the Urgency of research of a problem of adaptation is marked by a number of domestic and foreign scientists. Wide interest to a problem of adaptation of the person allows to speak not only about mnogostoronnosti, universality of a class of the adaptive phenomena, but also about considerable divergences in methodological and methodical approaches in definition of its essence, treatment of the concept "adaptation".
It, first of all, explains distinction of objects of research, that is properties, the parties, relations and the processes allocated from the general object (in this case - the person and human relations), during its studying from the point of view of various sciences.

Adaptation as process, represents dialectic unity of the basic opposite tendencies: to self-preservation and self-development where the first, aspiring to stability and balance through adaptation, tries to lead a condition of the person of stability and an invariance, and the second induces it to activity, searching for all new problems and ways of development. Interdependence of these tendencies is obvious, as the first fixes effective, valuable ways of the decision of the behavioural problems arising during self-development, creating optimum conditions for other tendency - self-development, actively varying "from within".

Accordingly, for construction of optimum strategy of adaptive behaviour it is necessary to realise and analyse, on the one hand, a cash situation and dejatelnostnuju prospect, with another, to show reguljatsionnye possibilities on an actual problem of adaptive activity. Strategy as system of large-scale decisions and the planned directions of the activity, which consecutive realisation urged to reach more or less well main objectives which are put before itself by the subject.

Research of mental adaptation demands consideration of its functions in the general adaptable process. As any adaptation represents process of construction of optimum parities between an organism and environment, definition of value of mental adaptation assumes answers to questions on what parities between the person and depend mainly on mental adaptation and how changes of mental adaptation influence on gomeostaticheskie organism systems environment.

So, being based on A.N.Leonteva, K.A.abulhanovoj, V.N.Mjasishcheva, A.V.Petrovsky's positions, etc. about activity of the person, P.A.Prosetsky, V.A.Slastenin, G.I.Tsaregorodtsev consider activity as internal, inherent in process of adaptation the beginning.

The adaptive behaviour as psychologically dejatelnostnaja an inclusiveness of the person in the social and professional environment occurs, as the given environment appears sphere of realisation of vital plans, requirements and aspirations of the person, and the individual reveals and develops in a generality as the person and as individuality.

Process of effective adaptation consists in construction of perfect system of occurrence of the subject in new conditions of self-realisation and self-development with high probability of specifically actual self-building of individual abilities and resources of the subject of these changes and possible elections. Fulfilment of the last, in turn, is defined by functioning specific features as kognitivnoj and emotionally-strong-willed, and moral spheres of the person.

Thus, «Adaptation is a process of development, whenever possible, an optimum mode of purposeful functioning of the person, i.e.
its reduction in concrete conditions of time and a place in such condition when all energy, all physical and spiritual forces of the person are directed and are spent for performance of its primary goals. Such condition is reached by transformation of external conditions of the ability to live worried as new, in unusual« the conditions »; as a result of adaptation the person operates naturally, easy».

Entering in poslearmejskuju a life, the former military men already have a certain experience of an establishment of mutual relations in collective, system of valuable orientations and installations in relation to socially useful activity and to surrounding people. According to A.S.Stradanchenkova, the person with positive valuable orientations can faster adapt in a civil microhabitat, than the person with a negative orientation since last does not coincide with the general orientation of development of a society. Coincidence (or discrepancy) valuable orientations, requirements, motives of social group and the person entering into it - a basis of their adaptable interaction: safe adaptedness or, on the contrary, dezadaptirovannosti.

The military man addresses to psihologo-pedagogical support in result of a choice of strategy of action and behaviour in the crisis situation providing completion of deficiency of social competence. But there are also other strategy of behaviour which are necessary for knowing to "move, help the military man who have appeared in a problem situation to overcome the barriers, stirring to election of" training strategy ». For this purpose to the psychologists who are engaged in social training transferred to the reserve, should have representations about procedures of a strategic choice, and also about the basic stages of activity on designing of strategy of behaviour of the person in a crisis situation (creation of a new way of life - life reconsideration - revaluation of former vital values).

As never become actual maksimy Socrat «all angrily in ignorance», «learn itself». The knowledge itself, disclosing of the potential, can appear a key to the decision not only adaptation problems, but also determinantoj creative and spiritual self-realisation

The complex approach to research of potential of the person, in our understanding inevitably leads to necessity of an exit on level of a scientific paradigm not only psychology, as branch science, but also all science as a whole, as systems of acquisition and processing of knowledge. In most general plan in interdisciplinary research of the person today there is a speech about working out of the concept of human potential. The problematics of disclosing of human potential in the tideway of the self-actualisation theory widely enough reveals in A.G.Asmolov, P.I.Pidkasistogo, V.I.Slobodchikova, A.G.Maklakova's works.

In the second chapter, characterising a contingent of military men, it is necessary to notice, that 214 persons have taken part in research. The structure of examinees included the military men preparing for dismissal and transferred to the reserve, members of their families, command and employees of personnel bodies of military units, workers of territorial bodies of social protection of the population and the employment centres, heads of the veteran organisations, teachers of high schools.

Fig. 1. Contingent of the persons dismissed from Armed forces.

The adaptation theory should be a conceptual basis for the decision of problems of psychological preparation of the military men transferred to the reserve.

The purpose of carrying out of empirical researches is the estimation of influence of factors sotsiokulturnoj environments on adaptable potential of military men. As criterion of efficiency of adaptation the adaptable potential - integrativnaja the characteristic allowing adequately to reflect process of socially-psychological adaptation of military men can serve.

In turn the adaptable potential depends on a number of factors of the social environment. Methods of mathematical statistics allow to answer a question - in what measure. One of conditions of a scientific method - compulsion of empirical check of ideas. It means, that as a result of careful supervision or experiments the exact facts or a parity between variables are established.

In our case the method of the correlation and factorial analysis is most comprehensible. For an estimation of degree of influence of factors sotsiokulturnoj environments on personal adaptable potential of a contingent of military men the method of carrying out of questionnaire with the subsequent statistical analysis of results is offered. The toolkit of interrogation (questionnaire) is specially developed taking into account specificity of studied age group of a society and includes in the removed kind of the characteristic of the basic spheres of ability to live: socio-economic factors, work, a life, a family, leisure etc. questionnaire Points are presented in the form of the closed questions for convenience of processing of results with COMPUTER use. In two questionnaires 56 questions which it is possible to present factors of 3 levels according to prospective multilevel model sotsiokulturnyh megafactors were offered.

Representative sample is presented by a contingent of military men of a regiment of transport aircraft. Testing according to a technique of test MLO the "Adaptability", the revealed value of personal adaptable potential for each military man, and the correlation analysis, for definition of factors of correlation of factors sotsiokulturnoj and adaptable potential has been held environment.

Have as a result received the most significant, but not rendering essential influence on adaptable potential following factors: 1) a standard of living as a whole; 2) an inclusiveness during a public life; 3) life conditions; 4) well-being in family relations; 5) possibility of personal growth; 6) legality.

Having spent ranging of factors sotsiokulturnoj environments on significance values and dividing all 56 factors on the cores of 6 groups, the maximum correlation have received factors of the first level - social and economic. On the second place, private life and working conditions, and on the third - a conditions of life and public relations.

Fig. 2 - Value of factor of correlation of the general of PAWS with an index of the questionnaire "Analysis"

Fig. 3 - Value of factor of correlation of the general of PAWS with an index of the questionnaire "Importance"

Social - r = 0,316 Working conditions - r = 0,087

Private life - r = 0,116 Obshch Th relations - r = 0,083

Economy - r = 0,167 Conditions of life - r = 0,055

Thus, the correlation analysis does not reveal dominating factors sotsiokulturnoj the environments, making essential impact on adaptable potential.

The following step of "compression" of the information, or the compact description of the studied phenomena in the presence of set of variables - procedure of the factorial analysis. In psychological research the purpose of the factorial analysis consists in a finding of several fundamental factors which would explain the dispersion most part in group of estimations on various variables. In the questionnaires of 56 variables presented to the analysis, therefore for them the problem of the factorial analysis consists in finding matrixes of factorial loadings or correlation between factors. There are some procedures of the factorial analysis, but all of them assume two stages: 1) faktorizatsiju matrixes of correlations to receive an initial factorial matrix; 2) rotation of a factorial matrix, for detection of the most simple configuration of factorial loadings.

The stage faktorizatsii in this process urged to define quantity of the factors necessary for an explanation of communications between various variables. Rotation of factors does their more clear, interpreted.

One of the most known procedures faktorizatsii - a method of the main axes (principal

The factorial analysis confirms the data received as a result of the correlation analysis. Adaptable potential of military men influence, but it is insignificant, following factors:

The following investigation phase - gathering and the analysis of the objective given respondents with high, average and low personal potential. Analyzing psychological processes and properties, the general educational level, disciplinary practice and purposefulness in achievement of the purpose and having processed results a graphic method data similar correlation and factorial methods have obtained. The personal adaptable potential is not dependent on psychological properties, psychological processes, educational level and type of temperament of the person.

Though, modern multifactorial theories of the person, finally, reduce a structure of the person to projections all the same major factors - biological and social character, it is necessary to notice, that us weak influence sredovyh factors on adaptable potential of the person is revealed.

Thus, it is possible to ascertain, that the carried out correlation analysis, the factorial analysis and value judgment of military men show, that sredovye factors do not render essential influence on adaptable possibilities of the person, that in our opinion speaks stability of personal characteristics of military men. Hence, focus of attention in the course of psychological preparation of military men should be directed not on correction of components of an environment (i.e. not on creation of specific conditions by means of social services), and is direct on the person of the military man, for the purpose of carrying out of the psychological preparation focused on disclosing of an internal resource of the person, on actualisation of its adaptable potential.

In the third chapter, analyzing a condition of a readiness of a problem of research and choosing tactics of psihologo-pedagogical work with military men, it is necessary to consider following contradictions between:

- All amplifying social pressure, the big intensity of social interactions, quantity of the external and internal (personal) crisis situations worried by military men and unavailability of the person to their constructive permission;

- Call of the new social and economic realities which have developed in our country, and absence of the programs directed on development of potential of the person;

- Requirement of the increasing number, military men transferred to the reserve, in the psychological preparation extending with a network of social structures of retraining and absence of scientific judgement, teoretiko-methodological bases and scientifically-methodical maintenance of the given process.

The leading idea here consists in the following: we consider psychological preparation as specially organised process on mastering by military men by knowledge, the skills necessary for management in adaptable potential which result is readiness actively to operate in difficult vital situations.

The become already traditional, offered training programs and trainings: «a trade Choice», «Acquisition of social competence», «Hierarchical structures of experience», «Role games», «Communicative competence», «Motivational training» and others, in our opinion it is necessary to correct and strengthen accent on an exit to the decision of new problems, on new levels of development of the person.

Process of psychological preparation in such understanding not necessarily should be continuous, and is organised and realised in process of occurrence of requirements of military men in completion of deficiency of own psychological stability or in crisis situations as crisis situations of the person substantially staticize its requirements for potential actualisation.

The offered technique of psychological preparation is directed on increase of human potential and its realisation in the course of self-development and self-actualisation of the person. At level of scientific intuition does not raise the doubts, that, unlike physical systems, realisation by the person of the potential in many cases conducts not to its decrease and exhaustion, and to creation of new possibilities of its development and; formation.

Psychological preparation of military men is the system of purposeful influences having for an object formation and fastening at soldiers of psychological readiness and stability, mainly on the basis of self-improvement personal and developments of professionally important qualities, acquisitions of experience of successful actions in modelled extreme conditions of the new social environment. That is the factor of novelty at times plays a main role in display at the person before the generated qualities, and the problem consists in that still in an adaptation transition period, to provide and lay down military men in such conditions in which necessary psychological qualities will be developed. If the expenditure of physical and mental forces during a life (adaptation process) is so natural, as game or rest, it is necessary to learn, - to predict, supervise and operate in personal potential.

The psychological preparation offered to consideration, is based on well-known methodological principles, (humanistic, the complete approach, sinergetichesky and preconditionality) which are in detail opened in the dissertation text.

Along with obshchemetodologicheskimi principles pertinently to offer a number of principles applicable in a concrete subject domain, is a principle of positivity, correlation, potentiality and a principle of multidimensionality of true.

Further the place, a role, the maintenance and the general algorithm of the psychological preparation spent with military men, transferred to the reserve reveal.

In connection with constant variability sotsiokulturnyh factors and change of psychoemotional conditions of the person process of disclosing of adaptable potential constantly operates in time and space and can be presented in the form of a contour which basic elements are: kognitivnyj an element, a technological element, an information element, a resource element, valuable a component, an organizational element, motivational a component, an innovative element.
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A source: Velichko S.V.. Adaptable potential of military men in psychological preparation for civil life. avto


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