a problem Urgency

Consistently carrying out democratic principles of mutual relations on a world scene, our country undertakes unprecedented steps for relaxation of international tension, for development of relations of mutual trust between all people and the states, for easing of risk of nuclear opposition.
The peaceful external

The policy of Russia is directed on liquidation of consequences of cold war, on reduction of a rocket-nuclear and usual arsenal, on the definitive termination of race of offensive arms. Russia is completely open for peace mutually advantageous cooperation with all states, for the decision of all disputable international problems by equal in rights and concrete negotiations.

But we well know, that to live in the world and friendship with all people still it is not enough one desire. Historical experience learns us to much. The knowledge of historical experience, its reasonable use is not only an absolute must, but also the powerful operating factor correcting our sights, opinions, estimations, relations. For in it the concentrated expression of all our achievements, successes and failures, victories and defeats is concluded. This experience warns us against free or involuntary underestimation of military danger, against complacency and self-calmness. He demands safely to face military-political realities of a modern international life, not to overestimate military threat. But also not to take life easily, not to look at world around through pink glasses.

This historical experience rigidly and persistently reminds us, that for our country, for Russia, with its immense open spaces and sea borders the balanced, powerful armed forces capable firmly to defend our interests in all regions of the world, including by all seas and oceans are necessary.

Necessity to have the powerful Navy fleet corresponding both a geographical position of Russia, and to its political value in the world was understood always and, especially, is understood in modern conditions. And this understanding now when in Armed forces essential reforming for the purpose of increase of their mobility is carried out, battle readiness and fighting capacity for the Navy has huge value. Because process of reforming is directed on perfection of all making fighting fleet hallows, on preparation of ship experts including. That whatever technically made was the fleet is not subject to doubt, it would not receive what powerful weapon, but its basis always was and in the foreseeable future there will be a military seaman, the ship expert, with its human properties and qualities.

The military seaman: the sailor, the foreman, the officer, an admiral is the lord of all technical and fighting means, all kinds of the modern weapon. Real fighting power of fleet, finally, depends on its knowledge, skills, its relations, sights and opinions, its world outlook and moral qualities. Among these moral and combat qualities of military seamen the special role belongs to their is sincere-mental paradigm in general, to a mental condition in particular.

Not the readiness of the theory of mental conditions of military seamen and its urgency in modern conditions of ship service have caused a choice of a theme of research.

Object of research is the essence, the maintenance and classification of mental conditions of military seamen in long swimmings.

Object of research is management of formation and development of mental conditions of the ships subordinated by commanders and divisions.

The research objective consists in a substantiation of the theory of mental conditions of military seamen, revealing of their place and a role in office activity of staff and working out of receptions and ways of management of their formation in interests of the successful decision of problems of long swimming.

The research hypothesis consists that:

- Under the maintenance mental conditions of military seamen differ such special lines and the properties which formation is possible only in the conditions of ship service in long swimmings;

- In the conditions of ocean swimmings, especially in the course of fighting service, the role of mental conditions amplifies, having essential influence on performance by the ship of tasks in view;

- Mental conditions of staff in a campaign are especially individual and at the same time typical, reflecting all set of a field surrounding by the ship;

- Along with individual, the big role is played by collective mental conditions of ship crew which have the special structure and classification;

- Conditions of ship service in a campaign allow to have essential influence on formation and development of mental conditions of staff in interests of the successful decision of fighting problems.

Theoretical base of research make:

1. The theory of socio-historical development of mentality;

2. The psychological theory of the person, its formation and development in the course of activity;

3. Positions of military psychology about education of soldiers in various conditions of military activity, formation at them properties necessary for service and qualities of the person;

4. Positions of naval psychology about formation of the person of the military seaman;

5. The theory of ship military collective; 6. Scientific researches in military and naval psychology;

7. The theory sistemogeneza about a parity of the subject with world around on the basis of the purpose, conditions and specificity of behaviour and the ability to live, forming complete system personal experience.

Methodical basis of research make:

1. A technique of the sinteticheski-analytical approach; system-structural forecasting; rather-comparative generalisation; analogo-typological classification of various psychological concepts and positions about laws of the mental phenomena and properties of the person;

2. Psihologo-diagnostic receptions and ways of definition of mental conditions, feelings, moods, revealing of personal requirements, valuable orientation and motivational definiteness of the person;

3. Methodical psihologo-pedagogical principles of formation of relations and the mutual relations, testifying to the expressed mental conditions of the person.

Proceeding from object, a subject and the purpose following research problems are generated:

1. Realisation of the psychological analysis of a problem of mental conditions, their essence, a place and a role in mental activity of the person and on this basis a substantiation of the concept of mental conditions of military seamen.

2. Revealing of a role of mental conditions of ship experts in the decision of uchebno-fighting problems in long swimmings, their influence on performance by staff of the functional duties in a campaign, on observance of authorised requirements, of maintenance of accident-free operation of combat material and weapon maintenance in the set battle readiness.

3. Research of specificity of influence of special conditions of long swimming on mental conditions of staff depending on the basic types and classes of the ships, their individual originality and typicalness during the various periods of a campaign.

4. Realisation of the analysis of collective mental conditions of staff, their value, a role and a place in psychology of crew, dependence on concrete office associations and public groups by the ship.

5. A substantiation of the basic ways, methods and control facilities mental conditions of staff in interests of the successful decision of problems of long swimming.

Research was spent in the course of service on KRL "A.Nevsky", on submarines To - 24 and To - 156, on 162nd brigade of submarines and 101st Operative brigade of submarines Krasnoznamennogo of Northern Fleet. In total with a view of research the author participated in six long campaigns, with performance of problems fighting sluhby, including as a part of 101st OBPL lasting more than 11 months.

In research materials of group of medical workers of naval hospital and 470th medical laboratory of the scuba diving which has spent complex inspection of crews of 4th squadron of submarines in 1974-1976, coming back with fighting service were used. In total this group was obsledovanno 16 submarines 641 projects. Besides, in disertatsii the generalised materials of long swimmings are reflected: TAKR "Kiev", from 20.12.78 till. And from 16.12.78 till; PL К-302, from 15.01.78. Till 25.03.78.; PL К-429, transition under ices of Arctic regions with KSF on KTOF in 1977г.; RPKSN К-235, from April till July 1978г.; RPKSN К-216, from September till December 1978г.; RPKSN К-207, with sentebrja till December 1979г.

Validity and reliability of results of research is provided by correct use of the psychological theory and practical experience in posts of the assistant to the commander of submarines and the commander of a brigade of boats on politchasti; application of the approved theoretical and empirical methods; adequacy of applied diagnostic techniques, reprezentativnostju samples; matematiko-statistical processing of materials.
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A source: Bronevitsky G.A.. Psychology of management of the mental states of sailors. 2002

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