Techniques of revealing of level of optimisation of teachers of chair of physical training of military aviation-engineering high school

the Methodological basis of research of optimisation in pedagogical psychology make three basic concepts:

-lichnostno-dejatelnostnyj the approach which has received development in works by B.G.Ananeva (9), A.N.Leonteva (119);

-Organizational - dejatelnostnyj the approach and, in particular, the concept of the scientific organisation of pedagogical work of I.P.Rachenko;

- The concept of a humanisation of the formation, realised in a domestic science in I.B.Kotovoj, E.N.Shijanova's works (101; 202).

Proceeding from positions of these concepts, we consider methodological approaches in research of optimisation of activity of the teacher of physical training of military aviation engineering high school.

The estimation of level of optimisation of activity of the teacher of physical training is inevitably connected with concept and diagnostics process how it understand in the most general sense: an establishment and studying of the signs, systems characterising by a condition, for a prediction of possible deviations and prevention of infringements of a normal mode of their work (203, with. 160). In our case diagnostics of level of optimisation of activity of the teacher of physical training is an establishment and studying of signs and the properties characterising a condition of system of complete pedagogical activity of the teacher of physical training for the purpose of development of optimum modes of activity of the teacher within the limits of educational process with the account of the specification and features of physical training - prepodavaemogo a subject.

Problems of our research are defined by its praktiko-focused character that is connected with necessity of definition of psychological conditions of optimisation of activity of the teacher of physical training. In view of pedagogical character of carried out research, us the remedial aspect of optimisation, and the analysis of the productive party of the given phenomenon interests.

According to E.D.Bozhovich, the concept of praktiko-focused diagnostics is now one of the most widespread in pedagogics and didactics (36, with. 14). Such position does not prevent to specify to data of the researcher that the question on process and remedial features of the doctrine remains opened that is caused by specificity of a parity of training and the doctrine. In system of concepts dejatelnostnogo the approach to training research is a transfer to the pupil of social experience in the form of theoretical knowledge of the organisation - methodical and practical usvoeny impellent skills, and the doctrine is especially organised the activity (pupil), directed on mastering of this experience (36, with. 16).

So obvious communication of processes of training and the doctrine leads to necessity of their consideration for interaction. Besides, the understanding of interaction of training and the doctrine allows us to place these processes in frameworks of uniform structural model of activity of the teacher of physical training of military aviation engineering high school. Diagnostic research of optimum realisation of model of activity gives possibility to study process and remedial features, both training, and doctrines, stand only the reservation, that the doctrine will be investigated to training means - activity of the teacher as a dominating kind of activity. We consider, that diagnostics of level of optimisation of activity of the teacher of physical training is possible, as has already been noted, from positions lichnostno-dejatelnostnogo the approach in a combination to principles NOPT and a formation humanisation.
It gives possibility research of activity not only from the remedial point of view, but also stochki zreny the system approach whereas the concept of the organisation has got general scientific categories in connection with studying of principles of a structure of difficult dynamic systems (remedial aspect) and laws of their functioning (3. With. 99). The named phenomenon has, among other, a socially-psychological explanation: in an information society the work organisation rises on new, is stronger - is information, for what the information standard of work (51, ss is required. 153-155). Whereas NOPT the statement is professional display of the general of NOTES the last it is represented applicable in characteristics of a subject of our research.

Pedagogical diagnostics - a component of teaching and educational process appears, on E.D.Bozhovich "adhered" to a lesson, facultative employment and to any other forms of study (36, with. 18). In the light of our researches diagnostics is adhered as to pedagogical conditions of optimisation of activity of the teacher of physical training. In a consequence, the pedagogical maintenance of optimisation of activity of the teacher of physical training should change, that as it was specified above, is connected with the formation maintenance.

In organizational sense the structural model of activity of the teacher of physical training acts as complete independent system of administrative activity directed on maintenance of continuous perfection of pedagogical qualification and is professional-pedagogical skill (243, with. 12).

The pedagogical essence of optimisation of activity of the teacher of physical training is caused by presence personal and dejatelnostnogo components of its structure when as specified O.S.Sametis, management of organizational activity of people is always connected with creation of motives (190,


On the basis of the analysis of aspects of functioning of the pedagogical maintenance of principles of realisation of structural model of activity of the teacher of physical training we formulate the basic requirements of the organisation of pedagogical activity:

1) creation of adequate conditions of uchebno-pedagogical activity (high school maintenance with is minimum sufficient means of conducting the educational process, the favorable relation intrahigh school administration, creation of favorable conditions of performance of duty);

2) presence of scientifically proved approach to the organisation of pedagogical activity of the teacher of physical training and educational activity of cadets (realisation of principles lichnostno-dejatelnostnogo the approach in training of physical training, principles of the scientific organisation of pedagogical work, a humanisation of educational process);

3) sufficiency of level of professional subject and pedagogical knowledge and experience of the teacher of physical training (is minimum sufficient knowledge prepodavaemoj disciplines, is professional-pedagogical ability it to teach, high valuable orientation of own activity and ability adequately to focus activity of cadets);

4) sufficiency of level obuchaemosti cadets (ability of perception of a studied material readiness for its perception target motivation of the doctrine).

Proceeding from the formulated requirements, we define criteria of optimisation of activity of the teacher of physical training:

1) is minimum sufficient level of knowledge of cadets on physical training, but I do not string satisfactory according to the accepted rating scale;

2) performance by cadets of requirements of the state educational standard and программы_изучения physical training;

3) adequate level of valuable orientations of graduates with a view of likelihood possibility of application of skills on physical training of professionally practical activities.

The listed requirements and criteria of optimisation of activity of the teacher of physical training of military high school are methodological a substantiation of diagnosing of level of optimisation of this activity.

The pedagogical diagnostics, process of activity of the teacher of physical training serving to perfection is its integral part. It investigates process of educational activity. During researches preconditions, conditions and results of educational process for the purpose of its optimisation or a substantiation of value of its results for a society (41 are studied, with. 4).

As any praktiko-focused pedagogical technology, diagnostics of educational process should have following purposes: 1) internal and external correction in case of an incorrect estimation of results of training; 2) definition of blanks in training; 3) acknowledgement of successful results of training; 4) planning of the subsequent stages of educational process; 5) motivation by means of encouragement for success in study and regulation of complexities of the subsequent steps; 6) improvement of conditions of study (92, with. 5.) . However such understanding of the purposes of diagnostics assumes to consideration of educational activity from a position of the pupil, to be exact, from a position of resultants of properties of pedagogical influences on it. Us interests diagnostics actually process of the teacher of physical training. It does not mean, that we consider the named activity in a separation from activity of the cadet. It is a question of interaction of these two kinds of activity and its research as the complete structure possessing interactive character.

By B.F.Lomova's definition, activity studying in pedagogics basically has been directed on disclosing of relations of the subject to object (121. With. 21). Simultaneously with it it is necessary to consider, that pedagogical activity differs from other kinds of activity by that in it object and the subject of education are in dialectic unity and vzaimoperehode. Such specificity of pedagogical activity leads psychologists to studying the subject-objective and the subject-subject of relations which, on J.N.Kuljutkina's expression, form complete structure of joint activity of pupils in the set. The main task of the teacher thus - to put the subject of educational activity trained in a position. The same author notices, that there are two types of the relations characterising the person as the subject of educational activity: the relation "subject-object", i.e. the relation of the trainee to studied object, the relation "subject-subject", i.e. The relation of the trainee to other people together with which educational activity (112 is carried out, ss. 28-29).

Interactive character of pedagogical activity influences, in turn, the whole complex of the phenomena connected with it and processes: management and motivation of educational process, and also a professional orientation of training to physical training. Thus, pedagogical diagnostics assumes research of the named complex of processes and the phenomena, i.e. Optimum realisation of activity of the teacher of physical training in the conditions of military aviation-engineering high school. Our understanding of diagnostics thereupon corresponds I.P.Rachenko's to definition which considers, that «diagnostics is the branch of psychopedagogics developing, carrying out and interpreting methods of measurement and an estimation of individually-psychological features of the person, and also conditions or levels of development of this or that phenomenon, process by means of diagnostic methods» (173, with. 49). On a level of development of process of activity of the teacher of physical training interests us as the diagnosed phenomenon.

It is considered, that management of educational process is the specific kind of intellectual activity realising ability of the teacher to influence on subjects by a scientific substantiation, planning, the organisation and the control of their activity and to achieve on this basis of the real educational purposes. As O.B.Mihajlov marks, development of creative informative activity of pupils, motivations of the doctrine depends on an optimum choice of methods of training in system of teaching of various subjects. Thereupon the researcher specifies, that management of educational process demands from the teacher of physical training of the big work on selection of the maintenance, forms and methods, correlation with private didactic and general problems of training and development, the account of psychological features of mastering (144, with. 165). The didactic relation of the author to management of educational process does not stir to revealing of organizational aspect of this activity when «management of educational process in the conditions of an optimum choice of methods of training stimulates organizational abilities of teachers» (144, with. 166).

Presence of organizational aspect of professional work of the teacher connects it with principles of the scientific organisation of pedagogical work and with principles lichnostno-dejatelnostnogo the approach. One of necessary conditions of the successful organisation of employment is the establishment of an optimum climate on employment, ability to organise optimum pedagogical dialogue. Character and the maintenance of pedagogical dialogue are defined, according to the researchers, many factors among which style of dialogue and installation of the teacher (96 is defining; 118;) . Psychological conditions of management are connected by educational process with understanding of the term «pedagogical system» by which mean set of the interconnected purposes of education, formation and training of rising generation and adult people (143, with. 10). It is necessary to include development and perfection of the person In number of components of this system trained with the account of its individually-age features. So, management in training in cybernetic sense consists in maintenance of optimum transition of dynamic system in the set program condition the optimal by (247, with. 36). Perfection of the maintenance of training is impossible without optimisation of the structure of educational process and transition to the scientific organisation of the structure of educational process and transition to the scientific organisation. It is obviously necessary to us to optimise all process of activity of the teacher of physical training, considering it as optimum structural model of activity.

The understanding of an optimality of management of process of training to physical training is caused by presence of a problem of a management efficiency by uchebno-informative activity of cadets. Actually the optimality of activity of the teacher of physical training can be considered as its peak efficiency in a broad sense in concrete conditions of realisation higher educational an institution. Experimental data confirm thought on necessity of use in each concrete case pedagogicheski expedient receptions, methods and the forms of training applied separately or in various optimum combinations.

V.A.Yakunin notices, that the learning efficiency in high school reaches by means of a number of pedagogical conditions. Creation of perspective model of the expert on which basis rational construction of is substantial-time structure of the curriculum of vocational training of the trained is carried out, first of all, concerns them. The subsequent realisation of this structure in obshche strategy of the organisations of educational process should predetermine objectively formation in the set sequence of necessary professionally and socially significant qualities necessary professionally at the cadet. In this connection it is important profiling of subject matters as means of optimisation of designing (selection and streamlining) the educational information on the basis of an estimation and its account professional (practical), between - and an importance intrasubject th. A variety of ways of development of logic structure of a subject urged to provide the fullest and system mastering of its maintenance by cadets with various individual psychological features (251; 252, ss. 24-26).

With reference to training to physical training in military aviation-engineering high school, speech should go about a professional orientation of this training.

In training to physical training the primary goal of the cadet - a problem of creation of base on which all further development of impellent skills should be under construction. These abilities should make a complex bazalnyh the abilities necessary for all kinds of sports activity.

Revealing of structure of intellectual activity trained to physical training finds out interrelation of structural and functional components. Structural components are reflected in aggregate knowledge trained, functional set of skills. Knowledge, skills is the basic components of intellectual activity connected with the decision of educational and practical problems on physical training. Thus value defines the substantial party of this activity, and skills - operational. Both parties are closely connected and vzaimoobuslovleny.

However it is not enough to define specificity of structure of process of activity of the teacher and the cadet in training to physical training. In the diagnostic plan important motivational party of this activity. The account and management of motivation in educational process extremely promotes increase of efficiency of educational activity. It is established, that the knowledge mo-tivatsionnoj bases of concrete process of the doctrine is equivalent to knowledge of motive power of this process. Any, even very qualified teacher will not reach desirable result if its activity is not co-ordinated with a motivational basis of concrete process of the doctrine.

The complex motivation is called among the general principles of training of physical training. Thus efficiency of educational process starts to depend more and more on those stimulus which the teacher to cause interest is capable to gather additionally, to raise, motivation of educational activity of the trained. These stimulus cannot be identical during all curriculum. But the positive motivation - difficult concept which includes interest to the given kind of physical activity, desire to study, possibility practically to apply impellent skills further, understanding of advantages of good physical development.

In spite of the fact that the natural motivation in educational process is not always achievable, it is known, that the motivation is influenced by conditions of the organisation of activity. Thereupon we mark a special role of the teacher of physical training, as organizer of teaching and educational process.

In a context of concept "organizer" we consider motivational management which is purposeful influence of the teacher of physical training on motivational sphere by means of norm-sample of activity (an optimum variant) and its socially-psychological conditions interiorizatsii at which the motivational sphere it it is reconstructed adequately laid down administrative aims (242, ss.4-5).

L. M.Fridman noticed, that the major problem of the teacher is training of pupils to skills rationally to study, training to any subject should be considered as training of pupils of own activity on studying and mastering by the subject maintenance. Educational activity it is possible and should organise in the form of educational amateur performance (234, ss.20-26). It also is, in our opinion, self-organising of cadets, their organizational development by means of self-actualisation, certainly, not without participation of the teacher.

Such understanding of self-organising in educational process leads to a conceptual field of the pedagogical heuristics which essence, on J.M.Kuljutkinu, is reduced to working out of methods of purposeful management of cerebration of trainees. The problem of the teacher, in this case, consists in helping the pupil to solve independently problems and to lead to its independent opening (113). The development of creative thinking consisting is connected With process of "opening of knowledge», by A.M.matjushki's definition, in maintenance of possibilities of creative mastering of knowledge (140, ss also.


In development of ideas of self-organising trained to physical training in pedagogics there is an approach according to which trained are not only operated, how many homing system with potential possibility (ability) to self-organising which, however, is not cash (valid), it needs to train, operate its formation specially. In A.B.Tmenov's same communication notices, that homing systems are characterised by reflexion, both external operating influences, and own conditions, than and the teacher should be guided at the organisation of operating activity (225, with. 7).

Generalisation of pedagogical and metodiko-didactic sights at features of educational process on physical training leads us to a conclusion about existence of certain system of the pedagogical influences which properties and need to be diagnosed in an experimental research of optimisation of activity of the teacher of physical training. A number of researchers specify in the given context not only in presence of such influences, but also on their substantial aspect.

By means of experimental pedagogical diagnostics we investigate real qualities and properties of activity of the teacher to physical training of military aviation engineering high school.

Experimental research carrying out (as complex of tests) or experimental influence (single experiment) is connected with reliability of data, validnostju experimental techniques.

The purpose of any experimental research - to make so that the conclusions based on limited quantity of data, remained authentic outside of experiment (64, with. 54).

In connection with generalisation of results of experiment there is a necessity revealing of concepts «validnosti the test», «validnost experiment».

In pedagogics validnost the test is degree of conformity of parametres (bases) otsenivanija measured activity or function. Validnost-one of the basic indicators of quality. The problem validnosti arises in process to working out and practical application of the test when the problem is put to establish conformity between degree of expressiveness of interesting property of the person a method of its measurement (173, с.48).

In experimental pedagogics the concept "validnost" is expressed through conformity of ideal experiment to the real. And reliability of results which provides real experiment in comparison with ideal, name internal validnostju. (76, with. 99.) Besides, researchers allocate konstruktnuju validnost, expressing adequacy of a method of interpretation of experimental data of the theory, operational validnost and external validnost, that is shipping of results from laboratory conditions for real processes and their generalisation on other spheres of a reality (76, ss. 100 - 101).

In our research external validnost it is important, because offered experiment does not simulate a reality, and in a complex it investigates, confirming definition of pedagogical experiment: it does not model a reality, and only its beret as base, bases of research and a source of reception of experimental data.

Expression «the test validen», as a matter of fact, is synonymic to expression «the test always measures correctly». Hence, experimental check validnosti the test consists in an establishment of correctness of the measurements spent with its help that assumes presence at the experimenter of a trustworthy information about presence or absence of object of measurement i.e. that this object has been measured by means of this or that authentic (validnogo) a method. Last also represents criterion validnost the test.

As generalisation we will result S.I.Arkhangelsk's statement that results of experiment or means of their expressions should show the valid characteristic of results, namely confirm or deny the accepted assumptions to specify ways for a new heuristic direction, for new scientific searches (15, with. 116).
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A source: Andreev A.N.. Optimisation of pedagogical process on physical training of military aviation-engineering HIGH SCHOOL. 2005

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