research of influence of mental conditions on activity and behaviour of staff in a campaign

Mental conditions are shown in behaviour of the person, in its actions and acts, in results of work, in mutual relations. Depending on activity conditions their influence can be various. However this interrelation cannot be understood rectilinearly, by a principle "stimulus-reaction".
It is shown oposredovanno by numerous individual and socially-psychological factors.

In the course of research it is established, that at definition of a role of mental conditions in long swimmings it is necessary to consider:

- Level of their development, degree of sensibleness and condition for strong-willed self-management;

- High degree of their dependence on a state of affairs by the ship and objective conditions of a campaign;

- Their relative stability on the periods of long swimming;

- Features of their interrelation with mental properties of the person of the seaman;

- Their variety and the certain limitation caused by character of concrete activity of the seaman;

In connection with the law of redistribution of influence of mental conditions of seamen established in the course of research since a household, daily life in base on the ship organisation of service in long swimming it with the greatest force is shown at execution of running watches, maintenance of the established level of alertness of the weapon and means, performance of all official duties. Therefore, first of all, commanders of the ships and divisions aspire to stimulate at subordinates of a condition of peace of mind, internal confidence in the successful decision of fighting problems, vigilance and readiness for actions in difficult and dangerous situations

The carried out research has shown, that in all cases when swimming problems were carried out with excellent and good estimations, mental conditions of seamen were characterised basically by high activity, responsibility for performance by each seaman of the duties. The similar positive orientation of mental conditions was marked without dependence from time of long swimming.

The analysis of mental conditions in the conditions of failure or unsatisfactory performance of fighting problems has shown, that in the majority mental conditions of staff in these cases, as a rule, had a negative orientation and were characterised by low activity, indifference, indifference.

If to take all cases of failure of uchebno-fighting problems for 100 % on a share of negative mental conditions of staff it is necessary more than 85 %. Therefore they draw to themselves steadfast attention of commanders of the ships and divisions. But in the centre of this attention there are not mental conditions of seamen, and their consequence more often. From here – displacement of accent from the reason on consequences, and, as result, superficial, and frequently and incorrect recommendations for their overcoming. As a rule, this strengthening of insistence, an intensification of fighting study, the control over observance of operational instructions. Utility of these measures does not cause doubts. But to be applied they should with the account of concrete conditions. Otherwise and they can cause a boomerang effect. According to research more than 30 % of unsatisfactory estimations for performance of fighting problems in long swimming are received because of staff overfatigue by preparation for them.

Thus, the role of mental conditions of staff in performance of fighting problems consists that they make positive or negative impact on actions of seamen, raise or reduce their activity at performance of functional duties.
Level of emotional stability of seamen, purposefulness of concrete actions depends on them on overcoming of arising difficulties, speed of reactions, clearness and clearness of accepted decisions, and quality of their realisation.

In the course of research the analysis of the reasons of breakdown susceptibility world trading is carried out and naval fleet, agrees which more than 85 % of all failures occurs because of the human factor, in that числе72 % because of negative mental conditions of ship experts. It is thus established, that the negative mental conditions of seamen which are the reason of occurrence of emergencies, characterise behaviour and activity of ship experts not only in execution of official duties, but also during other time: on employment, at actions under ship schedules, in a life. They define themselves all set of relations and mutual relations of seamen and are shown in all spheres of their life.

It is established also, that mental conditions of seamen can not only provoke, but also warn failures.

During research 178 cases of prevention of emergencies, navigating incidents and various malfunctions of mechanisms are analysed. Behaviour and actions of seamen thus testified, that they were in a condition of high activity, vigilance and alertness. At failure occurrence for the reasons independent of the person similar conditions allow to conduct successful struggle for survivability of the ship.

At the same time research has confirmed, that emergency conditions inevitably have strong influence even on those soldiers who are at present in a condition of full mobilisation and internal readiness for any unexpectedness. With special force this influence is shown at the very beginning of failure when conditions demand immediate transition to resolute actions on its liquidation. The analysis of behaviour and activity of seamen during failures shows, that at many of them already in a preemergency signs of increase of intensity, anxiety, alarm or, on the contrary, internal concentration, concentration, vigilance are shown. Has put here not in a presentiment or intuition, and in those changes which precede emergency creation (complication of conditions of swimming, necessity of the forced modes for work of technics and the mechanisms, available in the past, but the lacks not eliminated up to the end). At one it it is shown in infringement of habitual perception of surrounding conditions, derivation of attention on minor, not having the direct relation to struggle for survivability of the ship of event and the phenomenon, delay of process of thinking, absence of clearness in concrete actions, at others, on the contrary, in clearness of perception, concentration of attention on the most important events and the phenomena, clearness and speed of thinking, resoluteness in actions and acts.

The analysis of all data received during research testifies, that increase of mental intensity during failure as well as in any stressful situation, in most cases renders nevertheless not positive, but negative influence on staff actions.

Because the emergency is necessarily accompanied by increase of mental intensity of the person, it can be considered as such phenomenon on which it is easy to define degree of psychological preparation of crew of the ship to struggle for survivability. Hence, successful struggle against negative influence of mental intensity on behaviour and staff activity is possible only by preliminary psychological preparation.

It is necessary to notice, that psychological readiness as the basic condition of reduction of negative influence of mental intensity in an emergency demands special and purposeful work on its formation. It cannot arise in itself in the course of daily trainings and doctrines on struggle for survivability. Moreover, doctrines and the trainings spent without the account of requirements of psychological preparation, can create preconditions of strengthening of psychological intensity and its even more negative influence in case all attention at their carrying out addresses only on imitation of difficulties, but possibilities of their successful overcoming are lost track.

The analysis of physiological features at execution of ship watch has allowed to define a role of mental conditions of seamen in performance of the duties by them on watch. However the characteristic of these features is complicated by that conditions of execution of watch by the various ships and fighting posts though have much in common, nevertheless essentially differ.

Nevertheless, under the maintenance activity of the log expert by any ship is defined by such typical, general circumstances for all which allow to consider it in the generalised kind. With that end in view in the course of research it is allocated four substantive provisions, characteristic for watch execution by any ship: the strict schedule on time (as a rule, twice within days for 4 hours); constant performance of the same duties (basically the camera maintenance); high requirements to intellectual and emotional spheres of the person; personal responsibility for performance of functional duties.

The account of these substantive provisions is of great importance for correct definition of those factors which can have essential influence on a condition of a bark of the big hemispheres of a brain and, hence, on mental conditions of log experts in various conditions of execution of watch. But special value those factors which are defined by character of activity of seamen on the watch which is under the maintenance of the camera in this respect have.

The major factor is personal responsibility of the log expert for the actions and acts. Depending on a mental condition of the seaman on watch the feeling of responsibility can stimulate its activity, and can and hold down it.

It is necessary to have also in a kind, that feeling of responsibility of the log expert, representing positive motive of activity, can cause its experiences and the relation differently. Depending on concrete conditions it can be shown in special concentration and vigilance of the soldier or, on the contrary, in rassredotochennosti and a carelessness.

Estimating a role of mental conditions in watch execution, it is necessary to start with I.P.Pavlova's known position that same razdrazhiteli various conditions of a bark of a brain can cause. Among them it is especially important to consider those razdrazhiteli which operate constantly, as though in one point.

“Dolblenie in one cage”, i.e. constant influence same razdrazhitelej at monotonous activity excluding active physical movement, increases possibility of occurrence of dozing (drowsy) conditions of an organism at many ship experts at watch execution. On some fighting posts (hydroacoustic, radar-tracking, administrative, etc.) as a result of such "dolblenija" the log expert is compelled to make considerable internal efforts during all watch to overcome this condition.

Negative influence of conditions on state of health of seamen especially considerably at execution of night watches. The carried out analysis has shown, that at an estimation of mental conditions of staff on watch, besides influence monotonii and monotony it is necessary to consider also conditions of placing of fighting posts, a microclimate in ship premises, gas structure of air, extraneous noise.

In the course of performance of duties on watch working capacity of the seaman does not remain invariable. The general orientation of these changes is full enough studied and scientifically proved. If to consider, that mental conditions of seamen on watch basically are expressed in capacity (though, certainly, the concept of capacity is much wider as includes all psychological possibilities of the person) it is possible to tell, what exactly they make direct impact on efficiency of concrete work.

It is established, that on mental conditions of readiness for watch depends not only the general working capacity, but also capacity, and dynamics of exhaustion in the course of all watch. This dynamics has the stages, phases and the periods which account helps to plan correctly actions for preparation for watch, to define its optimum duration and to carry out measures on increase of its efficiency.

Thus mental conditions of seamen can make positive or negative impact on quality of execution of ship watch. Special value has the account of physiological features of activity of the log expert, conditions of development of those or other conditions of a bark of the big hemispheres of a brain, character of influence various razdrazhitelej, possibilities of course of vozbuditelno-brake process. Being guided by the general laws of change of working capacity and capacity of seamen on separate stages, phases and the periods of execution of watch, commanders have the big possibilities for prevention of negative influence of weariness, for mobilisation of internal forces of soldiers on overcoming of difficulties by formation at them positive mental conditions.

From the point of view of dependence of discipline on mental conditions of staff it is established, that in long swimming the estimation of behaviour of the person changes. Its discipline is defined not to measures and the categories, accepted I protect. A basis for an estimation of activity of each seaman and crew as a whole here is the successful decision of the problems facing to the ship, trouble-free operation of technics and mechanisms, maintenance of high battle readiness of the weapon. Therefore requirements to staff are shown, first of all, on a circle of functional official duties. The estimation of behaviour of the seaman in a campaign, its discipline is defined mainly in relation to performance of fighting and daily schedules, execution of watches, observance of ship rules.

The field surrounding and specificity of problems solved by the ship influences mentality of the seaman, causing at it certain thoughts, feelings, experiences and conditions which are shown in the disciplined or undisciplined behaviour. At the analysis of this dependence only under the characteristic of mental conditions, following rather independent periods of long swimming which demand the special account and steadfast attention were allocated.

The first period – the campaign beginning. According to statistics on disciplinary practice at this particular time by the ships the greatest quantity of offences is made. Basically they are connected with staff omissions at execution of watches and wrong actions under ship schedules. To no small degree it is caused by difficult mental conditions of staff which are formed in the course of adaptation of an organism to conditions of a campaign and so-called lomki a base dynamic stereotype.

The second period comes, when mental conditions are stabilised at certain level of the optimum activity necessary for the successful decision of problems of swimming. The military order, organisation, discipline, as a rule, are at this time at high level. Separate acts of seamen become an unusual occurrence if they happen cause sharp reaction not only from command, but also the ship public. The analysis shows, that misconduct basically occur at this time on those fighting posts where activity of seamen has camera character, differs monotoniej and monotony.

In each long swimming the staff worries the periods of the highest psychological intensity. At this time many seamen can have heavy mental conditions which are quite often shown in behaviour in the form of infringement of ship rules, authorised mutual relations and other requirements of military discipline.

The big originality mental conditions of seamen at the final stage swimming differ, that also is reflected in discipline level in crew. As show researches, the majority of them occurs because of vigilance decrease, and also because of self-calmness and weariness.
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A source: Bronevitsky G.A.. Psychology of management of the mental states of sailors. 2002

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