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sources of military-psychological knowledge: approaches to the analysis and an estimation

Modern development of military-psychological researches is characterised by deep changes and new tendencies not only in their dynamics, but also in judgement of their results serving simultaneously istochnikovoj by base for the further scientific researches.
Differently, reorientation in the analysis of a historiographic basis of military psychology towards adequacy of a reality and objectivity of its estimation is planned.

As well as many other things spheres of humanitarian knowledge, the estimation istochnikovoj bases of military-psychological researches should be whole set of modern objective factors susceptible to influence among which are allocated:

The general increase of the importance of humanitarian priorities in psychological scientific knowledge;

Reconsideration of a role and place of psychological sciences in the conditions of the modern dynamically developing world;

pljuralizatsija filosofsko-world outlook and ideological bases of military-psychological work.

However it is important to note: the account of the given factors in the analysis of development of military-psychological researches occurs incidentally and spontaneously. Therefore observed and tightened here «the methodological respite» presses purposeful efforts of collectives of military scientists and psychologists on reflexion of its reasons and consequences, developments of ways and overcoming means. From here the requirement for the special methodological analysis of processes which are developed now in a domestic historiography on problems of military psychology, is quite obvious.

Thereupon it is necessary to notice, that last decades the military psychology has appeared in essentially new situation, demanding answers to some question of scientifically-world outlook character. It is necessary to carry the following to them:

Whether application of various approaches in an estimation of researches concerning military psychology is possible, realising thus pluralism and multi-variant approach principles?

What criteria of scientific character, objectivity and adequacy of reflexion of problems of military psychology in historiographic researches?

What degree sotsiokulturnoj and a scientific autonomy of a modern historiography of problems of military psychology?

In what measure domestic military psychologists can lean against experience and achievements of a domestic and foreign military psychological science?

Answering the put questions and analyzing the sciences which have developed in modern methodology approaches, in our opinion, it is lawful to pay attention on new, actively developed naukovedcheskie of tendency which would promote increase of adequacy of estimations of military-psychological researches. Their essence consists in attempt to generate a new image of a modern science on the basis of allocation of concrete criteria in style of thinking of researchers of various historical epoch. Thereupon we will notice, that in science history modern scientists allocate its classical, nonclassical and postnonclassical images or rationality types. We will remind their basic intrinsic and substantial lines.

The classical science originating from antiquity, was issued in a western civilisation of XVII century (kartezianskaja psychology) and the Education epoch (associative and empirical psychology).
It represented the world of a strict determinism and unambiguity of result (for example, model of a reflex ring of R.Descartes). As the basic ideal for scientists of this epoch the mathematics acted. The main value of any psychological research proclaimed knowledge, as a rule, about behaviour of the person, and the primary goal – reception of the true identical objective (especially natural, physical and, as consequence, mechanistic) realities. And the classical science about a shower, and then and about consciousness, assumed an exception of psychological knowledge of socially significant social and is subjective-personal values and the purposes which were considered as the factors "deforming" scientific result. However it is necessary to recognise, that approaches of authors so-called « Classical concepts »and for today are represented obvious and optimum in psychological researches of some levels (including in military sphere) to ignore which we have no right. Nevertheless, it is necessary to underline, that the question about so-called a classical science remains to" absolute cleanliness »till now debatable.

The nonclassical science which has arisen on a boundary of the XIX-XX-th centuries, has rejected an absolute determinism and has entered new criteria and ideals: perception of a reality (including mentalities and consciousnesses) not "in itself", and through the subject of knowledge and means used by it; judgement of communication between knowledge of object and character of means and operations of activity of the subject of knowledge as integral part of a cognizable reality. Results of psychological knowledge are defined any more only by specificity of the studied phenomenon, the fact or event, but also ways of interaction with it of the researcher, its "inclusiveness" in studied mental process, possibility to pass it «through themselves». The problem of the validity of psychological knowledge dares from positions reljativizma, relativities of theories and scientific paradigms. Affirms mozaichnost a complete picture of psychological knowledge, its past, the present and the future. There is characteristic an organizational-scientific registration of variety of informative psychological systems, directions and psychology schools. In a condition of "methodological confusion» scientists proclaim the epoch beginning of "open crisis» in psychology. The understanding in various spheres of human culture and its history of nevertheless accrues that the science, including and psychology, in many respects depends on social circumstances, from valuable and target orientations of knowledge.

The postnonclassical science (type of scientific rationality) starts to develop in last third of XX-th century and with accruing force is realised in the majority socially-humanitarian, including psychological researches. Integrating existing approaches, we will allocate the most significant works of line of a postnonclassical science: distribution of the interdisciplinary and problemno-focused forms of research activity, complex research programs, synthesis of fundamental and applied psychological researches; an intensification of processes of integration and differentiation in construction of a picture of psychological knowledge, aspiration to reflexion of a mental reality in which centre there is a person, problems of values and sense of its life; inclusion of valuable factors in structure of explaining positions of psychological research, the statement of a principle of historical reconstruction in psychological researches of various levels and areas; Increase of value for development of military psychology of social and economic, spiritual, political and other factors and the purposes, representation of a psychological science as the part of a life of a society determined by the general condition of culture.

The criteria of socially-humanitarian knowledge corresponding to a postnonclassical science, also are numerous and various. Short their essence obobshchenno is expressed by following distinctive signs:

poliontologichnost;

Actualisation of introspective approaches to studying of the person, its past and the present;

Recognition as priority value of knowledge of development and self-development of the person.

In military-psychological researches the postnonclassical type of scientific knowledge starts to be realised successfully in variety of dissertations, collective works and monographies. Their objective basis were sotsiokulturnye processes of 80-90 years of our century, the captured all spheres of ability to live of a human society, including psychological researches. Special value psychological problems here start to get «the victory prices» in wars and conflicts of the past and the present, psychological consequences of conducting operations, a various sort of reforms and reorganisation of Armed forces.

After an epoch when military actions were considered only as military-power oppositions, and first of all in physical sense, becomes more and more obvious, that the estimation of any military action in much bigger degree, than before, is a combination various, including psychological approaches. There is a further differentiation of a psychological picture of last wars and conflicts, processes of military building in the various countries and epoch. Preconditions for typology and revaluation change istochnikovoj bases of military psychology are created. Humanitarian aspects of their estimation are staticized.

Thereupon analytical activity on studying of military-psychological publications all in bolshej degrees is considered through a prism of objects and systems which are directly connected with the person. Historiographic researches cannot be under construction self-sufficing any more and egocentric image. Differently, military-historiographic researches on problems of military psychology should get expressed "chelovekorazmernost". Requirements to their teoretiko-methodological level From here increase. It is possible to believe with confidence, that now under the influence of common cultural and general scientific factors we are witnesses of formation of new tendencies of vision of the past and the present of military psychology.

At the same time, summing up the short review of informative paradigms in the analysis and an estimation of military-psychological researches, we will notice, that the change of one image of a science characterised in general by another does not need to be understood "mechanically" – uproshchenno in the sense that each new stage in science development leads to disappearance of norms, criteria and ideals of the previous stage, i.e. «scientific nihilism». In the course of change of "world outlook prisms» estimations of research results their continuity should be kept: restriction of "old" should co-exist with "new" – fruitfully to be used in concrete research situations and areas of military-psychological knowledge.

Let's bring some results of the characteristic of methodological aspects of the historiographic analysis of military-psychological researches.

Analysis and estimation directions istochnikovoj bases of military-psychological researches are based on dynamics of their following substantial components: understanding of a mental reality and consciousness of the person, psychological features of its activity within the limits of military system; influences on process of military-psychological research of means of informative activity; definitions of a role of valuable factors of military-psychological knowledge, including is subjective-personal values of the researcher; interpretations of a role and a place of military-psychological researches in military psychology and in the "big" science, culture, a society.

Actual and necessary objective result of development of a historiography of problems of military-psychological researches is its orientation to a postnonclassical image of a science. A direct basis of transition in historiographic researches of problems of military psychology to new ideals of scientific character is deideologizatsija and a humanisation of approaches and estimations, reconsideration of valuable priorities in the analysis of historical sources – consecutive introduction in its maintenance of the increasing quantity of the parametres characterising social, moral, i.e. human measurement of psychological knowledge by means of dialectic correlation with military-professional, state and universal values.

Influence of a postnonclassical science on dynamics of an image of military-psychological researches is not direct and unequivocal. First, it is carried out through a number sotsiokulturnyh spheres (state-political, social, ideological, moral and others). Secondly, non-uniformity of change of images of a science in concrete naukovedcheskih researches, coexistence possibility in them of various types of scientific thinking and their displays is shown. Thirdly, influence of general scientific processes on the maintenance of the analysis of sources of military psychology can be deformed by presence of variety of reductions.

The given aspects assume preservation in an estimation of development of military-psychological researches of some methodological autonomy – certain displays of conservatism with a view of its protection from unreasonable generalisations and approaches, hasty and hasty historical conclusions and decisions. The specified positions inevitably demand the further perfection of general scientific and teoretiko-methodological potential modern naukovedcheskih and historiographic means of the analysis of development of military-psychological researches.
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A source: Antsupov A.J., Pomogajbin V. N.. Methodological problems of military-psychological researches. 1999

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