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the description and construction of information model of educational process

the Basic document for preparation of students on military chair, and also experts in a direction or a speciality is the curriculum made on the basis of the state educational standard in a direction or a speciality.
The curriculum is made taking into account sequence of teaching of disciplines and distribution of hours by kinds of employment for their more effective mastering and development of practical skills in this subject domain.

On the basis of this curriculum it is made, so-called, working curricula for each year of training.

Let's consider in more details all design stages of the DB which are general for all four applied programs, a part of the automated complex.

In the beginning we should construct required information model of educational process.

At the first stage we will allocate following information objects: faculty, chair, a speciality, group, discipline, curriculum heading, curriculum contents, an audience, the schedule.

At the second stage we will construct conceptual model of a subject domain, we will define interrelations between objects and we will construct conceptual model. The scheme of conceptual model is presented on fig. 6.

At the third stage we will define keys and attributes of objects. For each object we will define the attributes, which users will store in a DB. The choice of attributes which necessarily should be stored in a DB, is combined enough. It is infrequently possible to find the unequivocal decision of this problem, and in any case it will demand careful studying of work of military chair and the analysis of conceptual model.

Faculty



The curriculum

Fig. 6. The scheme of conceptual model

At the fourth stage it is formed logic model. Passing from conceptual model to logic, we will put in conformity to each rectangle (object) of conceptual model the table containing corresponding attributes from the above-stated list and we will establish communications between tables of logic model by means of primary keys.

At the fifth stage we spend normalisation of the received model.

Model reduction to demanded level of a normal form is a basis of construction of an optimum relational DB.

In the course of normalisation elements of data are divided and grouped in the additional tables representing additional objects and their interrelations. The normalisation theory is based that the certain set of the tables named normalised, possesses the best properties at such operations from a DB as entering, updating and removal of data, in comparison with other possible sets of tables with which help the same data can be presented.

Introduction of normalisation of tables by working out of information model provides the minimum volume physical, that is written down on any carrier, a DB and its maximum speed that is directly reflected in quality of functioning of information system. Normalisation of information model is carried out in some stages.

At the sixth stage the physical description of model is necessary for us

At a stage of the physical description of a DB input of concrete details of all end users in the corresponding tables which form has been created at a design stage of logic model is carried out. Thus it is necessary to provide a faultlessness and accuracy of entering, storage and sample of details of a DB. It is called as maintenance of integrity of a database.

Correctness of the details entered into a DB for storage, can be broken, for example, because of program errors, failures and wrong data input of the operator. Thus errors in data remain not noticed until will lead to heavy consequences, therefore it is necessary to take measures for their earliest detection. Such measures is better to accept at a data input stage in a DB.

In subd integrity of data is provided with variety of the special measures named restrictions of integrity.

Integrity restrictions is a set of certain rules which establish limits of admissible values of data and communications between them.

Integrity restrictions are in most cases defined by features of a subject domain. For example, the number of hours of lectures of the curriculum - the positive number seldom exceeding 6 in week, number of examinations and offsets in a semestre is no more 10 (everyone) etc.

Integrity restrictions can concern different objects of a DB: to attributes (fields), records, tables, communications between them, etc.

Thus, after performance of all 6 stages we have received physical model of a subject domain of educational process which is in more details described more low.

In the present dissertational research we will be limited to reduction of structure of system "Curriculum" and the list of all received normalised tables, adhered to chosen subd Paradox 7.0 under Windows. Structures of other subsystems (źCalculation of the academic commissions╗, źDistribution of loadings of teachers╗, "Schedule") and their external models are themes of following scientific researches.

On fig. 7 the block diagramme of algorithm of the program "Curriculum" is resulted, and on fig. 8 the structure of a database "Curriculum" is resulted.

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A source: Dulin V.V.. Pedagogical management of process of preparation of reserve officers on military chairs. 2004

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