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optimisation of pedagogical process in high school as the main condition in preparation of the future expert

Is known, that the concept "optimisation" with reference to teaching and educational process traditionally is in sphere of research of pedagogics. The direction of the last on time of researches in this area was displaced towards pedagogical psychology that is connected with requirement of the analysis of mechanisms of optimisation of pedagogical activity.
It means, that the concept of "optimisation" has two parties of display: actually pedagogical and psychological. Thus, consideration of optimisation of pedagogical activity from the point of view of pedagogical psychology is represented to us as a cumulative picture a sight at the given phenomenon, existing on a joint of scientific disciplines of a psihologo-pedagogical cycle.

Introduction in a scientific turn of concept "optimisation" is connected from the appeared necessity of perfection of forms and methods of the organisation of educational activity. The term "optimisation" goes back to a verb to "optimise" through an adjective "optimum", for the first time fixed in private dictionaries in our country and abroad in the beginning of 60th of the twentieth century and treated as «to make, count the program, the most comprehensible model of the organisation something». Being a word of a Latin origin, "optimisation" is defined as a choice of the best (optimum) variant of a problem from set possible under the given conditions (38, with. 348).

The optimisation of pedagogical process created on the basis of new technologies includes following structural components: the purposes of training and diagnosticheski the set planned results of training; the training maintenance; diagnostic aids and the control of a condition of results of training; training methods; the organisation of educational process; tutorials; trainees; the teacher; result of activity - reached level general educational and vocational training.

Designing of new pedagogical technologies assumes optimisation of educational process as concrete psihologo-pedagogical concept of training, i.e. orientation to an end result. Optimisation, in our opinion, - new technologies of training which define in turn working out and use of new methods of training - concentrated, modular, contextual and other kinds of training.

Among modern methods of training training in cooperation »is worthy«. At designing and modelling of quality of preparation of experts it is impossible to manage only the set criteria of standards, indicators of knowledge, skills. The trustworthy information source about all conditions, means and conditions of functioning of each element of pedagogical system is necessary. Possibility of measurement of value of indicators of quality of educational process is necessary. It is reached by the organisation of system monitoring of quality of formation.

System monitoring assumes an estimation of quality of a contingent of students, professional educational programs, level of scientific and educational readiness of teaching and uchebno-auxiliary structure, a condition of research works and their communication with the maintenance of training courses.



Fig. 1. Model of maintenance of quality of training to physical training in military aviation-engineering high school.



The control is directed on revealing of educational and educational errors, miscalculations, problems.
kontroling is a management future for maintenance of long functioning of system. kontroling represents such form of the organisation of management of educational process and its quality when the control and management from the party gives way to self-checking and self-management when responsibility of each subject and object of educational process for its result raises.

In drawing 2 it is shown, that kontroling should include in itself.



Rice 2. The organisation scheme kontrolinga

From time of the first occurrence in the domestic pedagogical literature one of the major principles of NOTES is the optimisation principle - maintenance of a choice of optimum variants of activity in concrete conditions. The term "optimum" - the best means: the most corresponding to certain conditions and problems an activity variant. Hence optimisation of pedagogical process is a choice of best of possible it for the given concrete situation (35, с.479).

The principle of optimisation demands in each concrete case of a choice of the best variant of the plan of activity, that is the best variant of the maintenance of methods, means, forms of training and education, accurate rationing of expenses of time, efforts, creations of optimum conditions for activity (studies-but-matreialnyh, hygienic, moral and psychological and aesthetic), skilful stimulation and regulation of actions to a campaign of the most teaching and educational process, the operative control and the study account. In other words, the principle of an optimality demands, that each element of the organisation of work of cadets and teachers has reached not simply a little the best, than before, namely greatest possible, the best for the given situation - an optimum level.

Optimisation excludes giperbolizatsiju that one, other methods of work, underestimation of separate receptions, methods and tutorials and education, exaggeration of a role sample, trafaretnyh methodical workings out which do not consider concrete conditions and possibility of cadets and teachers of the given military high school, faculty, group; it conducts to a creative substantiation of pedagogical process on its scientific basis to search of the best variants of its organisation.

The idea of an optimality necessarily assumes elimination of an overload of cadets and teachers of study, demands maintenance of an optimum level of difficulty, optimum rate of training and education, optimum volume of independent work.

The optimality is such principle which makes demands rationality, rationality, feeling a measure in application of all other principles of NOTES. The general theory of optimum control in a certain measure can form a basis for development of ideas of optimisation of pedagogical process at the higher military school and in particular physical training process.

Many the teacher of the higher military school high enough scientific qualification and consequently can build educational process not in the same way, not a trial and error method, and by a scientific substantiation of a creative choice, search, research of its optimum variants. In scientific search the essence of optimisation also consists.

Improvement of quality of training and education at the higher military school depends on many factors: from level scientifically-methodical and idejnopoliticheskoj preparations of teachers and commanders of divisions, from ability of teachers optimum to organise the activity, from uchebno-material resources condition, from observance in military high school of hygienic specifications of office activity, rest, a food, cadets and teachers, from a moral and psychological climate in pedagogical collective, from degree of interaction of teachers with commanders-tutors and younger commanders. The organism of military high school is so combined (for it important strict coordination of all links), that the slightest giperbolizatsija one of them or underestimation of another immediately affects results. Therefore in pedagogics the great value has the system approach to perfection of all parties of pedagogical process at simultaneous allocation of especially actual problems for the certain period and a choice of optimum variants of their decisions.

Optimisation of physical training does not represent any special method or reception. It is the purposeful approach to the teacher to construction of pedagogical process on the basis of laws and principles of theories and a physical training technique, conscious scientifically-obosnovanno (instead of spontaneous, not casual) a choice of the best for concrete conditions, situations of variants of construction of employment and educational process as a whole.

Criteria of an optimality: it is a sign on which basis the comparative estimation of possible decisions (alternatives) and a choice of best of them is made.

The criterion of an optimality helps the teacher to prove the decision for choice the best in the given situation of forms and methods of training and education of structure of employment, systems of employment etc.

Criteria of optimisation in physical training of cadets, can be:

1. Efficiency and quality of the decision of obrazovatelno-educational problems with the account of a professional orientation of physical training.

2. It is necessary - defensible expenses of time of cadets and teachers for achievement of the planned results.

3. Accessible expenses of efforts of cadets and teachers for achievement of the planned results for taken away time.

Physical training optimisation provides a number of the interconnected actions of the teacher:

-Comprehensive planning of the most important problems of formation, education and development on the basis of their rational combination;

-Concrete definition of problems of training to impellent actions on the basis of studying of real possibilities (physical, sports-technical readiness and conditions for training);

-Choice of optimum logic sequence of studying to various movements with the account of positive carrying over of impellent skills and physical qualities;

-Choice of optimum methods of education of physical qualities with the account of age, physical readiness, a program material, time and a place of employment;

-Choice of the optimum maintenance of studies with reference to specific targets and conditions. Observance of a measure of a parity of studies with the various maintenance and domination of one of them;

-Definition of optimum loadings with the account of physical and professional working capacity in the conditions of NOTES;

-Choice of the most rational methods and means of teaching, stimulation and the control. Entering necessary operative korrektivov and their application on employment;

-Creation of favorable conditions and moral and psychological climate on employment;

- Revealing of conformity of results to real possibilities of cadets and expenses of time for their physical preparation.

Thus, physical training functions at the higher military school many-sided, this many-sided nature necessity of an all-around development of cadets is defined and it is shown in aspen in three directions: first, in maintenance of high level of education of physical qualities, acquisition of abilities, skills, the knowledge necessary for successful performance of the future professional work, high degree of uchebno-labour activity, preservation and health strengthening; secondly, in familiarising of cadets with regular employment physical exercises, to active participation of a fizkulturno-sports life; thirdly, in assistance of development of socially significant character traits, social activity, formation of an inner world, moral and aesthetic development of the person of the cadet.

The problems, the put problems of physical training in military HIGH SCHOOL, are realised by means of planning and the organisation of a teaching material which can have the various bases and approaches.

Questions of optimisation of physical training of cadets, introduction of scientific principles of planning, wide use of modern tutorials demand further, their creative studying and development, in respect of methodical and research work. Round concept "optimisation", it was considered by many researchers.

In pedagogics the concept "optimisation" is connected through definition "optimum" - best of possible in concrete conditions - with concept "activity".

From a number defined by the optimisation purpose two general criteria of optimisation should be accurately allocated: the greatest possible results in the given conditions; the minimum expense of time and a nervous tension (163, with. 61). Apparently from last definition, the named criteria of optimisation are criteria of optimisation on JU.K.Babansky (23, с.77), that defines optimisation among concepts of pedagogical psychology.

In a context of definition of pedagogical essence of concept "optimisation" K.K.Platonov marks presence of communication of pedagogical psychology and management psychology. Thus a problem of psychology of management - optimisation of interaction of subjects of management and objects of management (163, with. 116). Concept «the subject of management» and «object of management» concern system of concepts of pedagogical psychology in a management context teaching and educational process, actually uchebno-informative and psihologo-pedagogical activity of trainees and teachers. Thus, optimisation of interaction the subject of management of psihologo-pedagogical activity (teachers) and objects of management of uchebno-informative activity (cadets) is a part of problems of pedagogical psychology.

Problems and essence of concept "optimisation" in pedagogics are considered as well in connection with features of process of training to physical training.

Directions of optimisation of system of training to physical training are defined in the pedagogical plan dejatelnostnoj mastering concepts (A.N.Leontev, A.A.Leontev). For mastering of a subject of physical training special interest is represented by following positions:

The-physical training is included in various kinds of human activity in general and is based on them;

-Actions can to become at a certain stage of mastering operations and, on the contrary, operations can be translated on level of conscious action, that during educational process will give the chance to master separately at conscious level impellent skills.

The pedagogical essence of process of optimisation of teaching of physical training has in view of the account of the pedagogical concept of the educational activity assuming the decisions trained educational problems as units of educational activity (248, with. 41). The educational problem includes mastering by certain ways of action in which result there is a development trained in its level obluchennosti and sformirovannosti the separate parties of its activity. Therefore educational activity as optimising is considered in unity of its components: an educational problem, educational actions for its realisation, actions under the control over its decision and estimations of degree of mastering of actions. Such structure of educational activity with reference to our research is the basic structural model of activity of the teacher of the physical training which realisation is the basic condition of optimisation of pedagogical activity.

Optimisation of training to physical training in military aviation-engineering high school can be considered from the several parties: from a position of the teacher, from a position of the cadet, from a position of a finding of internal reserves of optimisation of training (85, with. 164). We consider two aspects of this problem: optimisation of training from a position of the teacher and from the point of view of the organisation of the process of teaching. Novelty consists in specificity of our research with reference to conditions of military aviation-engineering high school. It is obvious, that substantive provisions of the pedagogical theory of process of optimisation are universal. But it does not give the right mechanically to transfer them in a field of activity of military high school, than, actually, and necessity of carrying out of our research is caused.

Optimisation of process of physical training from a position of the teacher consists in the all-round analysis of its pedagogical activity, in particular, the psychological analysis of employment on physical training.

The essence of process of optimisation of training on physical training consists:

In change of the organisation of training for the account of introduction of recurrence in this process;

In more exact definition of direct object of training to impellent skills - in the conditions of realisation of a practical chain of training;

In realisation lichnostno-dejatelnostnogo the approach in training to physical training (85, ss.164-202).

Each of the named components of process of optimisation of training to physical training is the most universal in respect of the maintenance. Thus all components demand specification primenitelno to conditions of training to physical training in military aviation-engineering high school.

In a more comprehensive sense we, possibly, can speak about optimisation of process of training to physical training and about conditions of optimisation of pedagogical activity of the teacher of physical training.

Proceeding from it, we define the basic condition of optimisation of pedagogical activity of the teacher to the physical training, consisting in development and realisation of structural model of teaching of the physical training based on principles and criteria of an optimality. Pedagogical activity within the limits of such model is necessarily focused on principles lichnostno-dejatelnostnogo the approach and the scientific organisation of pedagogical work.

It means, that arising pedagogical problems in training to physical training dare means of practical pedagogics combining the pedagogical theory and training practice (218.)

In system of pedagogical activity optimisation was widely considered by JU.K.Babansky (18; 20). In its opinion, a methodological basis of optimisation is dialectic the system approach to an estimation of possible decisions of problems of training which are provided with a choice of the best variant for corresponding conditions (18, с.55).

However the concept "optimisation" was considered by some the researcher to JU.K.Babansky. So. I.T. Revealing of optimum combinations of various methods of training which concerns, in its opinion, to the major aspects of optimisation of process of training (150, с.56) understands truck farmers as optimisation. I.I.Dyachenko considers, that optimisation is a choice of the most effective (in a limit optimum) a variant of operated process according to set by criteria, that, under JU.K.Babansky's statement, javjaetsja wider treatment of ideas of optimisation of process of training (79, с.19; 18, ss.56-57). T.A.Ilyin defines optimisation as conformity degree oranizatsionnoj the system parties to those purposes for which achievement it is created. Thus the optimality reached for one conditions, can not have a place under other conditions (91, ss.16-17).

On the basis of the listed points of view, JU.K.Babansky gives most the general definition of optimisation of process of training: such management which will be organised on the basis of the all-round account of laws, principles of training, modern forms and training methods, and also features of the given system, its internal and external conditions for the purpose of achievement of the most effective (in a limit optimum) functioning of process from the point of view of the set criteria (18, с.57).

Along with concept definition «optimisation of process of training» we find concept definition «optimisation of pedagogical work», also formulated by J.K.Babanskim: «scientifically proved choice and realisation of the best for the given conditions of a variant of problems, maintenances, forms and methods of training and education from the point of view of certain criteria» (23, with.

72).

Simultaneously from JU.K.Babansky the problem of optimisation of pedagogical activity is considered comprehensively by I.P.Rachenko (176; 178). Difference, however, consists that I.P.Rachenko investigates optimisation questions in a context of the system of principles of the scientific organisation of pedagogical work created by it (NOPT) (175). He considers, that optimisation - process of realisation of one of the major principles NOPT - a relativity principle (176, ss.162-163). Showing mnogoaspektnost complete pedagogical activity, And. P.Rachenko notices, that its basic theoretical concept concept NOPT on which basis create the pedagogical technology including integrativnuju pedagogics that is realised in the further working out of ideas of organizational development (175) is.

I.P.Rachenko's newest researches defines concept "optimisation" as process of a finding of an extremum (a global maximum or a minimum) certain function or a choice of the best (optimum) variant from set mozmozhnyh (177, with.37).

Speaking about a parity of concepts, "optimisation", "organisation" and "NOPT", I.P.Rachenko notices, that terms "optimisation" and "organisation" as general scientific have arisen for a long time. Their maintenance varied on a measure development of sciences, now they is limited the theory of management and the theory of systems (175) enter into such branches of scientific knowledge, as the organisation theory.

Investigating essence of a phenomenon of optimisation, I.P.Rachenko considers, that the most reliable way of a finding of the best variant is a comparative estimation of all possible variants (alternatives). Thus if there is no choice optimisation (175, с.82) is possible also.

JU.K.Babansky and M.M.Potashnik consider, that optimisation is one of the major principles NOPT, which demands a choice optimum (the most effective for the given conditions) an activity variant (21, с.23; 175, с.76). At the same time, under I.P.Rachenko's statement, the concept "optimisation" can be considered in a broad sense, for example, optimisation of teaching and educational process, and narrow - as process of realisation of a principle optimialnosti in system of other principles NOPT. Thus, NOPT has united in integrity of concept "optimisation" and "organisation" (175, с.77).

In the mid-eighties in the scientific literature there is a number of publications (monographies, dissertations, articles), devoted to working out of a problem of optimisation of process of training / physical language in higher educational institutions sports and not a sports orientation of formation.

So, B.G.Akchurin considers, that the complex approach is most full presented to theories of optimisation of training to teaching and educational process. Leaning against principles and criteria of an optimality of JU.K.Babansky and its definition of system of training as «optimising activity», B.G.Akchurin defines conditions of optimisation of process of teaching of physical training in high school (36, ss.32-42), dividing them on optimisation of the maintenance of impellent skills of graduates of the given type of high schools, means and forms of training to physical training. Thus means it is system-dejatelnostnyj the approach to realisation of positions of the theory of optimisation.

The concept "optimisation" is considered in the domestic pedagogical literature from two positions: as process of a choice and realisation of the best variant of the decision of pedagogical problems in the given conditions and as the certain condition characterising all invarianty system of complete pedagogical activity.

Research and the analysis istochnikovoj shows bases, that the concept "optimisation" of scientific works for today is yet enough full shined. It concerns first of all area of researches of pedagogical psychology. In view of presence it is obvious contradictions - simultaneously understanding an optimisation phenomenon as process, conditions, criterion and a principle there is a problem optimisation in pedagogical psychology: sistemnost and unambiguity of interpretation of the given concept.

Traditional pedagogical understanding of optimisation inseparably linked with concepts of activity, dejatelnostnoj concepts of mastering of A.N.Leonteva, and realisation lichnostno-dejatelnostnogo the approach in the course of training. Another words, optimisation, in pedagogical sense, is process. It is found out at level of semantic and item combinations of the term "optimisation" with terms "activity" and «training process». However, despite presence of obvious signs of process, optimisation in pedagogics is not considered as the characteristic of the pedagogical maintenance of its principles. Of what we do the mediated conclusion about nerazrabotannosti pedagogical principles of process of optimisation as those.

Simultaneously, the pedagogical essence concept "optimisation" is caused its organic by communication with the scientific organisation of pedagogical work, its interpretation as criterion and principle NOPT (on JU.K.Babansky). At the same time, And. P.Rachenko considers as principle NOPT not optimisation, and an optimality, and realisation of this principle occurs in the course of optimisation. Abundantly clear, that in the latter case there is a question on principles of process of optimisation. On the one hand, this problem dares in system of principles NOPT developed by I.P.Rachenko. On the other hand, it at all does not exclude, and, on the contrary, offers revealing and working out of set concerning independent principles of process of optimisation. These principles are designated in I.P.Rachenko's works (176, ss. 162 - 165) and JU.K.ba (18, ss. 58-64) though last concerns them criteria of optimisation: efficiency and quality of process of training, the expense of time of teachers and pupils.

Thus, the being of a problem of optimisation in pedagogics is reduced to its not system consideration, absence of the uniform approach to criteria, classification and research of separate aspects. At last, specificity limitrofnogo a condition of the given concept demands the answer to questions: whether optimisation by process or a principle is; what criteria of pedagogical optimisation in complete pedagogical activity. Being based on a conclusion that optimisation causes realisation of a principle of an optimality in system of principles NOPT, we notice, that our research would be not meaningful, if it did not deepen and did not expand concept NOPT regarding its pedagogical maintenance.

We consider, that the optimality principle is carried out not only in system of principles NOPT, but in the course of optimisation of any concrete uchebno-informative and pedagogical activity including activity of the teacher of physical training of military aviation-engineering high school. In view of an obvious accessory of a phenomenon of optimisation to a number of the phenomena of remedial property, we consider possible to define rather independent pedagogical principles of process of optimisation:

1) expenses of time, forces, means and a nervous tension of participants of educational process are is minimum admissible;

2) achievement of the greatest possible results in levels of development and obuchennosti cadets in educational process.

3) Socially-pedagogical efficiency of reserves of activity of subjects of educational process.

Apparently from definition of the named principles, they grow out of generalisation and developments of two conceptual approaches to an optimisation problem - actually pedagogical and organizational-psychological (principles NOPT of I.P.Rachenko). However new consideration of process of optimisation from a position lichnostno-dejatelnostnogo and organizatsion-but-dejatelnostnogo the approach at which we reveal pedagogical essence and the maintenance of principles NOPT, kinds of activity of components TSPD of the teacher of physical training, conditions and factors of its successful realisation here is.

The formulated principles are most general their expansion is carried out during research of pedagogical conditions of optimisation of activity of the teacher of physical training.
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A source: Andreev A.N.. Optimisation of pedagogical process on physical training of military aviation-engineering HIGH SCHOOL. 2005

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