the Estimation of results of activity and behaviour of the person, collective – a powerful method of military-psychological researches

Estimating a method role in success of studying of any problem, outstanding Russian researcher-experimenter I.P.Paul wrote: the Method – the very first basic thing. From a method, from a way of action all gravity of research depends.
At a good method and not so talented person can make much. And at a bad method and the ingenious person will work for nothing, will not receive valuable, exact knowledge.

The military-psychological phenomena cannot be studied directly as they are not material, and are ideal. We can learn their laws, studying or objective, and consequently, fixed preconditions of their occurrence, or those changes in a material world which consequence VPJA is. As Most essential of them results of activity and behaviour of the military man or military collective act. Much the important information about VPJA can receive, studying process of activity and behaviour of the soldier. Therefore the estimation of process and results of activity and behaviour of the military man or military collective is powerful method VPI.

K marks in due time fairly marked: What ability to live of individuals, they are that also. That they themselves represent, coincides, hence, with their manufacture – coincides as that they make, and with that as they make. Analyzing results of activity, and also process of achievement of these results, ways of activity, we can receive enough trustworthy information about many phenomena of mentality of the soldier and psychology of military collective. The person judge not to that he speaks about itself(himself) or thinks, and on its affairs.

Despite obvious importance of the given method, practically it for the present is not developed. It is possible to name some reasons of such state of affairs. First, dependence of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of results of activity not only on many concerns them subjective, but also from the big number of objective factors. Owing to it it is difficult to define, which factors have made defining impact on achievement of concrete results of activity. Secondly, interrelations of those or other characteristics of results of activity with concrete features of mentality of soldiers and psychology of military collective are insufficiently studied. Therefore even if dependence of results of activity on subjective factors not always it is possible to tell unequivocally is established, which mental phenomena became the reason of such results, what their features. Thirdly, the analysis of results of activity is usually applied in a complex with other methods of psychology or even is made by means of use of other methods, for example, the analysis of documents, supervision. In this case visibility of subordination of the given method, its dependence is created.

What general characteristic of the given method? The analysis of results of activity – method VPI, which maintenance consists in an estimation of final and intermediate results of activity, and also ways of its performance in interests of revealing of psychological features of soldiers and the military collectives which have executed given activity.

The analysis of results of activity can be supplemented with the analysis of behaviour of soldiers, that is an estimation of their acts. In most general view the method includes the analysis of results and process of activity and behaviour of soldiers, military collectives.

Results of activity can be final and intermediate, main and minor, be estimated directly and oposredovanno.
The mediated analysis of results of activity is carried out under documents and by interrogation.

Before to analyze results and activity process, it is necessary to establish system of indicators, its characterising. Their definition allows to estimate more objectively quality of the performed work, differentsirovanno to establish interrelation of results with features of mentality.

Activity is estimated on system of the indicators connected with products of work more often. Such estimation is represented incomplete as the person the same as also the collective, is characterised not only that it makes, but also how it makes. Therefore representation about quality of activity will be fuller if in it features of the process of activity are considered not only characteristics of products of activity, but also an expense for their manufacture, and also.

Activity products, that is that is made, and expenses for manufacture of the given product are results of activity. As the generalising characteristic of results of activity its efficiency acts. Efficiency is understood as the relation of efficiency to the sum of the material, time, psychophysiological and other expenses required for manufacture the given product. Efficiency of activity has system of quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The number of characteristics, optimum value of each of them are defined by specificity of a product.

Process and ways of performance of activity also have system of the indicators which allow to estimate quality of activity in most general view.

Efficiency of work is one of two the basic making efficiency of activity (fig. 4.6.1 see). Labour productivity also cannot be identified with efficiency of the activity carried only to time expenses. The concept quality of activity represents most a general characteristic of activity and includes the considered indicators.

Effectiveness of application of a method of the analysis of results of activity depends on performance of some requirements.

First, the psychologist should represent clearly, it studies which results of activity: final or intermediate, main or minor, typical for the given soldier or casual.

Secondly, it is important to define, what characteristics of results of activity are provided at the expense of action of subjective factors, and what – at the expense of objective.

Thirdly, reliability of the received information will be above if the analysis of results of activity is carried out repeatedly or for various kinds of activity.

Fourthly, value and reliability of received data will be that more than better the head knows that activity, which results it analyzes.

Fifthly, the given method is more preferable for using not separately, and in a complex with other methods of psychology.

As well as any method of psychology, the analysis of results of activity has the merits and demerits. Advantages of a method consist that the information received with its help, as a rule, is more objective; the method allows in whole and in details to judge the most important parties of the person of the soldier; results of activity usually have a number of certain quantitative and qualitative characteristics that gives the chance to compare them; results of activity are material, to them it is possible to address repeatedly, them informativnost usually slightly changes in time.

However, analyzing results of activity, difficultly to define character of influence on them of subjective factors, to establish, which features of mental displays have affected achievement of given results. Efficiency of application of a method substantially depends on readiness and experience of the psychologist. Among set of results of activity because of masking effect of various forms of imitation it is difficult to reveal and estimate final and basic results of activity. The method scope is limited in comparison with other methods owing to that for today it practically is not developed.

Thus, the analysis of results and process of activity and behaviour of soldiers and military collectives potentially is extremely powerful method of psychology. He allows deeply enough and to estimate objectively features of mentality of the soldier, first of all its orientation, mental formations, mental informative processes, psychological stability. Analyzing results of collective activity, it is possible to estimate style of a management of collective, its coordination, character of interpersonal mutual relations and other socially-psychological phenomena.

Working out of this method is now one of the major problems which decision will promote increase of productivity VPI. In results of activity and behaviour of the person it is shown its unconscious and subconsciousness which are difficult for investigating by means of tests, studying of documents, interrogations, etc.
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A source: Antsupov A.J., Pomogajbin V. N.. Methodological problems of military-psychological researches. 1999

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