specificity of military high school and its influence on professional adaptation of civil teachers to pedagogical activity

the Historiographic analysis shows, that achievements on preparation of graduates of military high schools are provided not only generalisation of classical experience, but also those theoretical preconditions which are saved up in a corresponding field of knowledge.
With reference to our research G.Sele's conceptual installations [158 have essential value; 159] which, in our opinion, possess powerful potential and akmeologicheskoj efficiency and consequently they should be considered both by preparation of graduates of military high schools, and in adaptable process of the teacher.

The key moment of this theory is the doctrine about the adaptation, i.e. adaptations of an organism to stresses (from English "stress" - pressure).

The author addresses to two vzaimoobuslovlennym to definitions:

— Stress as a condition of the pressure causing occurrence of set of protective behavioural and physiological reactions, adverse factors arising in reply to influence (stressorov);

— stressor as the reason causing a condition diskomfortnosti (stress).

As we see, the first is really caused by the second owing to operation causally (stressory) - investigatory (stresses) of communications.

In tab. 2 we result ranzhirovannaja sample stressorov, having direct or mediated the relation to educational process in military high school.

Table 2

Stressory, concerning military education system. Ranking is executed on the basis of expert estimations of civil teachers AVAI, 2001

The analysis listed razdrazhitelej (stressorov) shows, that they are real and accompany teaching and educational process in an education system as a whole and the military man in particular.

For example: default of the order (knocking over) (1st rangovoe a place), management of people (3); group density (for example, in barracks) - (11th); alarm (educational, fighting) - (14th); teaching - (15th); experiences - (16th), etc. (17th). Even from this list it is visible, that the whole spectrum stressorov which influences efficiency of work, both the pedagogical personnel, and trainees is really inherent in specificity of military high school.

Proceeding from G.Sele's theoretical conclusions, and also other authors, it is exclusively important to consider specific features of all participants of teaching and educational process. It is caused by various perception of stresses and a corresponding reflexion which is applied in a wide range from "extremely unpleasant" to the "extremely comfortable" sensation.

What razdrazhitelem the individual would not face, with it it can consult doubly:

• by means of active counteraction (blocking);

• it is passive, i.e. with readiness somehow to transfer adaptable difficulties didactic, methodical, komandirskogo, military and other plans.

However the result should be one - in both cases the person inevitably should adapt and get certain level of such readiness. Otherwise productivity of educational process will not be effective. Results testify to it is skilled-experimental researches, received by D.E.Brodbentom [205]. To them it is proved, that there is an accurate correlation of quality of professional work (EFFICIENCY) with degree of extremeness (capacity) of stressful influence (ESV), as is shown by us on fig.
3. From it follows, that the influence, the more low labour productivity is stronger.

EFFICIENCY on 5 mark scale

Fig. 3. Interrelation of quality profdejatelnosti (EFFICIENCY) and extremenesses of stressful influence (ESV) in works of different complexity: And - simple; In - average; With - difficult

Besides, the author establishes the second important tendency. Its essence consists that at as much as possible intensive stresses (III type), named in a science "distressom", undertaken efforts will be neutralised. Within the limits of military-pedagogical process similar actions become ineffective, for example, at the fighting alarm, a different sort "state of emergency" with application of the weapon, group or individual violence.

The last is connected by that cadets-first-year students and teachers-trainees have no experience of stressful blocking. On the other hand, at normal (I type) a stressful background - "eustressah" which is characteristic as a whole for pedagogical activity, teaching and educational process proceeds in average norm.

Considering the above-stated, in the work we leant on the scientific data received by researchers not only in Russia, but also abroad, including. On the standard classification of stresses [78] (tab. 3).

Table 3

Stressful influences

The executed theoretical review will be incomplete if not to shine other aspects of stressful influences:

• "stress-typicalness" influence (original predisposition of a part of people to defeat by stresses). They are people so-called "sizifova" type, as a rule, hypochondriac, nizkoproduktivnye. Other behavioural reaction and efficiency of work at persons of other type: quiet, self-assured, correctness of the business (V.G.Aseev). With "intermediate" stress - typicalness psychologists (O.A.Ahverdova, I.V.fight, N.N.Voloskova) carry categories of persons to so-called "borderline";

• a role of psychological discomfort which is reduced to variety change psiho - fizio - and sociological indicators, for example, tobacco smoking strengthening, an alcoholism, a suicide [78];

• influence ZUN and experience "nataskivanija" on I.D.Ladanovu that is characteristic for the western pedagogics in sphere of the military man and police formation. If to depart from household understanding of this term towards scientific lexicon it is possible to find such synonyms: uchebno-training experience, adaptable training. He successfully helps faster and to adapt more deeply (in wide social sense) for business in general and professional career in particular (G.Fridland, R.Littl);

• sexual distinctions as a "stress-typicalness" indicator. American researcher G.V.Evans has paid attention to various perception of stresses men and women. At the first after office density and pressure the aspiration to a solitude, at the second - not realised bent for sotsiopetalnomu to behaviour ("female unity"), at times to the detriment of business is noticed. Our supervision confirm these facts which are taking place in purely female collectives or there where is not present optimum balanced (approximately 50 %: 50 %) on biological (sexual) structure of staff of workers;

• temperature, humidity, noise. The environment ecology brings the direct contribution to working capacity of teachers and trainees, efficiency of teaching and educational process;

• the combined stresses are characterised by complexity on structure and the maintenance. They have received the greatest distribution in pedagogical, military and, in particular, military-student teaching. For example, during preflight preparations on simulators, parachute jumps, active inclusion in flight practice.

It is obvious, that if stresses conducted only by lethal outcomes it would be impossible to talk about any effective military-educational activity. The science and practice have saved up certain positive experience of their blocking not only in high schools of power structures, but also, partly, in the civil higher school. All are united by one major requirement - desire to prevent adverse consequences of stressful influences (tab. 4).

Table 4

Methods of preventive maintenance of average and powerful razdrazhitelej on the basis of expert estimations of civil teachers AVAI (cuts 1983-1997гг.)

To preventive maintenance distressov it is enough examples of the complex approach. Their number concern: technicians of the blocking used by preparation of officer shots of the Great Britain [78]; practice of activity of high schools of Germany [208] and Japan [151], Bulgaria [18] and Mexico [207]. From here follows, that the combined stresses are blocked on the basis of the complex approach. Visually this communication is illustrated by us with the help fig. 4.

The analysis of structure and the maintenance of this modelling design shows, that it has the balanced character. It proves to be true following facts: in model character and specificity of work of the faculty are considered; systems of supports are accurately designated, beginning from individual self-checking and auto-training and before support of group of colleagues (companions).

In such variant the scheme is as much as possible adapted for practical approbation within the limits of an investigated problem. Feature of functioning of base (AVAI) and object (teachers-employees) of research is that military high school not only educational system, but also simultaneously military unit that it is necessary to consider to the full at professional selection and updating of process of adaptation and inclusion of civil teachers in professional work.

Fig. 4. The scheme of complex preventive maintenance and blocking disfunktsionalnyh razdrazhitelej (Factors "specificity" and "auto-training" are introduced for the first time)

Summing up to the above-stated, we will notice, that in the higher school in whole and in military in particular there are adaptable problems. However their level of scrutiny is various. Scientific data of the theoretical and practical plan about professional adaptation of the faculty of civil high schools is available much more, than similar data about adaptation to the trade of teachers-employees of the higher military educational institutions of Russia.

For the teacher-employee of the Russian Army specificity of military high school consists and in those especial conditions in which it carries out the professional duties. We will result most typical of them, leaning on criterion "a constancy + a simultaneity of displays" [14]:

• an army way of life of all military men in high school;

• barracks position of variable structure (cadets);

• authorised discipline;

• basically a unisex man's contingent of teachers, military men and trainees;

• military attributes and equipment of cadets and military men;

• a privacy mode, closeness of a place of a disposition;

• a guard duty of cadets and military men with the weapon in hands;

• stratification of pedagogical collective vvuza on military men and civil (in a number vvuzov - smeshanyh) with corresponding microclimates;

• battle readiness of staff;

• presence of the rigid control of activity from command;

• psychological intensity;

• limitation of official growth of teachers-employees frameworks «the teacher - the chief of not military chair»;

• their discharge from participation in training senior (IV-V) courses and a management of final qualifying works (degree projects;

• limitation of access to the office documentation, and also in subjects and the maintenance of own printing works;

• absence in high schools of the Russian Federation of special faculties on preparation of civil teachers for work in vvuzah, etc.

Studying of the listed signs testifies to their scale. Their set makes visible, i.e. an external contour of functioning of the teacher of military high school. Besides, there is a socially-psychological component which has simultaneously kollektivistsko-personal character. It is a bearing core of integralno-individual adaptation of collective of the teachers involved in teaching and educational process of high school.

According to Z.Heda in the Russian Federation together with the former CIS every fourth higher school which is on state budgetary financing is about 185 military high schools, i.e. almost. With the account of the civil faculty and the technical personnel it makes about 50 % from all constant structure occupied in teaching and educational process.

The analysis of personnel structure of teachers of military high schools testifies to its rotation on reorganizatsionnym, gerontologicheskim, valeologicheskim, migratory, family and many other things to the reasons. Teachers come to these high schools from schools, officers in resignation, other experts. In the bulk they have incomplete idea about specificity of pedagogical work in the military higher school, and at times and low level of motivation. In practice the facts of employment of persons for such reasons are noted: «there is no place to go more to work», «I Live nearby», «the Husband the officer», «I do not wish to sit at home on pension».

So, for example, in one of high schools (Kiev) took place a case when within an academic year 13 civil teachers have been dismissed, including one doctor of sciences, the professor and 16 teachers - trainees are again accepted.

Losses of these workers and on other high schools of the country (for example, IVVAIU, Irkutsk) are considerable, and in a number of cities they reach 100 % owing to a different sort of reorganisation and change of places of dispositions from the former republics CIS and the Russian Federation.

The concept «specificity of military high school» was defined till now rather vaguely. As the base formulation we consider possible to use already known [15, С.137] which quite probably to transform, proceeding from the purpose of our work: specificity of high school-multifactorial, difficult, interconnected and vzaimoobuslovlennaja, constantly developing under the internal laws and tendencies the functional characteristic of the higher school uniting in a single whole concrete high school (as the opened pedagogical system) and a product of its activity.

Let's consider this base term in a context of its volume, the maintenance and dynamics.

1. Treatment volume. It covers all high schools, except for the higher military educational institutions. However this treatment can be sproetsirovana on military high schools.

2. The maintenance. «An open condition of pedagogical system...» Means one - its openness to society while in military high school are inherent a different sort of restriction on interaction with external public structures. The last should be considered in the reconstructed definition.

3. Dynamics. This characteristic demands the additional explanatory. It is caused by three major tendencies inherent in specificity of military high school:

• presence of a certain constancy in display of all signs resulted by us above;

• a steady simultaneity of their influence practically on all and each participant of teaching and educational process;

• possibility of gradual acquisition of demanded level of positive adaptation as the faculty, and trainees.

On the basis of told it is possible to formulate definition: specificity of the higher military school is the special complex characteristic representing set of military statusno-authorised and professional requirements and relations between all participants of teaching and educational process.

For military high school these requirements share (conditionally enough) on in-insko-authorised and professional; considered relations cover as the relation between adapting variable structure (cadets) and employees of the Russian army, and the relation in the faculty; here relations of the faculty with a management of military high school and the corresponding ministry also enter. The military high school in most cases should be considered as the closed (closed) pedagogical system intended for release of a specialised educational product-pilots, navigators, etc.

In the scientific plan specificity can be carried to fundamental property, a sign or the factor. It gives in to allocation from a file of other parametres, ordering, the analysis and organizational-pedagogical updating as from within (forces and means of the high school), and from the outside (at federalno-command level).

Specificity of military high school renders that many-sided (complex) influence on adaptation of all participants of teaching and educational process. Researchers [12; 19; 99; 122, etc.] mark variety of characteristic changes which accompany this influence:

• occurrence of new stereotypes of mental property (in consciousness, thinking, behaviour);

• expansion of knowledge, skills according to trade requirements;

• rupture former and acquisition of new industrial contacts;

• a reflexion of behavioural reactions, etc.

Under all other equal conditions intensity of influence of specificity of military high school on the teacher-employee is various and depends on its experience of work, age, base formation, presence or absence of a scientific degree and (or) ranks and many other things professional and personal characteristics.

It is revealed, what even presence of a scientific degree at the teacher not always is a reliable pedagogical guarantee of successful overcoming of versatile adaptable difficulties, especially at a stage of initial inclusion in teaching and educational process.

In tab. 5 data about the reasons of difficulties of beginning teachers in adaptation are cited.

Table 5

The analysis of the resulted materials testifies that at the small experience of work all indicators of difficulties of adaptation, basically, are maximum.

Besides, even it is not enough three years of pedagogical work for overcoming of seven of nine presented difficulties. The last means, that the two-year-old stage of occurrence in professional work which is known as formation, in most cases can be accepted only as an initial step of professional adaptation, as the bottom level sformirovannosti adaptable readiness. This circumstance is of great importance in respect of definition and correction of this level.

Let's comment thereupon on one of office documents. In it it is noticed, that:

• to carrying out of the first employment the beginning teacher is supposed only after careful and versatile 3 monthly adaptable preparations;

• by the beginning teacher trial lectures (for the senior teachers and above) should be read and to be spent a practical training (for assistants and teachers) with their subsequent discussion on corresponding chair and decision removal;

• the attachment of the official instructor from among highly competent senior lecturers and professors is necessary;

• any question of any difficulty of colleagues-trainees should not remain without answers and the help of chair;

• it is necessary to make «the formation Plan» with prospect of a passing examinations of a candidate minimum, training at «School of the young teacher», work on a dissertation theme.

Similar points has and corresponding document AVAI. Their maintenance testifies that command of military high schools pays certain attention to this problem. However to establish, this attention is how much effective is embodied not in documents, and in practice, difficult enough. Closeness of military high school limits the list of techniques of research for the civil teacher. So, for example, the pedagogical experiment spent by the civil teacher in the conditions of the higher military school, is practically impossible, that once again underlines presence of specificity of professional work.

The analysis of activity of military high school shows, that the basic form of acquisition of additional knowledge and abilities is self-education. As marked N.A.Rubakin: «any present formation is extracted only by independent formation». Our supervision confirm this statement to the full. Kinds of self-educational work of the teacher are systematised by us in tab. 6.

Table 6

Forms of independent work of civil teachers of military high schools (ranking on cuts 1998 - 2001)

The analysis of this information testifies to the following. The list of ways and kinds of self-educational work a little other, rather than in system of the civil higher school. For example, study of the office documentation occupies in military high school of more time as in it relations of participants of teaching and educational process are regulated in more details. In a certain measure this work is connected with the first point — «bibliographic search». This part of amateur performance is caused by necessity of mastering by special knowledge which generally the teacher before work in military high school had no. Requirements of corresponding trades define necessity of development by it of additional knowledge (military men, flight, mate).

Differently, it is impossible is high-grade to train cadets if knowledge formed at them, skills are insufficiently connected with their future work. As an example the data are presented to tab. 7, concerning two trades got by cadets AVAI.

Table 7

The additional knowledge transferred to cadets of flight and mate specialities (A cut on chair of foreign languages 1999/2001)

The analysis of the data presented to tab. 7, shows the following. Generally the civil high school preparing teachers of foreign languages, does not give that special knowledge of terminological and leksiko-colloquial character necessary for their fruitful work in military schools of a different profile. To many teachers of a foreign language beginning the activity in the military higher school, it is necessary to master in addition the terminology of dialogue concerning the military environment.

In our opinion, the above-stated testifies that actually without extensive and deep self-educational activity in military high schools not to manage. As the logic consequence - without this part of professional work cannot be and speeches about adaptable readiness of a considered category of pedagogical workers.

Thus, specificity of military high school exists really. It has difficult, multidimensional structure and the maintenance. The first defines the military status of these institutions (high school + military unit) which is characterised by a relative constancy and a simultaneity of displays of many signs. The second enters into a subject field of our research, is characterised by hierarchy and large number of the required parametres (factors) to which statement the following section of the dissertation is devoted.
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A source: Pavrozin A.V.. Professional adaptation of teachers-employees of the Russian army to pedagogical activity in military high school. 2003

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