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Realization of model of optimisation of process of psihologo-pedagogical preparation of cadets of military-engineering high school

Practical realisation of the developed model of the organisation and management of process of psihologo-pedagogical preparation of cadets has allowed to reveal a complex of conditions, the factors, making considerable impact on its efficiency.

During research it is established, that optimisation of process of preparation of cadets is reached by means of application of a following complex of measures: work system engineering on formation at cadets (especially at younger courses) adaptable readiness for training conditions in military high school, that in turn staticizes work on formation at cadets of a military-professional orientation, to creation of a favorable moral and psychological climate in kursantskih collectives; to strengthening of a practical orientation of studied discipline «Military pedagogics and psychology». Realisation of these measures first of all assumes: introduction of active forms and training methods; introduction of modern techniques of an estimation of a moral and psychological condition of cadets; training responsible for educational work to practical use of the given techniques.

Formation of adaptable readiness.

Formation of readiness for conditions of ability to live of military high school begins with studying of a socially-psychological portrait of modern youth, motives of a choice of a military trade, explanation of concrete expectations with which young men come to high school.

For the arriving presence of the aggravated contradictions in a world outlook, valuable orientations, professional expectations is characteristic. Infantility display are appreciable in expectations, that parents will render still constant care of them, that commanders will sponsor also them, caring about them up to trifles. Lateness in finding of a physical and civil maturity that finds expression, for example, in prituplenii ambitions, in inability to overcome dependant moods is obviously traced.

At the same time self-affirmation attempts quite often get too extreme forms (quite often form of protective reaction) that testifies to insufficiency of life experience.

During the adapted period as one of the most actual it is necessary to allocate a problem of creation of a favorable moral and psychological climate in divisions in formation of educational groups.

In this period studying of specific features of first-year students is carried out, the information on potential leaders collects. During this period it is necessary to give special attention to cadets from families of military men. They adapt faster, make skeleton of collective, become the main support of commanders in their educational activity, in the collective organisation on performance of tasks in view. During this period it is expedient to carry out training of group rallying: a complex of specially picked up exercises for development of interpersonal dialogue, acceleration of rates of development of interaction and mutual understanding between cadets.

Special measures on dialogue development allows to warn such negative phenomena as conflicts, humiliation of advantage, a sneer at physical defects and other psychoinjuring situations. During this period also it is expedient to explain to cadets typological lines of their character, feature of its display, to give corresponding recommendations for self-checking and correction (this function the teacher of psychology, the psychologist carries out).

The cycle of conversations where concrete and typical vital situations understand will be organised also, experience by a self-estimation, the constructive resolution of conflicts is formed, degree of group compatibility raises.
Even in preparation for a passing examinations performances before entrants of officers, teachers, cadets of older years about history, traditions, features of institute, training in it, about a profile of faculties and prospects of officer service will be organised.

In adaptation especially the great value has informing of cadets on an order of passage of military service in high school, training, self-service, self-education, self-development, about character of mutual relations with commanders, teachers, companions.

For elimination age behavioural disbalansov, - marks Polivara M. G to, skilled tutors, it is necessary for command and teaching structure to spend psychocorrectional work competently. The basic efforts should be concentrated to universal propagation of study as leading kind of activity.

In adaptation the great value gets forecasting of behaviour of cadets. The constant socially-psychological analysis is for this purpose necessary: to reveal distinctions, interests; possible desirable and undesirable reactions; to develop a technique of the analysis of the information; to prepare recommendations about a choice and updating of the purposes, ways and levers.

It is expedient to involve also undergraduates in carrying out of employment in a role of the teacher, to revive practice of training of cadets as younger commanders, to organise and operate work of curators.

The role of the individual work, which purpose-creation of conditions for the trainee, persons of the cadet providing as much as possible full development, its intensive professional formation is especially effective.

The technique of its organisation demands allocation of stages:

The first stage (preparatory): studying of cadets according to the developed programs, working out of model of the graduate and finishing to cadets of requirements to the graduate.

The second stage: practical realisation of the plan of an individual approach, creation of conditions for self-development, self-education, involving in active participation in educational work, profound studying of specific features, ordering and the analysis of results.

The third stage: an estimation of results of pedagogical influence, diagnostics and updating of educational activity.

The primary goals of studying of individually-psychological features of staff are:

— Definition of level of psychological readiness of military men to uchebno-fighting activity;

— Revealing of persons with low level of nervously-psychological stability;

— An individualization of educational process and increase of efficiency of sluzhebno-fighting activity;

— Acquisition of military divisions, selection of military men on a post of younger commanders.

Studying of military men is spent as a part of groups and individually. Various methods of psychological researches are thus used: the analysis of documents, a biographic method, questioning, individual conversations, psychological testing, supervision, interrogation, etc.

Effective remedy of management of individual work is conducting a pedagogical diary. In a diary are fixed: individually-psychological features, dynamics of their development for each semestre of training; the concrete facts of individual work; the features of cadets revealed during conversations, supervision; conclusions by results of studying; progress of cadets; positive and negative acts, motives of their display; conclusions by results of pedagogical influence.

The program of studying of cadets includes: life experience, data on parents, interests, friendly preferences, participation in public work, the relation to religion; an orientation of the person, motives of activity; valuable orientations, sights, belief; features of character: force of character, the relation to commanders, companions, military work, purposefulness, stability, working capacity, responsibility, lacks; intellectual and informative qualities: level of knowledge, progress, ability to the analysis, qualities of memory, attention, etc.; emotional qualities: purposefulness, resoluteness, persistence, initiative, sense of duty, etc.; public activity: performance of public commissions, sociability, criticality of performances, etc.; discipline: performance of authorised requirements, encouragement and collectings, organisation, punctuality, sense of duty, honesty, truthfulness; Strong-willed qualities; features of temperament; physical development; habits of cadets.

The special place in work on increase of adaptable readiness of cadets is occupied with measures on revealing and correction of psychological instability.

Since passage of initial military preparation, cadets face specific conditions: the rigid, condensed daily routine; high insistence from commanders and teachers; intense studies, considerable physical activity etc.

There is a process lomki a habitual stereotype of a life and adaptation to new conditions of ability to live. These conditions can promote display of signs of psychological instability or reception of moral and psychological traumas.

As psychological instability (NPN) understand propensity to nervous breakdowns in difficult situations, at considerable mental and physical pressure which promote display of the latent psychological features and qualities, adverse for military service and the future professional work.

It not mental disease, and time decrease in "safety factor". At adverse situations there can be a nervous breakdown, neurotic reaction can develop.

Arisen nervous "failure" is completely not necessarily connected with any directly worked negative factor, is possible as well gradual, long accumulation of these adverse influences with the subsequent them «an exit outside» in the form of infringements of a subordination, refusals from vypolneny orders, runaways from a part etc.

Thus mean as change in psychological sphere in reply to considerable events in a life (for example,  destruction of the loved one), so painful reactions extended enough presently to the psychotraumas of ordinary character caused by infringement of interpersonal relations (unhealthy conditions in collective, the love conflict, not authorised mutual relations etc.).

Cadets with signs of psychological instability require the special approach. For this purpose in the beginning they should be revealed in the division, and then to specify, concerning each of them it is necessary to adhere to what tactics not to admit at them adaptation failures.

The work organisation on revealing of military men with signs of psychological instability should provide planned actions:

— In arrival of young replenishment in a part;

— In adaptation to military service (the first 3-5 months);

— In the subsequent passage of military service.

In arrival of young replenishment studying of documents, supervision over behaviour of military men, individual conversation is spent.

As a result of studying of documents indirect signs of psychological instability can be received: mental diseases at parents and the near relations, the transferred traumas and brain infectious diseases, supervision in a psychoneurological clinic, a night incontience of urine, education in an unsuccessful family, absence of one of parents, presence of a delay from an appeal on a state of health, drives in militia, difficulties in training and trade development, involving in antisocial groups, difficult relations with companions, low public activity, narrowness and discrepancy I will increase interests and hobbies, irascibility, irritability, instability of mood, sensitivity, isolation, lack of initiative, excessive adherence to principles, theatricality, airs and graces, weak will, early predilection for alcohol, smoking, the use of narcocontaining preparations.

In the presence of 1-2 signs the military man deserves more steadfast attention and supervision. In the presence of 3-5 signs - the military man is brought in lists for deeper inspection by the psychologist of a part.

Supervision should be directed on revealing of the persons inclined to isolation, a solitude, constraining, irresolute, shy, whining or, on the contrary, disputed, starting an argument, refusing to execute the orders, breaking the schedule, free in behaviour. The information on persons with articulation lacks (tongue-tie, lisping), badly knowing Russian, with muscular twitchings, trembling of finitenesses, awkwardness, angularity of the movements which are constantly late is worthy. At presence even one of the listed signs, steadily shown in the course of all supervision, especially at the persons who already had by results of studying of documents of 1-2 indirect signs NPN, the military man is put into the list for profound studying by the psychologist of a part. At incidental display of this or that sign the military man demands special attention at the further studying.

It is possible to involve in supervision and serzhantsky structure, preliminary having spent with it corresponding instructing, the purpose of reception of concrete data on features of behaviour of "representatives" of young replenishment.

Having collected and having analysed the available information, it is possible to pass to the final stage of studying of young replenishment to individual conversation.

In the course of conversation available data are specified, those parties of the person which could not be estimated by means of supervision or the documents which are available on the military man are estimated. The special attention addresses on persons at whom at a stage of studying of documents 1 2 indirect signs NPN are revealed, and also with incidental displays NPN in behaviour.

At construction of the plan of conversation it is necessary to use the approximate list of the questions which are taken out on fact-finding conversation (the Appendix 1).

Signs NPN and the conditions promoting its development, it is necessary to consider: education in an incomplete, unsuccessful family (bad mutual relations of parents; presence at them a previous conviction, mental diseases; excessively strict or "hothouse" education; abusing alcohol members of a family; runaways from the house), early alcoholic experience of the military man, cases of the use of narcocontaining preparations, drives in militia, numerous conflicts at school, a family; presence of nervously - mental diseases; early sexual experience, chaotic sexual communications.

By results of the spent work the list of the military men requiring profound psychological inspection is made.

Allocation of military men with psychological instability should become a result of studying of young replenishment:

— With sharply expressed signs of the psychological instability, the given group requires physical examination about the validity to military service;

— With moderately expressed signs of psychological instability which limit use of these military men on separate specialities or in certain situations. Military men of this group demand individual psychopreventive, korrektsi-onnyh, educational and organizational measures (distribution on divisions and specialities).

In adaptation to military service (the first 3-5 months) efforts on studying of military men, especially those who demanded supervision are increased.

The primary goals of studying of military men during this period are:

— An estimation of process of adaptation to conditions and requirements of military service and maintenance, in case of need, corresponding educational influences, psychopreventive and psychocorrectional actions for the purpose of the prevention of displays of psychological instability;

— Studying of mutual relations in military collectives, rendering assistance to the military men experiencing difficulties in an establishment of contacts;

— Revealing of the persons requiring additional psychological inspection.

Methods of studying of staff there is a supervision, psychological testing and individual conversation. The special place is taken away to supervision, since. During this period there is a possibility to observe of behaviour of soldiers in difficult, unusual conditions for them when signs of psychological instability are shown with all evidence. It is necessary to pay attention on undisciplined, painfully reacting to remarks, careless, legkovozbudimyh, quick-tempered, disputed or on the contrary, closed, sensitive, excessively shy and timid military men. The persons showing arrogance are subject to revealing, aspiring by all means to be allocated among associates or, on the contrary, become by object of jokes, the sneers, the making ridiculous acts having strangenesses, abnormalities in behaviour, careless appearance. It is necessary to allocate the soldiers showing during various employment nesobrannost, awkwardness, infringements of coordination of movements, excessive intensity, pretentiousness of movements and poses, to mark faints, cases of the frequent reference behind medical aid with various complaints, to fix lagging behind, with the big work mastering a military speciality, to mark cases of incorrect execution of orders and orders.

The basic methods on preventive maintenance of psychological failures are:

— The attentive, sensitive relation to subordinates, respect for their feelings, thoughts, judgements, offers etc., nedopushchenie in their address of sharp offensive statements, injustice, etc.;

— Creation of a healthy moral and psychological climate in military collectives - atmospheres of respectfulness, goodwill and mutual aid;

— Creation of a healthy life - struggle against drunkenness, glue sniffings and narcotisms;

— The prevention disputed and an exception of others psihotravmiruju-shchih situations;

— Restriction of physical activity for the weakened;

— Time, full or partial clearing of performance of duty, transfer in the divisions which are engaged in performance of economic works;

— An explanation the military man of typological lines of their character, the possible negative displays connected with them, and a formulation of recommendations for self-checking and correction (the psychologist spends personally);

— Knowledge of the most typical situations in which the behaviour of the subordinate with signs of psychological instability will be inadequate.

In the subsequent passage of military service dynamic supervision over persons with signs of psychological instability (according to the work plan) for the purpose of the control of their current condition, studying of system of relations of the observable military man in collective, estimations of its emotional and business status and timely carrying out of psychopreventive and correctional actions is carried out.

The most informative in this plan is sotsiometricheskaja the technique. Can be besides, used and other methods of studying of the person (independent characteristics, expert interrogation, supervision).

How tutors will manage to approach to similar cadets, and if necessary will rise on their protection, will demand the equal relation with all, will show and will underline positive sides of their person or will render them the necessary help - their mental health and the relation to study, service and colleagues will depend on all it in many respects.

Features of work of pedagogical collective of the Stavropol branch of the Rostov military institute are concretised in «Methodical recommendations about the organisation of individual work with staff in divisions SVVIUS» (Stavropol, 1998).

Necessary means of optimisation of process of increase of adequate readiness of cadets is formation of public opinion of military collective. The order of its formation is stated in the methodical grant.

Formation of positive collective opinion demands creation of following conditions and measures:

- Carrying out of meetings, debates, evenings, seminars, conferences on which pressing questions are put most;

- Preliminary revealings of opinions and representations of cadets on these questions;

- Activity of discussion of these questions;

- Increases of authority of the commander;

- Psihologo-pedagogical readiness of commanders, tutors. A practical orientation of studying of discipline «Military psychology and pedagogics».

In substantial aspect psihologo-pedagogical preparation as components includes: arms of cadets knowledge of psychology of the person and collective, knowledge of possibilities of own mentality, self-control in the course of employment on military psychology and pedagogics; during nonlearning time lectures, reports, conversations on themes are conducted: «Learn itself», «Struggle against alcohol, smoking, a narcotism in foreign armies», «M.I.Dragomirova's Pedagogical ideas», «principles of maintenance and the form of the organisation of educational process in Armed forces», «the Russian military pedagogics in the XX-th century beginning». Into system also enter individual work with the cadets showing interest to problems of psychology and pedagogics; the organisation of the psychological help to the cadets participating in teaching and educational work on younger courses; the organisation of the methodical help to cadets in preparation for carrying out of employment during military training.

The organisation of process of psihologo-pedagogical preparation in the course of studying of social and economic disciplines, pedagogics and psychology demands integrativnogo the approach in construction of its logic: logicians of activity of the future officer (to see difficulty); logicians of the theory (to describe difficulty in language of a corresponding science); logicians of practice (competently enough to participate in realisation of ways of the influence offered by practice) (B L.Barhaev, P.A.Korchemnyj, V.F.Perevalov).

From this position follows: to provide integrity of uchebno-informative process it is necessary to maintain on each employment this logic triedinstvo. It is possible not only during theoretical, but also practical preparation.

Most an effective remedy of optimisation of process of preparation at studying of military psychology and pedagogics, - marks Rags of Century N, use of active methods and training forms is: business game; brain storm; modelling of situations, competition, debate, seminars in the form of conference, a briefing, protection of author's projects, group trainings.

The organisation of employment with application of active methods is connected with performance of following requirements:

- As much as possible exact modelling of situations;

- Conformity of a role to "lost" official duties;

- Presentation and persuasiveness of modelling, realisation of an optimum variant of the decision of a game problem;

- Maintenance by cadets of close and productive contact with each other.

In the course of theoretical training it is expedient to use basic abstracts and schemes on military psychology and pedagogics, and also to apply in advance developed plan of studying of discipline by kinds of studies (the Appendix 2).

Obligatory component in an author's technique of psihologo-pedagogical preparation of cadets is the system of formation at cadets of skills and abilities of educational work.

In functional aspect as elements of such system act:

- Uchebno-methodical abilities: work with the book, ability to plan the work to organise independent work; designing of the maintenance and organizational forms, carrying out of studies;

- Skills of interpersonal dialogue: abilities to build the relation from the officer, teachers, ability to find the optimum form of a presentation of the requirement to subordinates, a pedagogical step, sociability, humour, skills of pedagogical dialogue;

- Possession of methods of studying of individually-psychological features: abilities to conduct psihologo-pedagogical supervision to lead informative discussion, to analyze and generalise documents, to make pedagogical experiment, possession of polling methods;

- Abilities to apply various forms of education: lectures, conversations, debates, release of the wall press, the organisation of competitions;

- Abilities of the organisation, management of individually-educational work: possession of methods, forms of individual educational influence on the person of the soldier, carrying out of individual conversation, conducting a pedagogical diary;

- Abilities to operate military collective: possession of methods of stimulation, the organisation, methods of work with leaders of collective, prompting to performance of problems;

- Abilities of the control, pedagogical correction: ability to a reflexion of pedagogical activity to put prospects, to correlate results to the purposes, problems, to establish the reasons of lacks, ability to see and overcome an error, readiness for best practices studying.

In work system on formation of abilities, skills of educational work at cadets the complex of methods and means (tab. 2) is used.

Table 2

Methods and means of preparation of cadets to educational work





Used forms of work on orientation of cadets to educational work with staff, development of qualities necessary for it, abilities, the basic ways of the organisation of work, the form of the control, the analysis and an estimation are presented in tables 3, 4, 5.

Efficiency of the given work is reached at the expense of following factors, conditions: moral and psychological maintenance, legal maintenance, military-social security, material support, personnel maintenance.

Are subject to the control Periodicity of the control

Performance of all actions of a comprehensive plan - During planned and sudden checks of chairs, divisions.

Formations KMN and NVR at cadets in high school.

Efficiency of educational work, its practical - Individual work, sociological and anonymous questions.

Orientation on the concrete person. A response from armies.

Studies.

Office activity of cadets of high school. Knowledge of requirements - At checks of current progress, practical kinds of studies, offsets and examinations.

OVU VS the Russian Federation, official duties.

Primernosti constant and variable structures of high school. - at summarising and definition of problems to constant and variable structures of high school.

Conditions of the law and order, military discipline and

Disciplinary practice.

As perspective ways of perfection of the given system it is visible the following:

- Strengthening of a practical orientation of educational work;

- Stimulation of activity of the cadets who have achieved considerable successes;

- Formation at cadets of responsibility for development of skills and abilities in educational work;

- Perfection of methodical and oratorical skill of cadets, their active attraction for carrying out of educational actions;

- Working out of methodical grants, recommendations and their introduction in practice of educational work;

- Improvement of quality of psihologo-pedagogical preparation of constant structure of high school.

The presented technology of the organisation and management of process of psihologo-pedagogical preparation of cadets of military-engineering high school is realised within five years that has formed the basis for skilled-experimental check of its efficiency.
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A source: Soloviev V.V.. The content and organization of psychological and pedagogical training of cadets of the military-engineering university. 2004

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