing formation of individually-personal features, defines possibilities of the person in realisation of this or that activity.

To genotipicheskim to factors morphological features (growth, weight, features of a constitution, morfofunktsionalnye features of a structure of muscles – fast and slow muscular fibres), defining possibilities of achievement of success in a certain kind of activity [146] concern konstitutsionalnye.

Biological features influence level of achievements of the person in certain area. Congenital individual distinctions (inclinations) define advantage of one people before others concerning possibilities of mastering by certain activity [66, with. 36].

Psychophysiological factors define success of performance of concrete activity proceeding from conformity of properties of nervous system and temperament to trade requirements. The elementary mental functions connected with perception, attention, memory get to this group of factors etc. [49, 117].

Influence genotipicheskih and psychophysiological factors is expressed available inclinations to a certain sort of activity. That is efficiency of realisation of any activity is in many respects defined by presence of conformity of congenital characteristics of the person to requirements of a trade [162]. In other words, the maximum level of ability to certain activity is defined by presence at the person of a maximum quantity of necessary inclinations. Expressiveness of ability to a certain kind of activity is defined by quantity of the inclinations promoting the effective decision of a task in view. Presence of inclinations necessary for professional work causes suitability to concrete activity.

Influence of psychological factors is expressed in mobilisation of resources of the subject of work on performance of concrete activity. This condition helps to carry out successfully the duties, correctly to use knowledge, experience, personal qualities, to keep self-checking and to reconstruct activity at occurrence of obstacles [2]. The group of psychological factors includes: motives of a choice of a trade; aspiration to success in activity; the purposefulness of the behaviour formed under the influence of steady system of realised valuable orientations; the emotions accompanying formation of readiness for professional work; will thanks to which it is possible to seize knowledge, skills; presence of abilities and the practical experience, concerning a concrete kind of activity.

Social factors define possibility of performance of activity proceeding from timeliness, qualities, completeness received during passage of a various sort of social institutes of knowledge, abilities and the practical experience, concerning a concrete kind of activity [3, 9]. Social factors are in many respects defined by a situation of development and leading activity of the formed person of the future professional. Preparation for professional work as process, acts as result of that such characteristic of the person as readiness, is a social factor. Also it is possible to carry change of a situation to influence of social factors the developments connected with transition to a real place of work.

Within the limits of our research we are inclined to believe, that influence and interaction of various factors define efficiency of realisation of a concrete kind of activity.

In the research we will not concern the trades of extreme type demanding the paramount account of physiological parametres, a little subject to changes in vocational training process, and we will consider efficiency of formation of readiness for the professional work, depending on influence of external factors.

Also reference of the same components to factors of a different sort is possible, for example, the motivation can enter both in social, and in psychological influence factors. Therefore we in the research do not put a problem of cultivation of influences of concrete groups of factors, and we consider as the most productive consideration of external and internal factors. Developing this direction of thought, it is necessary to recollect a direct connection of external and internal factors of influence, that is about process interiorizatsii [39, 173]. Therefore as a conclusion about the account of factors of influence at formation of readiness for professional work it is possible to designate necessity of diagnostics of internal factors (feature of the person, ability and so forth) for further constructive use of external factors (modification of vocational training process.

The question of ways of formation of readiness for professional work for last decade was especially actively studied in following directions:

– Formation of readiness for military trades, activity in power structures (With. V.Akulin, With. G.Gavrilova, S.A.Kirilova, V.V. Malchenkova, V.A.Tikhomirov, O.V.Fomitchyov, etc.);

– Formation of readiness for pedagogical trades (M.V.Afonin, N. V.Boltenkov, L.A.Desjatirikova, G.N.Zhukov, Z.A.Kargin, E.A.Koksheneva, N. G.Sleptsova, etc.);

– Formation of readiness for administrative trades (T. M.Golubeva, O.A.Pjatibratova, E.J.Firsova, etc.);

– Formation of readiness for engineering trades (to G.S.Agabajan, N.I.Komarova, And. V.Timofeev, etc.);

– Formation of readiness for art trades (JU. V.Bogachyov, S.N.Denisov, E. V.Sajfulina, etc.).

Through directions of formation of the readiness, passing through trades of all types, are:

– Formation of readiness for use of new information-communication technologies (G.S.Agabajan, D. V.Gudov, L.A.Desjatirikova, E. V.Olejnik, S.A.Osokin, T. V.Sedova, And. V.Timofeev, etc.);

– Formation of readiness for innovative activity (N. V.Kostyuk, N. V.Lezhneva, E. V.Maksimenko, N. G.Pjankova, E. V.Sajfulina, etc.);

– Formation of readiness for activity in polycultural society (V.A.Limonova, T.I.Politaeva, And. M.Salavatova, etc.).

The majority of researchers as base for formation is chosen by vocational training establishments [19, 29, 123, 142, 168, etc.]. A number of authors suggest to form readiness for professional work by means initial, postdegree or an additional education [50, 55, 81, 90, etc.].

V.A.Tikhomirov as specific laws of formation of readiness for professional work at cadets of military high schools names unity and interrelation of processes of training, education, development and moral and psychological preparation, the leading part of military constituting activity, conformity the training maintenance to official mission of graduates, modelling by cadets in the course of training of the maintenance, features and a condition of forthcoming professional work [201]. As the basic organizational principles of process of formation of readiness the author allocates a military-professional orientation; communication with practical activities of service of a radio communication; equipment of training by means and communication complexes; purposefulness, integrated approach of pedagogical influence and the account of the individual and differentiated approaches to training. As pedagogical toolkit act:

– Methods of formation of consciousness (lecture, the story, conversation, discussion, etc.);

– Methods of formation of experience of public conduct (exercise, schooling, display, military-professional game, etc.);

– Methods of stimulation and motivation of activity and behaviour (competition, criticism, etc.);

– Estimation and control methods (self-checking, supervision, the oral and written control, etc.).

As forms of the organisation of process of formation of readiness for professional work at cadets of military high schools the author names lecture, a seminar, independent work, consultation, an academic year project, etc.

E.A.Koksheneva, dealing with of a problem of formation of readiness of the future social workers to professional work, approaches to its formation taking into account dynamism principles, innovatsionnosti, polyfunctionality, functional integration of educational process and practice. The author allocates motivatsionno-valuable (professional values, PVK), theoretical (knowledge of specificity and trade requirements), and operationally-dejatelnostnyj (practical skills) components [88]. The author allocates three groups of factors of influence: Social and economic (a labour market condition, employment possibility, prestige of formation and a trade, a demand of experts), psychological (motives of a choice of a trade, aspiration to success in activity, purposefulness of behaviour, emotion and personal qualities) and organizational-pedagogical (the organisation of educational process, teaching level, type of mutual relations «the teacher – the student»).

According to a dynamism principle, formation of readiness of students to the future professional work is carried out on following stages: rough, is substantial-technological, is creative-applied. The activity organisation at a rough stage of formation of readiness for professional work assumes accent on formation of a motivatsionno-valuable component of readiness for professional work. At an is substantial-technological stage ordering of the theoretical knowledge base, mastering by students by abilities to put knowledge into practice in uchebno-professional situations is carried out. The is creative-applied stage of formation of readiness for professional work assumes perfection of abilities of students to put the received knowledge into practice.

Creation of the praktiko-focused environment of high school is considered as a leading condition of formation of readiness of the future social workers to professional work. Statement of students in conditions of social interaction and dialogue, according to E.A.Kokshenevoj, allowed them to occupy an active position in partnership with the teacher, other students, representatives of various establishments [88]. Involving of students in is social-significant activity is one of ways of participation in a public life by the practical decision of social problems of a city. As forms of is social-significant activity were considered: participation of students in charitable actions, volonterskaja activity, rendering of the feasible help to is social-pedagogical establishments, etc.

To an estimation of levels sformirovannosti components of readiness for E.A.Koksheneva's professional work approaches with the help dejatelnostnogo, kognitivnogo and reflective criteria. Indicators of reflective criterion are the positive relation to a trade, sformirovannost uchebno-professional motives; sformirovannost PVK. Indicators kognitivnogo criterion are: presence of knowledge of students about features of a trade, the requirements shown to the expert; presence of a professional knowledge. Indicators dejatelnostnogo criterion are communicative, organising, constructive both analytical abilities and experience of is social-significant activity [88].

L.A.Desjatirikova, dealing with of a problem of formation of readiness of the future bachelors of a pedagogical education to use of computer means in professional work, allocates in readiness structure motivational, kognitivnyj, technological and reflective components. As a substantial component of model of formation of readiness the author suggests to use disciplines of mathematical, natural-science and professional cycles. Formation of readiness for use of computer means is carried out through realisation of some organizational-pedagogical conditions:

– Organizational-dejatelnostnoe – orientation to application of interactive forms of the organisation of process of training;

– In detail-methodical – realisation of programs of training to various disciplines of blocks of "mathematician", "computer science", «a technique of training to the mathematician», the organisation educational and the industrial practices, specially developed discipline at a choice («Training to the mathematician of schoolboys on the basis of computer means»);

– Motivational – involving of students in independent and design-research activity [63, 188] on working out and application of computer means in professional educational activity;

– Organizational-dejatelnostnoe – perfection of competence of teachers in the field of preparation of students for use of computer means [50].

G.N.Zhukov in the work devoted to formation of readiness for is professional-pedagogical activity, allocates following components in readiness structure: motivational, orientatsionnyj, psychophysiological, is social-psychological, is social-professional, operational, reflective [60]. The author had been allocated personal, functional and social levels of the organisation of readiness for is professional-pedagogical activity, stages and laws of process of its formation. The substantial component of the model of formation offered by the author assumes following changes in uchebno-informative process:

– An additional facultative course «Introduction in a speciality of the master of inservice training»;

– Addition of the curriculum of courses «the General and professional pedagogics», «the General and professional psychology» a teaching material about readiness for is professional-pedagogical activity of the future master of inservice training at level of concepts and values of its components;

– The offer on addition of sections of the State educational standard (3 generation) average vocational training on a speciality 0308 Vocational training (on branches) concept introduction «readiness for is professional-pedagogical activity of the master of inservice training».

The analysis of the scientific works devoted to formation of readiness for professional work, has shown, that sides between formation directions are thin and indistinct, professional areas of formation are often crossed and interpenetrated. It is possible to make generalisation, that the essence of formation of readiness for various kinds of professional work is reduced to stage-by-stage formation of structural components of readiness for the professional work, offered by the concrete author. Formation is carried out with a support on various scientific approaches and principles.

Summing up to the analysis of the research works directed on formation of readiness for professional work, it is possible to draw a conclusion on tendency presence:

– If the general readiness for activity as a substantial component of formation all maintenance of pedagogical process is considered is formed;

– If concrete ability in professional work or a certain component of readiness for professional work (communicative, motivational, etc. readiness) as a substantial component concrete modification of educational process is offered is formed.

On the basis of the spent theoretical analysis of a problem of readiness for professional work and approaches to its formation it is possible to establish, that readiness for professional work is difficult integrativnym the personal formation necessary for successful performance of certain activity. The set of authors was devoted by the works to research of structural structure of readiness for professional work and various aspects of its formation.

Nevertheless, despite considerable theoretical experience in research of formation of readiness for professional work, for the present moment [21, 77] among the most actual problems there is an insufficient readiness of graduates of establishments of vocational training for independent professional work [155] about what speak results of researches:

– 57 % of graduates of professional establishments not namereny to work on a speciality [4];

– 50 % of graduates of professional establishments require conversion training at receipt for work because of insufficient readiness practically to use the received theoretical knowledge [64];

– 59 % of heads are not quite happy with preparation of young experts (it is marked insufficient sformirovannost abilities independently to solve working problems, initiative, skills of planning and working hours organisation, etc.) [31].

Process of formation of readiness for professional work is influenced by numerous factors, hence, revealing prediktorov formation of readiness for professional work is a priority in the logician of research of the designated problem.

The concept maintenance "prediktor" is reflected in modern encyclopaedias and it is represented as analogue of terms "factor", "variable" [30, 191]. Use of the given concept is connected with function of forecasting and the wide circulation has received in medicine, psychology and sociology. Under prediktorami such characteristics of the individual on which basis it is possible to give the forecast concerning its other characteristics are understood.

Z. G.Hanova, being engaged in research of formation of psychological readiness for enterprise activity, under prediktorami understands «aspects of success» formations of the given kind of readiness. In quality ekstrapoljatorov investigated readiness allocates following components: kognitivnyj, motivatsionno-valuable, behavioural and dejatelnostnyj [212]. prediktorov formations of readiness for enterprise activity the author approaches To allocation from a position of a scientific reflexion of essence and features of enterprise activity in modern conditions. The author carries out diagnostics of everyone prediktora (a readiness component) by means of a number of indicators (knowledge of market economy, knowledge of bases of marketing, enterprise orientation, motivation of achievement, etc.).

This approach to allocation prediktorov formation of readiness for professional work has found the continuations and development in our research spent since 2009 at the Moscow state agroengineering university of a name of V.P.Gorjachkina (since 2014 – the Russian state agrarian university – MSHA K.A.Timirjazeva's name) [24, 118, 119, 136, 137]. As research problems we allocate the analysis of features and structure of is professional-pedagogical activity, allocation prediktorov formation of readiness for the given kind of activity, diagnostics of everyone prediktora, working out and experimental check of model of formation of readiness for is professional-pedagogical activity on the basis of results of its diagnostics prediktorov.

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A source: BOGINSKAYA Olga Sergeevna. PEDAGOGICAL prediktory FORMATION of READINESS of STUDENTS of HIGH SCHOOL To is professional-PEDAGOGICAL ACTIVITY. 2017

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